Premium Essay

Rainwater Harvesting

In: Science

Submitted By amitkumar786
Words 1367
Pages 6
Nature has endowed India with huge water resources. We have perennial rivers like Ganga, Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Beas and others along with their tributaries and distributaries besides in North and Eastern India, we have spring fed and rain fed rivers in central and peninsular India-the major among these being- Godavari, Krishna, Narmada, Tapti and Kaveri.
These huge potential water resources notwithstanding, we are facing a water crisis across the country. Over the years, rising population, growing industrialisation and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. Monsoon is still the main hope of our agriculture.
Water conservation has become the need of the day. Rainwater harvesting is a way to capture the rainwater at the time of downpour, store that water above the ground or charge the underground water and use it later.
This happens in open areas as well as in congested cities through the installation of required equipment. The collection and storage of rainwater from run-off areas such as roofs and other surfaces has been practised since ancient times in India. It is particularly useful where water supply is inadequate. If the collection and storage equipment is designed carefully it is possible for a family of four persons to live for a year in areas where annual rainfall is as little as 100 mm. Observations in some other countries like Zimbabwe, Botswana and Israel have shown that up to 85 per cent of all measurable rain can be collected and stored from outside catchment areas.
This includes light drizzle and dew condensation which occurs in many parts of the country during drier months. A study has shown that if the rainfall is 635 mm per year, the run-off from a suitable catchment area can be as high as 500 mm. An area covering one hectare may yield 5000 kilolitres of water in the year-enough for 500 heads of cattle for six months. One ml...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Rainwater Harvesting in North East States: Mizoram and Manipur

...RAIN WATER HARVESTING IN NORTH EAST STATES: MIZORAM AND MANIPUR Rainwater harvesting is a means of taking water out of the hydrological cycle for either human or agricultural use. The rainfall is intercepted and collected on prepared watersheds. Basically, there are two types of rainwater harvesting schemes - those designed for agricultural use and those designed for human use. Rainwater catchment schemes intended for agricultural use require large catchment areas. In this case, use of the ground surface is the obvious choice. However, water for human use should be more convenient and cleaner than water for agricultural use. Roofs are an obvious choice for a catchment surface as their elevation protects them from contamination and damage which are common to ground surface catchments. Tanks located close to homes highlight the convenience of this system.. Besides, small scale RWH does not involve the existing water right. And it has become one of the economical and practical measures for providing supplementary water supplies with its easy system installation. It can be a supplementary water source in urbanized regions for miscellaneous household uses such as toilet flushing, lawn watering, landscape and ecological pools. In many developing countries, it even serves as a major water supply source. Other than storing rain water for later uses, it is also capable of providing some detention capacity for flood attenuations in some regions . Rainwater harvesting system has......

Words: 3431 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Rainwater Harvesting

...European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.34 No.1 (2009), pp.132-140 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2009 Rainwater Harvesting as an Alternative Water Supply in the Future Che-Ani A.I Correspondence Author Department of Architecture Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia E-mail: Tel: +60389216299; Fax: +60389216841 Shaari N Department of Architecture Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia A. Sairi Division of Building Control,Department of Engineering Kajang Municipal Council,43300 Kajang Selangor, Malaysia M.F.M. Zain Department of Architecture Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia M.M. Tahir Department of Architecture Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract This paper discuss about the rainwater harvesting system and its implementation in Malaysia as part of the solution proposed by government to avoid water crisis in the future. It first reviewed the scenario of water shortage in Malaysia. In Malaysia, we are blessed with an ample supply of water because of abundant rains. Normally, we received the rainfall averaging around 2400mm for Peninsular Malaysia, 2360mm for Sabah and......

Words: 3800 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Envoy Bangladesh

...Chapter-1: Company Overview 1. Company Name & Address: Envoy Group Envoy Tower, 18/E, Lake Circus, Kalabagan, West panthapath, Dhaka-1205 Phone: +880-2-9102583 - 90, Fax: +880-2-9103128 - 29 E-mail: 2. Historical Background: Established in 1984, Envoy Group is a diversified conglomerate with primary focus on ready-made garments and textile manufacturing. Envoy Group has expanded dramatically over the past three decades and built a remarkable distinction as an exporting giant in this challenging part of the world. As an emerging business conglomerate, Envoy Group believes in the wisdom of looking not just around the corner, but over the horizon. Envoy Group has earned unrivaled success in the field of readymade garments, textiles, local and international trading, freight forwarding, information technology, washing plant, real-estate, banking automation, hospitality service and consumer products. The group represents 27 business enterprises and has an annual turnover of USD $220 million with a workforce of 15000. 3. Total Employee: The Group represents 27 business enterprises at present, including 14 garments factories with around 15,000 employees. 4. Stock Exchange: Dhaka & Chittagong stock exchange listed. 5. Company’s Principal: 6. Financial Data: |Particulars |2012-13 |2011-12 |2010-11 |2009-10 |2008-2009 ...

Words: 938 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Study of Annual Report of Kisan Moulding

...RESEARCH PROJECT ON ANNUAL REPORT ON KISAN GROUP OF COMPANY PREPARED BY RESHMA NISHIKANT NAIK MCOM PART I SEMESTER I P.L.SHROFF COLLEGE OF ARTS & COMMERCE C.T.E.S 2012-2013 SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI UNDER GUIDENCE BY PROF.SUCHITA V. KARVIR PREPARED BY: NAME: Kumbod Sanjay Mayekar CLASS: M-COM Part-I SEAT No.: 69 GUIDED BY: Prof. Suchita Karvir COLLAGE NAME: P.L.Shroff College of Arts & Commerce, Chinchani DECLARATION I Mr.Kumbod Sanjay Mayekar of P.L.Shroff College of Arts & Commerce, Chinchani M.Com Part I hereby, declare that this project work entitled “Annual Report On Kisan Group Of Company” in the academic year 2012-2013. I hereby further declare that all information of this document as been obtain and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conducts. Name & Signature of the Student Reshma N .Naik ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to extend my special thanks of gratitude to my lecturer Prof. Suchita V. Karvir as well as Mumbai University or to my College Staff who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project / presentation on the topic Annual Report On Kisan Group Of Company, which also helped me in doing a lot of research & I come to know about so many new things. I Am Really Thankful To Them I also thankful to those who directly or indirectly helped me to......

Words: 4752 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Aircraft Engineering

...Action plan & proposed environmental management system for Aitken Spence printing Aitken Spence group of companies undertake by it's co-operate policy to ensure the sustainable development through environment friendly manner. Co-operate vision state "We understand co-operate sustainability as a proactive approach to ensure the long term viability, profitability and integrity of the business by optimizing resource use and managing environmental & social impacts. As a diversified business group operating in several countries, we remain committed to continue our legacy of exemplary co-operate citizenship by aligning our sustainable strategies with global initiatives on sustainable development." In order to achieve our co-operate vision Aitken Spence strive to ➢ Exceed all legal and other requirement for the sustainable operation and development of the company ➢ Facilitate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the principles of the United Nations Goal Compact ➢ Conduct all business in an ethical manner and encourage and support our partners to conduct business ethically ➢ Engage with stakeholders, consider their opinions at all stages of planning and operations ➢ Encourage supply chains to implement sustainable strategies and manage them ➢ Inculcate sustainability concept and views in strategic decision-making ➢ Use sustainable processes......

Words: 1508 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Shallow Lakes in Urban Area

...Sengupta, M. and Dalwani, R. (Editors). 2008 Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference: 1628-1634 Shallow Lakes in Urban Areas: Ecological Restoration of Lakes in Thane City. Manisha Pradhan1 and Pallavi Latkar2 1 Pollution Control Cell, Thane Municipal Corporation, Thane, Town Planner and Environmental Researcher, GRASS ROOTS Research and Consultancy Mumbai, HOD Centre For Urban Studies Rachana Sansad Mumbai E-mail, 2 ARSTRACT Thane city historically known for the existence of the several shallow lakes is one of the most industrially advanced districts of the state of Maharashtra today. They are in existence earlier than 1881 and each one of them has a significant cultural and social significance associated with it. Water being the lifeline of communities and the prime determinant of the sustainability, settlements in the past were located in the proximity of easily accessible water resources. With the technological advancement in the field of centralized water supply systems, settlements are no longer confined to smaller clusters around water bodies. Hence over a period of time due to the demands of urbanisation, development has slowly crept up to the banks of these lakes thereby converting the once sprawling water bodies in to mere water tanks which are prone to degradation through development pressure, eutrophication and solid waste disposal Recently, the Thane Municipal Corporation......

Words: 3561 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Water Conservation

...WATER CONSERVATION Water is very important content. Without water there is no life in earth. We use water in so many ways in our daily life. Water is a substance which covers ¾ part of the world. It means water is occupying more portion compared to land. But this water is becoming more polluted because of the environmental changes. So it is necessary to conserve the water. It is every one duty to protect the water because everyone uses this water and we the people are making water polluted. Now we may get the doubt how to conserve the water. A few simple changes in home about the water consumption make a vast contribution to water conservation. The basic changes we have to do is stop leaking of water. We have to see whether there is a leakage in our taps. Because of the water leakage taps we can’t protect the water. We can also protect the water by Installing Low-Flow Showerheads. With these we can protect the water because it flows lower. And we won’t use much water with these Low-Flow Showerheads. When we are brushing our teeth or when we are shaving we have to turn off faucets. After completing the work we have to use the water. By this change also we can preserve the water. Using sprinklers for yard is also a good remedy for water conservation. Turn off the water in the shower when shampooing the hair Water will be saved. It is better to replace the new toilets in place of old toilets. These are high efficiency and will use less water. To collect a rain water use a......

Words: 504 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Sustainable Development : Industry & Village

...Any agency is in an unenviable position when it starts working at the village level. The first problem is whether it fits into a set pattern: Is it pro-government? Is it a scheme started by the rural rich? Who sponsors the scheme? Who provides financial support? Which political party does it support? The first years are spent answering these questions. Depending on how convincing the answers are and depending on how aligned the project and its workers are to parties, ideologies, personalities in the area and to government, the people will respond accordingly. When any project starts, it needs time to settle down; but simultaneously, it must also win over the confidence of the very people. The first visible objectives of the project must be harmless to the people having vested interests in the village: services are to be provided to the whole village. The milestone for it should be combining humanitarianism, entrepreneurship and education to help people steer their own path out of poverty, fostering dignity and self-determination along the way. The viable goals are: 1. Setting up an industry 2. Marketing & developing a brand. 3. Developing a Tourist destination. For setting up an Industry: 1. To encourage an integrated approach to rural development. Integration is required between rural skills and urban knowledge, between human and financial resources in urban and rural areas. 2. It should be based in a village. It could not and should not......

Words: 953 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Technical English-Ii

...Calling for quotation Sample 1 Write a letter calling for Quotation for some electronic equipment for your college electronics laboratory. Write to M/S Electro products Ltd., R.G.Road, Chennai – 33. Assume that you are the H.O.D of ECE department in NIT - Chennai-16 National institute of technology Chennai-16 Date…………. To M/S Electro products Ltd., R.G.Road, Chennai – 33. Dear Sir, Sub: calling for quotation – reg. We require the following items for our concern before 16-05-2013. The details of our requirement are given below. S.No. | Items | Quantity | 1. | Function generator | 2 Nos | 2. | Multi meter | 2 Nos | 3. | IC Chips LM 339 | 3 Nos | 4. | IC Chips LM 7400 | 3 Nos | 5. | Diode IN 4007 | 20 Nos | We request you to quote your lowest price with complete details and delivery date. If your rates are competitive we would place an order for the same. Thanking you Yours faithfully, (k.subash) Prof. & Head of ECE Calling for quotation Sample 2 Assume yourself to be the purchase officer Royal Foundations Pvt. Ltd., Write a letter calling for Quotation to buy certain computer peripherals from Alpha technologies Pvt. Ltd., 25,Gandhi Street, Chennai. 25 Royal Foundations Pvt. Ltd. Chennai-25 Date…………. To Alpha technologies Pvt. Ltd., 25,Gandhi Street, Chennai. 25 Dear Sir, Sub: calling quotation for computer peripherals – reg. We require the...

Words: 1752 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Srp Report

...MYSORE PINJRAPOLE SOCIETY About the Society: Mysore Pinjrapole Society was established at Mysore, by the Erstwhile His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore in 1938 i.e., 74 years ago. Since then the Society has been taking care of destitute animals in a purposeful manner; handicapped, injured, weak and abandoned animals are taken care of, by providing sufficient feed, shelter and expert medical care. The Registered Society carries the unique distinction of being the First of its kind in the State of Karnataka, to be recognized by and be registered with, the Animal Welfare Board of India, Chennai (001/1961) Aims, Goals & Endeavors Of Pinjrapole Society: * Prevention of cow slaughtering * Protection of cattle * Sheltering cattle, sheep, goats, horses, rabbits etc., which are week & helpless * Providing food, water, medical help to all these animals This Society is in the front line of prominent volunteer animal-care societies in the whole of South India, taking care of seized-animals being transported illegally to slaughter-houses situated in Kerala and Tamilnadu. The hapless animals rescued and recovered with assistance of the Law-Authorities and handed-over to the Society for feeding and taking care, under Court-orders. The statistics of animals seized and saved by various police stations and handed over since year 1999 have been reproduced here under for information. Till-date the society has been able to protect and take good care of thousands of......

Words: 1726 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Piezo Electric Energy Scavenging Systems

...In recent years a lot of studies focused on Energy Scavenging Systems (ESS) which is used to harvest the environmental energy and to convert it into electrical energy. The objective of an ESS is to replace the batteries, which are the classical power sources or to extend their life time as long as possible. A Self-Supplied Integrable Active High-Efficiency Piezoelectric Energy Scavenging System (ESS) was proposed in this paper. This paper presents an innovative, totally integrated, ambient mechanical energy scavenging system .This ESS can be operated in combination with the photo voltaic (PV) installation in order to • To increase the overall efficiency of the solar energy system (PV), • To keep on charging the storage batteries even when the power outputs of solar cells were negligible due to worst climatic conditions (clouds and heavy rains) and during nights. Hence to provide an uninterruptible and reliable source of energy, • Increase the load handling capability of the solar energy system, • Increase the amount of energy accumulated in the storage batteries, • ESS in combination with solar cells acts as additional energy source to charge the storage batteries, • Increase the life of the storage batteries. An Embeddable, non-life-limiting power source for Wireless Sensor Nodes (WSN) can be realized Solar panels (PV) are well suited for the generation of electricity for domestic (small scale-typically for residential applications) and for......

Words: 402 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Term Paper Me3281

...ME3281 Microsystems Design and Applications TERM PAPER DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MEMS Energy Harvesters LIM HUI HUA ALVINA A0083044M 2014 Table of Contents 1. Introduction: 2 2. Brief History of Electricity Transduction 2 3. Types of Micro Energy Harvesters 3 3.1 Energy Harvesting from Vibration 3 3.1.1 Fabrication Techniques 5 3.1.2 Applications, Challenges and the Future 6 3.2 Energy Harvesting from Thermal Sources 6 3.2.1 Fabrication Techniques 8 3.2.2 Applications, Challenges and the Future. 9 3.3 Energy Harvesting from Electromagnetic Waves 10 3.3.1 Applications, Challenges and the Future 11 3.4 Energy Harvesting from Light Sources 11 3.4.1 Fabrication 12 3.4.2 Applications, Challenges and the Future 13 4. Conclusion 13 References: 14 1. Introduction: One of the goals of engineers and scientists in this already tech-savvy age is to be able to design a device that is capable of powering itself for its lifetime without having to replace or recharge its battery using a power chord. These allow remote devices to be placed in hostile or inaccessible environments without requiring any or little maintenance such as the changing of batteries. This is especially applicable for silicon-based electronics, such as biomedical implants that have low power consumption, where batteries will largely affect its size; operational cost of the device, or perhaps even release harmful chemicals into the body. In addition, wireless......

Words: 4736 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

No Status

...Ethiopia is Africa’s oldest independent country and its second largest in terms of population with over 100 million inhabitants. Despite recent improvements, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest nations in the world. In 2016, Ethiopia is 148th about economy in Global Ranking, its economic freedom score is 51.5( no change) ( from In the last few decades, Ethiopia has faced fierce famine, drought, political instability and war. Peace has returned but the nation remains developmentally weak and more than 42 million Ethiopians do not have access to safe water. The aim of the paper is focusing on finding new sources of water to solve Ethiopia’s water problem. Two potential water sources are water harvesting and dam. In this report, the public acceptability of both water sources is compared. 1. Background The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Ethiopia was worth 55.61 billion US dollars in 2014. The GDP value of Ethiopia represents 0.09 percent of the world economy. GDP in Ethiopia averaged 15.70 USD Billion from 1981 until 2014, reaching an all time high of 55.61 USD Billion in 2014 and a record low of 6.93 USD Billion in 1994. GDP in Ethiopia is reported by the World Bank. It is seem that Ethiopia has a low GDP. Furthermore, The level of poverty in Ethiopia is extremely high. Ethiopia has the second largest population of all African countries and has only once, for a brief period of time, been occupied. One of Africa’s oldest......

Words: 1452 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Tower 400 Final Project Proposal

...Rainwater Harvesting In an effort to further increase Tower 400’s commitment to Platinum LEED certification, we also propose the use of a rainwater collection system. This will allow the tower to no longer rely on the water company and over series of years, save quite an amount of water which in turn will save money. The main goal of this proposal is to research and present feasible goals to the managers of Tower 400. That can be followed up on and eventually put into practice to make The Renaissance Center’s Tower 400 a leader in green technology. In regards to obtaining the Platinum LEED certification, a possible 24% of the points can be achieved through the use of proper rainwater harvesting. Some of the points can come from, implementing water reduction equipment. Such as low flow...

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Coca Cola Unethical Power Point

...Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Coca-Cola Continues Unethical and Dishonest Practices in India Group members: Group members GOURI P11 KETAKI P17 PRATIK P26 YOGITA P39 RAHUL P55 Overview…..: Overview….. The Indian government forced Coca-Cola out of the country in 1977 . The company returned in 1993 Each bottling plants extracts up to 1.5m litres of water everyday from the ground . It takes nine litres of clean water to manufacture a litre of Coke. In 2000 Coca-Cola opened a plant at Plachimada , a village in Kerala to produce 1.2m litres of coke every day. Slide 4: The conditional licence granted by the local panchayat authorised the use of motorised pumps But the company drilled more than six wells & illegally installed high-powered electric pumps to extract millions of litres of pure water . The level of the water table fell from 45 to 150 metres below the surface. Slide 5: The company started dumping waste outside causing a serious health hazard. The court gave Coca-Cola a notice to cease water extraction The theft of water was not only limited to kerala Overexploitation of groundwater soon started in Kaladera Kala Dera - Thirsting from Coca-Cola : Kala Dera - Thirsting from Coca-Cola Kala Dera is a large village outside the city of Jaipur. Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood . Coca-Cola started its bottling operations in Kala Dera in 2004, and within a year, the community started to notice a rapid decline in groundwater......

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5