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Random Numbers in C++

In: Computers and Technology

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Random numbers in C++ and The Pythagorean Theorem
Literature Review

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Literature Review
The increase in technological advancements has seen a similar increase in the number of computer programs which are designed to command a computer to carry out a given specified task. The number of languages that are available which are used in this creation and design include Java Script, C++, Java and Sage. It is worth noting that while these are the most notable ones, the number of languages in computer programming design might be higher. However, computer programmers argue that the rest of the languages, despite being of equal capabilities, have not met the required usage to warrant widespread literature review.
Hiscotta is particularly critical of this in 10 programming languages you should learn in 2014 by asserting that The field of computer programming is particularly important with regards to the increasing use and adoption of the internet use. This has seen the field carve out a distinct field of study which is purely dedicated to the understanding of how the programs work. The first step in the design of the computer programs is the basic understanding of the dynamics that are involved in the working of computers. This forms the initial step which will eventually be accompanied by software writing involving random numbers with the sole undertaking of coming up with a particular outcome.
Of critical importance is the adherence to source code representation which is an essential requirement in computer programming. The integration of distinct and diverse concepts, especially signs and graphs has led to the field to being viewed as an art as opposed to being an engineering sector. The computers programs work by carrying out a regular and constant stream of bytes which are in the form of bytes in a manner that has been modified to be understood by the computer. This code makes it quite a task for human beings to directly input the information in the computers, a process which has been harnessed by computer programmers around the world to counter hacking activities. This source code is usually carried out in a transitional process for the instructions before finally being generated for use by the computer in code format. This involves the use of binary numbers in the representation of information and as such, this is different from the machine code.
The profound role of a computer programmer, therefore, is to design a source code that can successfully be converted into a machine code and which will be interpreted by the computer. This is made possible by the use of random numbers which are used for the generation of data encryption keys. In addition to this, the keying of random numbers is used in the selection of distinguishing random samples from a populated set of data, whose application develops an aesthetic atmosphere in the fields of literature as well as in music. The importance of random numbers in this case can be underlined in the gambling and gaming industry in a bid to increase the chances of unpredictability in the games. This sequence of random numbers comes up with a series of values that are totally independent and do not rely on each other.
Taylor and George through their extensive research posit that in the event that the output results fail to match the instructions that have been input, then such a failure has been corrupted. The two main approaches that are used in the generation of random numbers are the Pseudo- Random Number Generators commonly abbreviated as (PRNG) and True Random Number Generators, abbreviated as (TRNG).
Haar in Introduction to Randomness and Random Numbers posits that C++ programming language is arguably the most used programming language in various hardware and operating systems canvass. The usage of C++ is premised on the distinguished factors of efficiency as a compiler to the initial native code and this allows it to be applicable in a wide array of sectors. Microsoft is a global company that is regarded as being among the major producers in mass capacity of the free C++ as well as proprietary software. This further highlights its proven reliability and widespread usage. An extensive research has been conducted on the faults that are to be associated with the use and application of C++. Most of the literature reviews in existence concerning this aspect seem to contend that between 50% and 54% of the mistakes and errors that are reported are to be exclusively to be associated with the users as opposed to C++. A further 73% - 86% of the errors that are reported have been attributed to an error in the installation process of the software. In the generation of random numbers in C++, C++ is equipped with a distinct pseudo number generator mechanism within itself.
A mathematic scholar by the name of Pythagoras is credited with the creation of the Pythagorean Theorem. This principle centrally establishes the basic principle that in any right angled triangle, the additions of squares of the alternative sides of the hypotenuse gives a result which is equivalent to the square of the hypotenuse side. In algebraic form, this can be represented as a2+b2=c2. In this equation, a and b represent the legs of the right angled triangle while c represents the hypotenuse. It is this theory that forms the basis of the Euclidian Geometry which is used in the determination of the distance between the two sides. Critiques to this theorem has received considerable literature review and this is primarily premised on the basis that the determination can only be carried out for locations that are in a perfectly right angled dimension position. However, such critical variations can be outlaid by the proof that has been given as to the validity of this equation.
The validity of the Pythagorean Theorem is premised on graphical undertakings. Pythagoras further used a number of dissections in a bid to prove the validity of his theorem. Currently, research has established the presence of more than a hundred alternative ways of proving the theory. It is worth noting however, that majority of literature reviews have focused on four major concepts which include the Bhsakara’s first proof, Bhsakara’s second proof, Pythagoras’ proof and the Garfield’s proof.
Head in his dissection in A Pythagorean Theorem asserts that the Pythagoras’ proof is evidently the most profound one and relies on the mathematical computation of the squares of the legs of any right angled triangle to come up with the square of the hypotenuse of the triangle. In a similar manner, Bhsakara’s First proof is also premised on the concept of dissection and bears close similarity to the one that was used by Pythagoras. This uses triangles. In the second mathematician’s proof, Bhaskara used a right angled triangle where he proceeds to outline and altitude from and towards the hypotenuse side. This second proof bears an even closer similarity to the Pythagorean proof as compared to the first proof. Garfield’s proof stands out particularly as it was developed by the then twentieth president of the United States of America five years before he was elected to the presidency.
Summarily, while the literature reviews that are available seem to agree on the basic understandings of the C++ application and the Pythagorean theorem, the contention seems to be in the integration of the concepts in the use in the current diversified world, particularly owing to the widespread internet usage. This was drawn apparent by Haar in Introduction to Randomness and Random Numbers. However, such distinctions are outweighed substantially by the appreciation of the concepts in this regard.

Bibliography
Alex, Random number generation, 2014. Available from: < http://www.learncpp.com/cpp-tutorial/59-random-number-generation/>. [7 December 2008].
Bogomonly, A, Pythagorean Theorem, 2012. Available from: < http://www.cut-the-knot.org/pythagoras/>. [3 October 2014].
Haahr, D. M, Introduction to Randomness and Random Numbers, 2013. Available from: < http://www.random.org/randomness/>. [3 October 2014].
Head, A, Pythagorean Theorem, 2012. Available from: < http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt668/emt668.student.folders/headangela/essay1/pythagorean.html>. [3 October 2014].
Hiscotta, R, 10 Programming Languages You Should Learn in 2014, 2014. Available from: < http://mashable.com/2014/01/21/learn-programming-languages/>. [3 October 2014].
Laine, O, What Is Computer Programming?, 2013. Available from: < http://www.bfoit.org/itp/Programming.html>. [3 October 2014].
Taylor, G & George, C, Behind Intel’s New Random-Number Generator, 2011. Available from: < http://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/hardware/behind-intels-new-randomnumber-generator>. [3 October 2014].

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