Premium Essay

Ratio Analysis Equations

In: Business and Management

Submitted By khandhedia
Words 1127
Pages 5
Ratio Equations

Short-term Solvency Ratios | Current Ratio: | | Quick Ratio: | | Asset Management Ratios | Receivables Turnover: | | Days' Receivables: | | Inventory Turnover: | | Days' Inventory: | | Fixed Assets Turnover: | | Total Assets Turnover: | | Debt Management Ratios | Times Interest Earned
(TIE) Ratio: | | Debt Ratio: | | Debt-Equity Ratio: | | Equity Multiplier: | | Profitability Ratio | Profit Margin: | | Return on Assets: | | Return on Equity: | | Market Value Ratios | Price/Earnings Ratios: | | Market-to-Book Ratio: | | Dividend Ratios | Payout Ratio: | | Retention Ratio: | | Other Equations | Earnings Per Share: | | Book Value Per Share: | |

Profitability | Gross Profit Margin | | Operating Profit Margin | | Net Profit Margin | | Retained Profit Margin | | Profit Mark up | | PBIT | | PBT | |

Rate of Return | Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) | | Return on total Assets (ROTA) | | Return on Fixed Assets (ROFA) | | Return on Working Capital (ROWC) | |
Working Capital Management Liquidity | Current Ratio | | Acid Test | |
NOTES: Current Ratio = Working Capital Ratio
Acid Test Ratio = Quick Ratio Asset Usage | Total Asset Turnover | | Stock turnover | | Debtors Turnover | | Creditors Turnover | | Fixed Asset Turnover | | Capital Employed Turnover | | Working Capital Turnover | |

NOTE in the US stock = inventory, debtors = accountsreceivable, creditors = accounts payable
Alternative formulae:
Stock Turnover
Debtors Turnover Gearing | Gearing 1 | | Gearing 2 | |

NOTE: in the US known as leverage Investor | Earnings per Share | | Dividends per Share | | Dividend Yield | | Dividend Cover | | P/E (Price Earnings) | | Interest Cover | |


Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Chapter 2 Introduction to Rotor Dynamics Rotor dynamics is the branch of engineering that studies the lateral and torsional vibrations of rotating shafts, with the objective of predicting the rotor vibrations and containing the vibration level under an acceptable limit. The principal components of a rotor-dynamic system are the shaft or rotor with disk, the bearings, and the seals. The shaft or rotor is the rotating component of the system. Many industrial applications have flexible rotors, where the shaft is designed in a relatively long and thin geometry to maximize the space available for components such as impellers and seals. Additionally, machines are operated at high rotor speeds in order to maximize the power output. The first recorded supercritical machine (operating above first critical speed or resonance mode) was a steam turbine manufactured by Gustav Delaval in 1883. Modern high performance machines normally operates above the first critical speed, generally considered to be the most important mode in the system, although they still avoid continuous operating at or near the critical speeds. Maintaining a critical speed margin of 15 % between the operating speed and the nearest critical speed is a common practice in industrial applications. The other two of the main components of rotor-dynamic systems are the bearings and the seals. The bearings support the rotating components of the system and provide the additional damping needed to stabilize the system and......

Words: 12839 - Pages: 52

Free Essay


...Contents Abstract 1 Introduction and Procedure 3 Calculations 3 Theory 3 Mass Flow rate analysis 4 Exhaust Gas 6 Results 7 Conclusion 8 Reference 9 Equivalent ratio of a gas turbine Introduction and Procedure For this experiment, a two shaft gas turbine (ET792) was used. At the core of ET792 are a so-called gas generator and a free-running power turbine. The gas generator consists of a radial compressor, a combustion chamber and a radial turbine. The compressor and turbine are mounted on a shaft. The gas turbine works as an open cyclic process, with the ambient air being drawn out and fed back in. Intake and exhaust silencers reduce the noise in operation of the power turbine. The use of propane as the combustion gas ensures clean, odorless operation. A start-up fan is used to start the gas turbine. The air is compressed and fed to the combustion chamber. Before it enters the combustion chamber the air is slowed by means of a diffuser. The air is then split into primary and secondary. The primary air mixes and burns with the fuel and the secondary air cool the exhaust gases. Relevant measuring values are recorded by sensors and indicated on the display and control panel. The energy of the exhaust gas stream is either converted into mechanical energy in the free-running power turbine or accelerated and transformed into thrust via a nozzle. Here, first, the air to fuel ratio (stoichiometric) was calculated using theoretical values. Then, volume flow......

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...Accounting Table of Contents Introduction 3 Chapter 1: Accounting Information and the Accounting Cycle 4 Chapter 2: Financial Statements Overview 7 Chapter 3: Controlling and Reporting of Cash and Receivables 10 Chapter 4: Reporting of Current & Contingent Liabilities 13 Chapter 5: The Time Value of Money 16 Chapter 6: Analyzing Financial Statements 21 Conclusion 25 Introduction I want to thank you and congratulate you for downloading the book, "A Simple Step by Step Accounting Basics Guide Book to Financial Investing and Property For Dummies". Accounting is the language of business. It is the system of recording, summarizing, and analyzing an economic entity's financial transactions. Effectively communicating this information is key to the success of every business. Those who rely on financial information include internal users, such as a company's managers and employees, and external users, such as banks, investors, governmental agencies, financial analysts, and labor unions. These users depend upon data supplied by accountants to answer the following types of questions: • Is the company profitable? • Is there enough cash to meet payroll needs? • How much debt does the company have? • How does the company's net income compare to its budget? • What is the balance owed by customers? • Has the company consistently paid cash dividends? • How much income does each division generate? • Should the company invest money to......

Words: 6134 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Nou La Munca

...nonmanufacturing) Contribution margin ratio = Contribution margin / Sales Break even point (units) = Fixed expenses / Unit contribution margin Break even point (dollar sales) =  Fixed expenses / CM ratio Units sales to attain target profit = (Fixed expenses + Target profit) / Unit contribution margin Dollar sales to attain target profit = (Fixed expenses + Target profit) / Contribution margin ratio Margin of safety = Total budgeted or actual sales - Break even sales Margin of safety percentage or margin of safety ratio = Margin of safety / Total budgeted or actual sales Degree of operating leverage = Contribution margin / Net operating income Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) analysis is a managerial accounting technique that is concerned with the effect of sales volume and product costs on operating profit of a business. It deals with how operating profit is affected by changes in variable costs, fixed costs, selling price per unit and the sales mix of two or more different products. CVP analysis has following assumptions: 1. All cost can be categorized as variable or fixed. 2. Sales price per unit, variable cost per unit and total fixed cost are constant. 3. All units produced are sold. Where the problem involves mixed costs, they must be split into their fixed and variable component by High-Low Method, Scatter Plot Method or Regression Method. CVP Analysis Formula The basic formula used in CVP Analysis is derived from profit equation: px = vx + FC +......

Words: 2299 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Week 7 Checkpoint: Ratio, Vertical, and Horizontal Analyses

...Week 7 Checkpoint: Ratio, Vertical, and Horizontal Analyses XXXXXXXXXX XACC/280 June 28, 2014 Zenos Gavales A financial statement analysis is the process of review financial statements that can include balance sheets and profit or loss statements. The three tools of financial statement analysis are ratio analysis, horizontal analysis and vertical analysis. With ratio analysis we can analyze data and determine the overall financial strength of a company. Horizontal analysis is a procedure in which an analyst compares ratios or line items in business financial statements over a period of time. Vertical analysis most common use is with financial statements for a single time period. Vertical analysis compares between two or more companies in the same industry. PepsiCo, Inc. The current ratio for any company is calculated with the use of the following mathematical equation. Current Ratio = Current Assets Current Liabilities 2005 2004 $10454 =1.11:1 $8639 =1.28:1 $ 9406 $6752 Vertical Analysis = Item on BIS = Percentage Total Assets Or Item on BIS Total Liabilities w/shareholders equity =Percentage Two measures of vertical analysis: Current Assets = 10454 = 33% Total Assets 31727 Short – term Obligations = 2889 = 9% Total Liabilities w/shareholders......

Words: 393 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Financial Analysis Task1

...COMPETITIVE BIKES, INC. INTRODUCTION The Financial Analysis of Competitive Bikes Inc. involves a complete assessment of the liquidity, profitability, competitiveness, and stability of the business. These reports will be using both the income statements and balance sheet provided by the business. Financial statement information is used by both internal and external users including creditors, investors, managers, and executives to make business decisions (Edmonds et al., 2010, p.100) The main objective of Competitive Bikes Inc. financial statement analysis is the examination of the firm’s financial position and returns in relation to risk. In this report, the Horizontal Analysis will show changes in the amounts of corresponding financial statements over a period of three years, which are year six, seven, and eight. Secondly, the Vertical Analysis which measures assets, liabilities, and equities will be used to analyse the income statement by exploring the proportion of the income statement variables to the total sales, analysing the financial performance of the company. Thirdly, Trend Analysis will be used to analyse the pattern in the financial performance of the company over a period of time. Lastly, Ratio Analysis as well as its Working Capital will be used in reviewing the profit margin allowances for projecting any necessary budget restraints on overhead costs and sales potential. A1a. HORIZONTAL ANALYSIS Competition Bikes Inc. Year 6 financial report will be used as......

Words: 5651 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Corporate Governance, Shareholder Structures and Value Creation

...relationship between performance and shareholder stakes. Keywords: Corporate governance, value creation (EVA, CFROI), enterprise performance, shareholder structures. Classification JEL: G32, G34 Electronic copy available at: Péter HARBULA: Corporate governance, shareholder structures and value creation 1. INTRODUCTION The objective of this working paper is to determine whether “hard core” governed firms truly underperform their peers. The main cornerstone of the analysis will be again to introduce the concept of shareholder structures. During the analysis, the common tools developed by corporate finance practitioners were used including, among others, value creation and return to shareholders. By performing this analysis, even if it is not the central point, the underlying question of ownership structure and efficiency will also be considered. I will also include in the analysis, beside the performance measurement tools, an analysis if the evolution of the beta factor from the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). By that, the nature of the investors versus shareholder structure will be analyzed. If there is a significant distortion between the beta factor of the different categories of firms (using shareholder structure as a sampling criteria), then this means that investors already factor in some of the consequences in their...

Words: 15126 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay

Strenghths of Theory of Modernization

...stock in the form of new investment will bring about corresponding increases in the flow of national output, GNP. Suppose that this relationship, known in economics as the capital-output ratio, is roughly 3 to 1. If we define the capital-output ratio as k and assume further that the national savings ratio, s, is a fixed proportion of national output (e.g., 6%) and that total new investment is determined by the level of total savings, we can construct the following simple model of economic growth: 1. Saving (S) is some proportion, s, of national income (Y) such that we have the simple equation SsY (4.1) 2. Net investment (I) is defined as the change in the capital stock, K, and can be represented by K such that IK (4.2) But because the total capital stock, K, bearsa direct relationship to total national income or output, Y, as expressed by the capital-output ratio, k, it followsthat or K Y  k K Y  k 114 Principles and Concepts or, finally, KkY (4.3) 3. Finally, because net national savings, S, must equal net investment, I, we can write this equality as SI (4.4) But from Equation 4.1 we know that S  sY and from Equations 4.2 and 4.3 we know that IKkY It therefore follows that we can write the “identity” of saving equaling investment shown by Equation 4.4 as SsYkYKI...

Words: 667 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Chapter 5 homework, Acct 2253 In some of the exercises below you are asked to use the “equation method” or the “formula method”. The equation method means use the equation for income Revenue – Costs = income Or Revenue – variable costs – fixed costs = income Or Contribution margin – fixed costs = income (These three equations are equivalent) The formula method means use the formula Breakeven or target profit point = (fixed cost + profit) / contribution margin per unit (or CM ratio for answer in dollars) EXERCISE 5-1  Preparing a Contribution Format Income Statement  [LO1] Required: Prepare a new contribution format income statement under each of the following conditions (consider each case independently): 1. |   | The sales volume increases by 50 units | 2. |   | The sales volume declines by 50 units | 3. |   | The sales volume is 7,000 units | EXERCISE 5-5  Changes in Variable Costs, Fixed Costs, Selling Price, and Volume  [LO4] Data for Herron Corporation are shown below: Fixed expenses are $75,000 per month and the company is selling 3,000 units per month. Required: 1. |   | The marketing manager believes that an $8,000 increase in the monthly advertising budget would increase monthly sales by $15,000. Should the advertising budget be increased? | 2. |   | Refer to the original data. Management is considering using higher-quality components that would increase the variable cost by $3 per unit. The marketing manager believes......

Words: 985 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Econ 301

...way. People who makes economical researchs, wanted to research elections in Turkey. TABLE 1 |   |   | DATA NAME | MEASUREMENT | SOURCE | RATE OF POLİTİCAL PARTIES | NUMBER | YSK | ECONOMICAL STATUS OF VOTERS | NUMBER | VOTERS | COLLEGE GRADUATES/ECONOMICAL RATIO | RATIO | MINISTARY OF EDUCATION | DEGREE RESTRICTIONS | DUMMY (1,0) | MINISTARY OF EDUCATION | As data, exact values that are collected from governmental data. Only one part of it is from Voters and they are used to reach unbiased and accurate results. Table 1 indicates that which data has get used in which unit of measurement and whats the source of it. To reach an econometrical result, rate of parties has used as dependent variable. Economical status of voters, College graduates/economical ratios and age restriction is additional control variables. Research is more appropriate to be categorized under cross section data analysis in terms of data belongs in different zones of Turkey. Number of political parties filed and announced by YSK that are reported by in charge people. Economical status of voters actually represent the citizens of Turkey and their economical status. Ministay of education meausures College graduates/economical ratio. Finally as dummy variable there is a degree restriction which is different than college graduates. In that term, it indicates wheather he/she has gone to...

Words: 865 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Lab Chapter 3

...CHAPTER 3 MASS RELATIONSHIPS IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS This chapter reviews the mole concept, balancing chemical equations, and stoichiometry. The topics covered in this chapter are: • Atomic mass and average atomic mass • A vogadro’ s number, mole, and molar mass • Percent composition calculations • Empirical and molecular formula determinations • Chemical equations, amount of reactant and product calculations • Limiting reagents and reaction yield calculations Take Note: It is absolutely essential that you master the mole concept to do well on the quantitative aspects of AP Chemistry!! When solving quantitative problems on the Free Response section of the AP exam, supporting work must be shown to receive credit. Using dimensional analysis is a very powerful technique in solving problems. Be sure to report your answer to the correct number of significant figures (see Chapter 1 in this review book). Atomic mass and average atomic mass Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu). One amu is defined as 1/12 of one C-12 atom. The C-12 isotope has a mass of exactly 12.000 amu. The C-12 isotope provides the relative scale for the masses of the other elements. Average atomic mass is the value reported on the periodic table, which takes into account the various isotopes of an element and their respective frequencies. To calculate the average atomic mass of an element, add up the different masses of the isotopes (using amu) multiplied by each isotope’s......

Words: 5108 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Financial Analysis for Microsoft ‫‬

...[pic] Al-Azhar University - Gaza Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Business Administration Department Financial Analysis For : [pic] Prepared by: Ahmed Al-Saqqa Ibrahem Al-Shanti Under the supervision of: Mr.. Nizar Naim 2010-2011 Introduction Microsoft Corporation is one of the largest companies in the field of software and information technology, noted in recent years, the performance drop valuable company, which used to occupy pride of place in this sector, probably due to the enormous development in this area as well as the emergence of new competitors. Microsoft Corporation is a public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions. Established on April 4, 1975 to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, Microsoft rose to dominate the home computer operating system (OS) market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by the Microsoft Windows line of OSs. Microsoft would also come to dominate the office suite market with Microsoft Office. The company has diversified in recent years into the video game industry with the Xbox and its successor, the Xbox 360 as well as into the consumer electronics market with Zune and the Windows Phone OS. The ensuing rise of stock......

Words: 1443 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Ftir Lab Report

...Spectrum of CO2 (Standard Resolution) 3. Rotational Spectrum of CO2 (High Resolution) 4. Carbonyl stretch in 2-butanone solutions (wavenumber vs. % T) 5. Carbonyl stretch in 2-butanone solutions (wavenumber Vs Absorbance) 6. Calibration curve of 2-butanone solutions (concentration vs. absorbance) * Calculations a. Preparation of solutions b. Concentration of the unknown c. Percent error of observed and theoretical ratios of CH, CD stretch frequencies Results and Conclusion References Objective The goal of the first part of the experiment was to study the effects of isotopes on bond stretching. In the second part of the experiment, the influence of instrument resolution on the rotational spectrum of carbon dioxide was studied. The purpose of the third part of the experiment was to create a calibration curve to find the unknown concentration of 2-butanone. Introduction Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is a very useful analytical technique used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic compounds. It can be used for a variety of purposes such as; finding the concentrations of unknown solutions, determining the constituents of unknown solutions, forensic purposes or finding individual components in paints, drugs, fibers residues, contaminated chemicals etc. Solids, liquids and gases can be analyzed using this method. The most important benefit of FTIR spectroscopy is its ability...

Words: 4097 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Ratio Analysis

...CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Difficulty: E = Easy, M = Medium, and T = Tough) Multiple Choice: Conceptual Easy: Current ratio Answer: a Diff: E [i]. All else being equal, which of the following will increase a company’s current ratio? a. An increase in accounts receivable. b. An increase in accounts payable. c. An increase in net fixed assets. d. Statements a and b are correct. e. All of the statements above are correct. Current ratio Answer: d Diff: E [ii]. Pepsi Corporation’s current ratio is 0.5, while Coke Company’s current ratio is 1.5. Both firms want to “window dress” their coming end-of-year financial statements. As part of its window dressing strategy, each firm will double its current liabilities by adding short-term debt and placing the funds obtained in the cash account. Which of the statements below best describes the actual results of these transactions? a. The transactions will have no effect on the current ratios. b. The current ratios of both firms will be increased. c. The current ratios of both firms will be decreased. d. Only Pepsi Corporation’s current ratio will be increased. e. Only Coke Company’s current ratio will be increased. Cash flows Answer: a Diff: E [iii]. Which of the following alternatives could potentially result in a net increase in a company’s cash flow for the current year? a. Reduce the days sales......

Words: 18548 - Pages: 75

Premium Essay

Ratio, Vertical, and Horizontal Analyses

...Ratio, Vertical, and Horizontal Analyses Kelli Lorenc XACC/280 February 5, 2012 Kerri Gooley Ratio, Vertical, and Horizontal Analyses According to "Accounting for Management" (2011), “Financial statement analysis is defined as the process of identifying financial strengths and weaknesses of the firm by properly establishing relationship between the items of the balance sheet and the profit and loss account.” (Definition and Explanation of Financial Statement Analysis:). There are many tools used to evaluate the significance of a financial statement. The three most common tools used are as follows: First, ratio analysis which is a method used to analyze financial statements in order to determine a business overall financial strengths. Ratios show how one figure relates to another; making it one of the most useful tools a business can utilize when needing to compare one or more figures. Secondly, horizontal analysis a method used to determine a company’s performance over any specific period of time by using certain financial data. Horizontal analysis is fundamental to a company because it can asses a single company or various companies with in the same industry, when wanting to compare the same items or ratios which or a company’s performances to those of their competitors. Finally, vertical analysis is a method where each item with in the financial statements is represented as a percentage and in dollar form. Vertical analysis makes it......

Words: 618 - Pages: 3