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Ratio analysis is a tool used by individuals to conduct a quantitative analysis of information in a company's financial statements. Ratios are calculated from current year numbers and are then compared to previous years, other companies, the industry, or even the economy to judge the performance of the company. Ratio analysis is predominately used by proponents of fundamental analysis to judge the performance of the company. Analyzing ratios is used to evaluate a company's present performance and its possible future performance. In a fact, interpretation of different accounting ratio lets the researcher fully understand the financial condition and performance of a business concern. Ratio itself is the comparison of one figure to another relevant figure. (http://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/ratioanalysis.asp)

There are many ratios that you can use to analyze the financial health of a business.

In this paper I will discuss four financial performance areas that I think are worth analyzing: Liquidity, profitability, solvency, and efficiency. I will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of using these ratios.

First of all, Liquidity is the ability of the firm to convert assets into cash. It is also called marketability or short-term solvency. The liquidity of a business firm is usually of particular interest to its short-term creditors since the liquidity of the firm measures its ability to pay those creditors. Several financial ratios measure the liquidity of the firm.

In other words, there are three common measures of liquidity include working capital, the current ratio and the quick ratio. Working capital measures a company’s cash flow position. The current ratio measures the degree to which current assets can be used to pay current debt obligations. The quick ratio measures the degree to which very liquid current assets can be

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...[pic] ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF HOTEL LEELA VENTURES TABLE OF CONTENTS :: 1) INTRODUCTION TO HOTEL INDUSTRY 2) PROFILE OF HOTEL LEELA VENTURES LTD. 3) OBJECTIVE OF ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGY 4) FINANCIAL ANALYSIS USING RATIO ANALYSIS 5) INTERPRETATIONS OF THE RATIOS 6) RECOMMENDATIONS 7) REFERENCES INTRODUCTION TO HOTEL INDUSTRY Over the last decade and half the mad rush to India for business opportunities has intensified and elevated room rates and occupancy levels in India. Even budget hotels are charging USD 250 per day. The successful growth story of 'Hotel Industry in India' seconds only to China in Asia Pacific. 'Hotels in India' have supply of 110,000 rooms. According to the tourism ministry, 4.4 million tourists visited India last year and at current trend, demand will soar to 10 million in 2010 – to accommodate 350 million domestic travelers. 'Hotels in India' has a shortage of 150,000 rooms fueling hotel room rates across India. With tremendous pull of opportunity, India is a destination for hotel chains looking for growth. The World Travel and Tourism Council, India, data says, India ranks 18th in business travel and will be among the top 5 in this decade. Sources estimate, demand is going to exceed supply by at least 100% over the next 2 years. Five-star hotels in metro cities allot same room, more than once a day to different guests, receiving almost...

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...A Summary of Key Financial Ratios How They Are Calculated and What They Show Profitability Ratios 1. Gross profit margin Sales - Cost of goods sold Sales An indication of the total margin available to cover operating expenses and yield a profit. 2. Operating profit margin (or Return on Sales) Profits before taxes and interest Sales An indication of the firm's profitability from current operations without regard to the interest charges accruing from the capital structure 3. Net profit margin (or net Return on sales) Profits after taxes Sales Shows after tax profits per dollar of sales. Subpar profit margins indicate that the firm's sales prices are relatively low or that costs are relatively high, or both. 4. Return on total Assets Profits after taxes Total assets or Profits after taxes + interest Total assets A measure of the return on total investment the enterprise. It is sometimes desirable to add interest to after tax profits to form the numerator of the ratio since total assets are financed by creditors as well as by stockholders; hence, it is accurate to measure the productivity of assets by the returns provided to both classes of investors. 5. Return on stockholder's equity (or return on net worth) Profits after taxes Total stockholders' equity A measure of the rate of return on stockholders' investment in the enterprise. 6. Return on common equity (Profits after taxes -Preferred stock dividends) (Total stockholders" equity - Par value of preferred stock) ...

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...Ratio Analysis Memo Principles of Accounting II ACC/291 Ratio Analysis Memo For the first ratio of solvency debt to total assets one must take the total debt Kroger owns 20,440.7 and divide it by the total assets 24,651.5. Once this is done Kroger has a debt to total assets ratio of .83, which means that 83% of Kroger's assets are financed by creditors. This is a not a good debt to assets ratio because Kroger only owns 17% of its assets out right. Kroger has a high debt to asset ratio which can be negative, but could also be less expensive then obtaining funds with equity. Carrying a high debt to assets ratio comes with risk, because the company must pay on its obligations or risk creditors seizing assets. Companies with low debt to assets ratios tend to have many shareholders that they must share profits with. The key to running a quality company is balancing that with assets to build a balanced financial backing planned for future acquisitions. Kroger's times interest earned calculation is done by taking the net income 1,496.5 plus interest expense -462 plus tax expense 793.8 which gives 1827.8 for a total. Then after this calculation is done one must divide it by the interest expense 462 which gives 3.9 for a times interest earned. The times interest earned ratio shows Kroger's ability to pay interest payments on loans when they come due. Kroger's 3.9 times interest earned ratio shows that Kroger can pay its interest 3.9 times with its income. This high number helps...

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...Profitability ratios measure the company's use of its assets and control of its expenses to generate an acceptable rate of return Gross margin, Gross profit margin or Gross Profit Rate[7][8] [pic] OR [pic] Operating margin, Operating Income Margin, Operating profit margin or Return on sales (ROS)[8][9] [pic] Note: Operating income is the difference between operating revenues and operating expenses, but it is also sometimes used as a synonym for EBIT and operating profit.[10] This is true if the firm has no non-operating income. (Earnings before interest and taxes / Sales[11][12]) Profit margin, net margin or net profit margin[13] [pic] Return on equity (ROE)[13] [pic] Return on investment (ROI ratio or Du Pont Ratio)[6] [pic] Return on assets (ROA)[14] [pic] Return on assets Du Pont (ROA Du Pont)[15] [pic] Return on Equity Du Pont (ROE Du Pont) [pic] Return on net assets (RONA) [pic] Return on capital (ROC) [pic] Risk adjusted return on capital (RAROC) [pic] OR [pic] Return on capital employed (ROCE) [pic] Note: this is somewhat similar to (ROI), which calculates Net Income per Owner's Equity Cash flow return on investment (CFROI) [pic] Efficiency ratio [pic] Net gearing [pic] Basic Earnings Power Ratio[16] [pic] ...

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