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Rbm Monitoring

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RESULT BASED MANAGEMENT IN MONITORING

DEFINATION OF TERMS
Result Based Management (RBM) is a broad management strategy aimed at changing the way institutions operate, by improving performance, programmatic focus and delivery. It reflects the way an organization applies processes and resources to undertake interventions to achieve desired results. UNESCO (1997)
Result Based Management (RBM) is an approach to project/programme management based on clearly defined results, and the methodologies and tools to measure and achieve them (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, 2011).
Result Based Management (RBM) supports better performance and greater accountability by applying a clear, logical framework to plan, manage and measure an intervention with a focus on the result you want to achieve. By identifying in Advance the intended result of a project/programme and how we can measure their progress,

Monitoring is the routine collection and analysis of information to track progress against set plans and check Compliance to established standards (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, 2011).

The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2002a:27) defines monitoring as a continuous function that uses the systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing development intervention with indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives and progress in the use of allocated funds.

Monitoring is an important task in the life of a programme or project. It involves regular and systematic assessment based on participation, reflection, feedback, data collection, analysis of actual performance (using indicators) and regular reporting. Monitoring makes it possible to gauge where programmes stand in terms of international norms and standards.

The purpose of monitoring is to assess the actual situation compared to the programmed information originally defined in order to keep track of implementation and progress towards the expected results and take remedial actions when needed. It furthermore includes self-evaluation by the responsible officer (teacher) who interprets the information and defines possible explanations to eventual discrepancies between the “expected” and the “achieved” leading to lessons learnt.

As soon as the implementation phase begins, monitoring phases in, based on periodical assessments both by teachers and by supervisors. School management is conceived to support such a monitoring process, by requiring each responsible supervisor to crisply report, on a quarterly basis, upon the progress of the element he/she is in charge of, and assess how the result progressively takes shape. This requirement calls for some form of indicators and milestones to be designed, so as to anchor the assessments to verifiable evidence. The delivery-orientation of the monitoring process can foster continuous improvement of implementation and raise quality control.

Monitoring * Clarifies program objectives * Links activities and their resources to objectives * Translates objectives into performance indicators and sets targets * Routinely collects data on these indicators, compares actual results with targets * Reports progress to managers and alerts them to problems

What is Monitoring
Systematic Monitoring has to do with * Determining the progress of project execution/implementation * Giving feedback on the project to stakeholders * Recommending corrective action to address problems that affect the project, improving performance and enhancing the probability that it will achieve its Planned Outcome(s).
Diagram below summarizes key monitoring questions as they relate to the logframe’s objectives. Note that they focus more on the lower-level objectives– inputs, activities and (to a certain extent) outcomes. This is because the outcomes and goal are usually more challenging changes (typically in knowledge, attitudes and practice/behaviours) to measure, and require a longer time frame and a more focused assessment provided by evaluations.

Sources: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Monitoring also has to do with analysing project performance in terms of Efficiency and Effectiveness.
Efficiency: the extent to which project inputs were supplied and managed and the activities organized in the most appropriate manner at the least cost to produce the necessary outputs. Effectiveness: the extent to which the project produced its expected outputs and is therefore achieving its Planned Outcome(s). Monitoring allows the implementing agency to identify strengths and shortcomings on a timely basis in order to implement recommended corrective action. Monitoring takes place during implementation but does not occur during other phases of the project cycle. Under a results-based approach, good monitoring‖ implies continuous and systematic monitoring, the participation of key stakeholders and a focus on progress toward achieving results.
Steps for Monitoring:

1. Clarify tasks and responsibilities of those involved in monitoring. 2. Compare the planned time with the actual time required to carry out individual activities. 3. Monitor the use of resources in a spreadsheet based on the resource and cost schedule. 4. Use Monitoring tools to monitor progress towards the accomplishment of activities and resources, outputs, outcomes and impacts over a period of time. 5. Compare planned and actual achievements. 6. Use indicators in the log frame to assess the effects of the intervention at different levels of the intervention logic. 7. Monitor the external environment to determine whether assumptions are still accurate and risks are being managed or mitigated. 8. If minor deviations from the work plan are identified, adjust the timing of activities and resources according to monitoring information.
Common types of monitoring 1. Results monitoring tracks effects and impacts. This is where monitoring merges with evaluation to determine if the project/programme is on target towards its intended results (outputs, outcomes, impact) and whether there may be any unintended impact (positive or negative).

2. Process (activity) monitoring tracks the use of inputs and resources, the progress of activities and the delivery of outputs. It examines how activities are delivered – the efficiency in time and resources. It is often conducted in conjunction with compliance monitoring and feeds into the evaluation of impact. 3. Compliance monitoring ensures compliance with donor regulations and expected results, grant and contract requirements, local governmental regulations and laws, and ethical standards.

4. Context (situation) monitoring tracks the setting in which the project/programme operates, especially as it affects identified risks and assumptions, but also any unexpected considerations that may arise. It includes the field as well as the larger political, institutional, funding, and policy context that affect the project/programme.

5. Beneficiary monitoring tracks beneficiary perceptions of a project/programme. It includes beneficiary satisfaction or complaints with the project/programme, including their participation, treatment, access to resources and their overall experience of change. Sometimes referred to as beneficiary contact monitoring (BCM), it often includes a stakeholder complaints and feedback mechanism.

6. Financial monitoring accounts for costs by input and activity within predefined categories of expenditure. It is often conducted in conjunction with compliance and process monitoring.

7. organizational monitoring tracks the sustainability, institutional development and capacity building in the project/programme and with its partners. It is often done in conjunction with the monitoring processes of the larger, implementing organization.

Monitoring best practices * Monitoring data should be well-focused to specific audiences and uses (only what is necessary and sufficient).

* Monitoring should be systematic, based upon predetermined indicators and assumptions.

* Monitoring should also look for unanticipated changes with the project/programme and its context, including any changes in project/programme assumptions/risks; this information should be used to adjust project/programme implementation plans.

* Monitoring needs to be timely, so information can be readily used to inform project/programme implementation.

* Whenever possible, monitoring should be participatory, involving key stakeholders – this can not only reduce costs but can build understanding and ownership.

* Monitoring information is not only for project/programme management but should be shared when possible with beneficiaries, donors and any other relevant stakeholders.

References

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, 2011. Project/programme monitoring and evaluation (M&E) guide. www.ifrc.org

United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), “Monitoring, Evaluation and Knowledge Management Framework, 2008-2011”, August 2008

“Results-based Management in UNDAFs”, Issues Note 1, Working Group on Programming Issues, October 2007.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), “Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development Results”, 2009.

Bester, A. (2007). Results based management in the United Nations Development System: Progress and challenges. Retrieved from www.un.org/esa/coordination/pdf/rbm_report_10_july.pdf Common, R. (2011). International trends in HRM in public sector: Reform attempts in the Republic of Georgia. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 24(5), 421-434.

Desautels, D. (1996). Implementing results based management: Lessons from literature, Office of Auditor General of Canada. Retrieved from www.oagbvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_oag_199611_29_e_5060.htm

Fryer, K., Antony, J., & Ogden, S. (2009). Performance management in the public sector. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 22(6), 478-498.

Hatton, M., & Schroeder, K. (2007). RBM: Friend or foe. Development in Practice, 17(3), 426-432.

Madhekeni, A. (2012). Implementing results based management in Zimbabwe: Context and implications for public sector. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(8), 122-128.

Marie, J., Holzer, M., Posner, P., & Rubin, M. (2006). Results based management in Thailand: Evaluation report. Retrieved from www.opdc.go.th/uploads/.../GET_Results_Based_Management_Report.pdf

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