Premium Essay

Reaction Paper On Osteoporosis

Submitted By
Words 938
Pages 4

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, decreasing its strength, resulting in fragile bones. Bone is a living tissue that is continually being broken down and recovered. Osteoporosis occurs when the pace of creation of the new bone doesn't keep up with the pace of the removal ones, causing an abnormally porous bones, making it compressible like a sponge. This disorder of the skeleton weakens the bone and results in fractures (breaks) in the bones. Most frequent fractures occur in the hip, wrist or spine. Osteoporosis is often known as “the silent thief” because bone loss occurs without symptoms.


A skeletal disorder portrayed by compromised bone strength, which predisposes to a higher possibilities of fractures is called osteoporosis (Camacho, Miller, 2007). World Health Organization (WHO) define osteoporosis as an illness by low bone mass and microarchitectural degradation of bone tissue, leading to augmented bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture peril.
…show more content…
T-score is bone density score compared with what is normally expected in a healthy young adult of one's sex. T-score is the standard deviations of bone density to determine if it is below or above the

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Case Analysis

...Primary Care Physician Initial Evaluation: Patient Name: Mrs. Wright (53 years old) Description: Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis HISTORY: Mrs. Wright is a 53-year old female who visited Dr. Curtis on 9/21/2013 for devastating pain dealing with her rheumatoid arthritis. She was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis on 4/2/2010 by Dr. Ruppert. She was later diagnosed with osteoporosis on 8/5/2010. Along with her arthritis pain, she has other conditions such as: Raynaud syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome-associated constipation (IBS-C), gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), and chronic urinary tract and upper respiratory infections. She has gained weight because of the lack of exercise she has performing. Wright complains she is too tired to work out and gets tired throughout the day performing normal activities. She also insists she cannot work out because she always gets hot flashes from her menopause and is simply too hot to work out. Wright also explained she lives alone and cannot always go to see a physician because she cannot get someone to drive her there. She is no longer taking the three medications, hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, and prednisone, prescribed by Dr. Ruppert. She explains she had experienced intolerable side effects, including reflux, alopecia, and severe photosensitivity. Dr. Ruppert ordered a comprehensive laboratory evaluation and identified the following: IgG4 food-specific antibodies, essential fatty acid and amino acid imbalances,......

Words: 6657 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay


...Individual Assignment Brittney Preece RES/320 Gretchen Oltman 9/30/2013 I reviewed an article title “Health effects of soda drinking in adolescent girls in the United Arab Emirates.” (Mahmood, Saleh, Al-Alawi, &Ahmed, 2008). As the title suggests, this research study focuses on the effects of soda drinking. I chose the article because of its highly detailed and informative title. This seems to be a great indication of the potential quality of the research. The title itself indicates what is being investigated, who the basic sample is, and the location of the research. As I reviewed the research, it became clear that the independent variable was the drinking of soda. Some of the sample drinks soda and some of the same does not drink soda. There are many different dependent variables that are recorded in the process of drawing a conclusion. This includes many different blood chemistry tests, including cholesterol and blood glucose level. The researchers also noted the body mass index of soda drinkers versus those who denied drinking soda. The sample included 275 randomly chosen girls from different schools. There is not a great deal of information about the demographics of the selected sample. However, it is noted that this information was gathered. Each individual in the study was given a questionnaire about their demographics and their consumption of soda and other sugary items. After completing the survey...

Words: 1364 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Eli Lily

...Eli Lilly: The Evista Project® In early 1998 Dr. August “Gus” Watanabe, executive vice president of science and technology for Eli Lilly and president of Lilly Research Laboratories (see Exhibits 1 and 2), looked out his office window toward downtown Indianapolis. He was contemplating the future commercialization path for Lilly’s new, potential blockbuster drug, Evista®, which had received FDA approval on December 9, 1997, for the prevention of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Evista®, generically known as raloxifene hydrochloride, would be entering the estrogen replacement market, a market that had worldwide sales in excess of $1 billion in 1997.[1] Of even wider significance was the fact that in initial trials, Evista® appeared to lower the incidence of breast cancer and reduced total LDL in post-menopausal women without the negative side effect profiles of currently available estrogen replacement therapies. The potential of this new therapeutic and its impact on Lilly could be enormous. Some analysts predicted that Evista® might become a $1B drug for the company.[2] With this in mind, Watanabe knew that the decision on how best to commercialize Evista® would have a profound effect on Lilly’s well-being. Should Lilly follow its traditional approach to commercialization? Or should Lilly follow a course more in line with the development approach adopted for Evista® in early 1995, which would require the organization to transform its heavyweight......

Words: 7202 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

Media Mass

...The Causes and Effects of Doping in Sport Hou Juin Yew, Calvin B1201067 HELP University Outline I. Introduction A. Opener : The history of doping in sports B. Thesis statement: There are few causes that is undergone family problems, huge amount of debts, cope with a live of stress and face a lot of pain during training and few effects that lead in to problems in body function and mental effects. II. The causes of why athletes dope in sports. A. Family problems B. Huge amount of debts C. Live of stress D. A lot of pain in training III. The effect in the body function of a person when a person dope in sport. A. The uses of steroid in sports 1. The diseases when dope in sports 2. The body function of a person B. The uses of stimulants in sports 1. The type of drugs and the problems C. The uses of peptide hormones 1. Type of peptide hormone and the effects of the substances IV. The effect in the mental problems A. The type of disease that effect the mental problems V. Conclusions The Causes and Effects of Doping in Sport Doping in sport is means the use of drug to increase the performance of an athletic above average in an athletic competition...

Words: 2223 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...The Code of Ethics in advertising states that an advertising agency will not intentionally create ads with false products or price related statements. The agency will not use poorly supported product claims or distorted information from experts. Finally, the agency will not provide ads that offend public decency or minority groups(American Association of Advertising Agency). Ethics have always been an important aspect of every business activity, although the term has meant different times in different lands to different people. Nonetheless, as ethical concerns are an inseparable element of business, advertising cannot ignore them. Sadly, the advertising industry has rarely cared to look beyond immediate marketing objectives. The argument in the industry is that it is the government’s job to judge what is right and what is wrong. Shirking its own responsibility for regulation, the industry has belittled business values and agencies have harmed their balance sheets. For any business, customer is very important, and businesses attempt to communicate to all their target customers using means of communication like advertising and sales promotion. Advertising is very powerful and most commonly used tool. The term ethics in business involves “morality, organizational ethics and professional deontology” (Isaac, cited in Bergadaa, 2007). Every industry has its own guidelines for the ethical requirements. However, the principal four requirements for......

Words: 2109 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

What We Know About Wheat and How It Affects

...differently than dietary fads of the past, the phrase “gluten free” commonly appears in health magazines, cooking shows and on the shelves in our supermarkets. However, the difference between the present gluten free dietary craze and the fad diets of the past is that losing weight is not the end goal, instead, preventing and warding off disease and illness is. Perhaps for this reason going gluten free has gained global popularity and unparalleled support from the medical community. There are a number of unhealthy side effects that come from consuming gluten that most of us consume in the form of wheat. While research on the issue is still inconclusive we know there is something in the wheat plant that is making many of us sick. This research paper was created to examine how gluten and the wheat grain are affecting humans, the potential causes of the sudden manifestation of gluten related disorders, and what, if anything, can be done to prevent gluten related ailments. By way of background, gluten is the main structural protein found in wheat and other grains such as rye, barley, and oats. Wheat is the most commonly consumed gluten containing grain as it makes up approximately seventy-five percent (75%) of all calories consumed from carbohydrates in the American diet. The gluten proteins found in wheat is what gives dough its elasticity and the ability to rise when combined with yeast. Traditional breads, baked goods, pasta and pizza crust would have never been invented......

Words: 2235 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

...currently classified into seven types based on differences in bone architecture. In addition to its primary effect on the skeletal system, the alterations in connective tissue may affect several extra skeletal structures, such as the cardiovascular system, sclera, middle and inner ear, tendons/ligaments, and central nervous system. Patients with Osteogenesis Imperfecta also have a greater incidence of airway anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, and increased incidence of perioperative bleeding, easily fractured bones and teeth. Treatment of Osteogenesis Imperfecta by bisphosphonate therapy can improve bone mass in all types of the disorder, and while not being a cure for the disorder does improve the quality of life of the patient. This paper will examine the causes, treatment, and prognosis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Student Examination into the Causes, Treatment, and Prognosis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is an abnormally brittle bone disease that is inherited. The term Osteogenesis Imperfecta means “imperfect bone formation.” Individuals who have OI suffer from short stature, scoliosis, thin skin, and hearing loss. Numerous fractures are common, and can occur before birth. This disorder affects six-to-seven per 100 thousand people worldwide. There are seven forms of OI. The types can be distinguished by their signs and symptoms, even...

Words: 4944 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Late Adulthood and Death Paper

...Running Head: LATE ADULTHOOD & DEATH Late Adulthood and Death Paper Late Adulthood and Death The final years of an individual's lifespan mark the time for reflection of one's life while also spending time with family, including grandchildren, and maintaining physical and mental health throughout the entire stage of late adulthood. Quality of life in late adulthood is determined by genetics, the modification of destructive lifestyles and behaviors, and selecting healthier options not only throughout the earlier stages of development but especially in this stage for improvements to health and having an overall sense of well-being (Berger, 2008). Remaining socially active and independent for as long as possible instead of succumbing to isolating is key during this stage of adulthood (Berger, 2008). The more adults in this stage of aging that live socially active, healthy, and physically active lives while maintaining important family roles the more individuals will be refraining from the negative and stereotypical thoughts of ageism which will assist in their premature decline. High quality medical care assisted by technology can provide aging adults comfort knowing they are helping to protect and safeguard younger generations as science learns from the older generations. Ageism and Stereotypes In late adulthood, there are many stereotypes and unfavorable understandings of older adults (Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood, n.d.).......

Words: 2168 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Multiple Myeloma

...plasma cells, “myeloma” refers to a tumor of the bone marrow, and “multiple” refers to more than one area of the bone marrow being affected (Mangan, 2006, p. 64hn1). Because the disease is incurable, and because only 30 percent of patients survive longer than five years after diagnosis, living with multiple myeloma can be difficult for patients and their families (Mangan, 2006, p. 64hn1). As health care providers on the front lines of patient care, nurses must be aware of the multi-system manifestations of multiple myeloma, be able to make the assessments needed to identify and prevent complications related to the disease and its treatment regimen, and be ready to provide patients and their families with knowledge and support. In this paper, the author will first provide a full description of multiple myeloma, including etiology and risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnostic tests, and treatment. This accomplished, the author will apply the stages of the nursing process to nursing care...

Words: 4168 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Q Analysis

...224 G. M. WARNOCK AND J. DUCKWVORH 1944 are not used as a source of minerals to sustain the mammary supply during lactation. In other words, an osteoporotic skeleton is not an obligatory consequence of lactation in this species at least. Considerable difficulties exist in the determination of these requirements by the metabolic balance technique, since this method does not indicate when mobilization of minerals from the spongiosa is accompanied by mobilization from the shaft. Further, the balance over a whole lactation is often small in relation to the total quantities of materials analyzed and may be close to the analytical errors of the methods when the diet given is rich in minerals. The present observations may find some application in the determination of certain mineral requirements of lactation. Because the losses of Ca and P are unavoidable, involving the gradual liberation of reserves laid down at an earlier peripd, it has been difficult to estimate the requirements for lactation on the bafsis ofthe negative values obtained by the balance technique. Since the present study shows that, in the rat, it is possible to restrict the withdrawal of bone salt to the spongiosa, leaving the shaft unaffected, it seems reasonable to suggest that lactation requirements could be defined as those intakes which, for a given output of minerals in milk, will restrict the withdrawals to the spongiosa. Thus, using a similar technique, the problem ofthe mineral requirements for......

Words: 3073 - Pages: 13

Free Essay


...FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING * Think about it… * ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ * Is represented as 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 * Then: * H-A-R-D-W-O-R-K * 8+1+18+4+23+15+18+11=98% * K-N-O-W-L-E-D-G-E * 11+14+15+23+12+5+4+7+5=96 % * A-T-T-I-T-U-D-E * 1+20+20+9+20+21+4+5=100 % * And look how far the love of God will take you * L-O-V-E-O-F-G-O-D * 12+15+22+5+15+6+7+15+4=101 % NURSING * Is the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and change or cope with environment. It is the complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Major Nursing Goals * Promotive – an action or measures designed to support behavior conducive to health * Preventive – any actions or measures designed to protect individuals, families, groups, communities from harm to their health * Curative – any actions or measures designed to correct or remove disease or any illness. * Rehabilitative – any actions or measures designed to restore health and promote recovery from any alteration of health Roles and Responsibilities of Nurses: * Caregiver – helping clients promote, restore, and maintain dignity, health and wellness * Communicator/Helper – central role of nurses in identifying needs of the client * Educator/Teacher – involves nursing activities, health promotion, the primary concern * Counselor – providing emotional, intellectual and......

Words: 4126 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Psychological Effects of Drugs

...Psychological Effects of Street Drugs Krystal Colosimo Mohawk Valley Community College Abstract This paper explores the psychological effects of street drugs, classified as legal, illegal and controlled substances. The legal drugs that I cover are caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. The illegal are marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy and heroin. I will also discuss controlled substances, but mainly in reference to prescription pills. I discuss the short-term and long-term effects of all the drugs I cover as well as withdrawal symptoms. I will close with drug abuse treatment help and support and follow with my conclusion. Psychological Effects of Street Drugs A street drug is defined as any substance taken for nonmedical purposes. They can be legal or illegal and are comprised of amphetamines, barbiturates, opiates, psychoactive drugs and as well as natural sources. A drug is a chemical substance that has known biological effects on humans. For this paper I will be discussing drugs under the three categories of being legal, illegal and controlled substances. The most common legal drugs I will discuss are caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. The more common illegal drugs that I will discuss are marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy and heroin. There are numerous controlled substances as well and it is defined as a drug or chemical that is regulated by the government. For controlled substances I will only be covering prescription pills. Legal......

Words: 2693 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay


...Breastfeeding The International Council of Nurses (ICN) considers that breast milk is the food of choice for infants and that as a general principle; exclusive breastfeeding should be protected, promoted and supported for the duration of six months as a global public health recommendation. ICN supports efforts to promote adoption of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) to ensure that all maternities become centers of breastfeeding support ( ICN holds the mother’s right to make an informed choice about infant feeding. This includes providing information, counseling and guidance to all HIV infected mothers about the risks and benefits of feeding options most suitable for their situation, in line with those recommended in the UNICEF/UNAIDS/WHO guidelines ( Furthermore, ICN supports the revised International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention 183 on maternity protection. ICN concurs that it is the right of all working women, including those in the informal sector, to have paid daily breaks or a daily reduction of hours of work when breastfeeding a child, and to have hygienic facilities at or near the workplace ( The ICN’s position is that infants who are breastfed have fewer illnesses and are better nourished than those who are fed other drinks and foods. It is estimated that 1.5 million infant lives would be saved, and the health and development of millions of others would be greatly improved, if exclusive......

Words: 2513 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Is the Tendency to Engage in Entrepreneurship Genetic

...(MZ) and 857 pairs of same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins from the United Kingdom. We ran model-fitting analyses to estimate the genetic, shared environmental and nonshared environmental effects on the propensity of people to become entrepreneurs. We found relatively high heritabilities for entrepreneurship across different operationalizations of the phenomenon, with little effect of family environment and upbringing. Our findings suggest the importance of considering genetic factors in explanations for why people engage in entrepreneurial activity. Key words: entrepreneurship; twin studies; behavioral genetics History: Accepted by Wallace J. Hopp, technological innovation, product development, and entrepreneurship; received June 21, 2006. This paper was with the authors 6 1 months for 2 revisions. 2 Introduction Why do people engage in entrepreneurial activity? Despite the centrality of this question to the field of entrepreneurship, and over 40 years of research that has sought to answer it, researchers have offered incomplete and...

Words: 11432 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Asthma Condition

...Thesis Statement Writing Tuesday, Jun. 8th 2010 Before you familiarize yourself with thesis statement writing, you need to know what the statement is in the first place. This sentence basically sums up your main objective for writing the term paper, creates a simple guide for the reader and provides the basis for your argument. All in all thesis statement writing is quite simple, as long as you keep some tips and techniques in mind. The first thing you need to do is put together one question which is only possible if you compress the entire thesis. A great way to do this is examine the main topic and create a question out of it. It will give you a basic idea of what the statement should look like and how you should answer that question. The first sentence should introduce the topic and the objective and the next few should spell out how you plan to support your argument. Thesis statement writing, therefore, is about asking yourself the fundamental question that forms the essence of your paper. When you are done writing the statement, step back and examine in from another point of view to determine whether it is strong or weak. A strong statement is one which sparkles with confidence and focuses on one and only one aspect of the issue. This means that you can’t be vague or off-hand about the topic. If you have selected a theme, you should be ready to stand up for it- now is not the time to be diplomatic or meek. In addition to that, it should also spell out the basis......

Words: 4119 - Pages: 17