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Reading Attitudes of Students

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CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Success in academics, career, transactions and all the struggles people face in the different aspects of their daily lives could only be attained if proper attitude was present. How to approach or avoid the problems, challenges and circumstances they faced every day predicted the result. The same idea was shared by Hilary Hinton Ziglar (2011) which stated that it is not what happens to you that determines how far you will go in life; it is how you handle what happens to you. Even if a lot of challenges were given to men, this does not define one’s final outcome. It was one’s attitude towards the challenge that predicted and established their future. However, not all people nowadays knew how to face properly each circumstance offered by life and thus ended in catastrophic situations. This same problem is faced by students of the present generation especially in their academics wherein reading is mostly valuable. This study was concerned with the decline of the students engaging in reading. How did they acquired knowledge and information? What were their approaches in acquiring knowledge? Did they really understand what they had recently gathered? Reading is not only confined in the four walls of classrooms but more importantly used in different jobs and professions. Reading, together with writing was a useful tool in communication from the time of the ancient Egyptians and Chinese. In the age of the Internet and information technologies, reading retains its importance as an essential skill for learners of any language (Gokhan, 2012). It was an undeniable fact at this present time. In order to sustain and improve these internet and technologies, one of the most important tools of the developers was their ability to read. Even though the generation was going away from the traditional pages of books, envelopes of mails and sheets of flyers, people must not went away but rather are improved more in reading. In a study conducted by J.M. Querubin (2009) on Factors that Affect Comprehension level of second year students conducted in Saint Louis University Laboratory High School, he had mentioned a press statement released by National Education Association on March 2, 2001 that 56 percent of young people say they read more than 20 books a year, with middle school students reading the most. Some 70 percent of middle school students read more than 10 books a year, compared with only 49 percent of high school students. The press statement showed that there was lesser number of readers in high school compared to those in middle school. According to Sanacore as mentioned by Cynthia T. Parker in her study An Evaluation of Student’s Reading Attitudes: Does Ability Affect Attitude, that to promote a lifetime love of reading should be one of the most important goals in schools. From a young age, most of the people were thought by their parents to read and to love reading by telling children stories during bedtime. At pre-school, the same scenario could be seen. But this should not stop when adolescents enter secondary school or more commonly known as high school. Lately, it seems that schools are moving away from doing this (Parker, 2004).
Reading is a foundation for functioning in school and as a member of society (Parker, 2004). Development of one’s self as well as society, country and the whole world was achieved with the help of reading. Specifically, development could be achieved in reading through appreciation of articles and stories which gave lessons in life. Appreciation of reading materials includes applying what one had learned in a reading material and sharing it to the world.
Tunnell, Calder, Justen and Phaup mentioned that reading attitudes are as significant as a student's ability to read (Parker , 2004).
Therefore attitude to reading is necessary. Moreover, Parker (2004) used the definition of reading attitudes by Tunnel, Calder, Justen and Phaup in her study. Reading attitudes has been defined as a system of feelings related to reading which causes the learner to approach or avoid a reading situation. Reading attitude is a person’s feeling towards a reading circumstance which will later on affect how he/she faces each reading circumstances.
The student's attitude toward reading was a central factor affecting their performance as a reader (Parker, 2004). Reading was influenced by or affected in one way or another by the reader itself particularly his attitude. Therefore, to have a better and effective reading, one must have the proper attitude.
According to Sanacore as mentioned by Parker (2004) in her study, educators dealt with the issue of attitude daily in the classroom and were constantly trying to find way in which they can improve their students' attitudes toward reading.
The implications and uses of the findings of this study would be for educators and mentors to improve instruction to better meet students' individual reading attitude needs. It would help them know more about their students reading attitudes and therefore knew what approaches to make in effectively imparting knowledge to their students thus making a better classroom atmosphere and better learning experience. On the other hand it would also intend to aid students by corresponding to their needs. However, this paper is limited to a study of reading attitudes of students.
In addition, Andrew Gonzales (2003) said that in comparing talents, one had better look not on genetic factors or nature but in nurture. In comparing what was given to a person and his or her competencies, one must look on what the person would do on that certain gift, not the gift itself. Same is through with the students of today, different students have different attitudes towards reading thus mentors must let them improve their reading attitudes preparing them to be more competent and successful individuals.
According to Davies & Brember as cited by Parker (2004) in her study, children's understanding of the purposes for learning to read and developing a positive attitude toward reading are fundamental to their attitudes as adults. Having developed the proper reading attitude of students at a young age would aid them at present especially in their academics. It may have aided them in classroom activities such as participating and also in the evaluation part of student’s life which is the examinations. Furthermore, it may also have aided them in the application part of their lives such as in communications and socialization. But most especially, reading attitude formed their self. Proper reading attitude aided students in his or her holistic development. If a student kept on avoiding reading, he or she may bring this attitude in her life. In the future, he or she may be a person who does not face each problem that comes, always finding ways to escape from it. On the other hand a student who liked exploring different reading materials may become an adventurous person someday.
According to Lazarus and Callahan as cited by Parker (2004), reading attitude also fulfils a pivotal role in the development and use of lifelong reading skills. Since reading was essential in all professions, especially in imparting knowledge and information as well as in communications, it was also necessary to develop the proper reading skills that will aid the present students a life time. Students could developed these reading skills by knowing how to facing each reading circumstance correctly.
As the famous saying by Zig Ziglar (2012) goes, “It is not your aptitude, but your attitude, that determines your altitude”. In life, a person’s attitude towards life determined his or her successes and/or failures. This was same through with reading.
Moreover, a study conducted by Cynthia T. Parker (2004) on elementary students, it was found out that the students studied who were not identified as academically and intellectually gifted had higher attitude scores toward recreational reading in comparison with the students who are identified. On the other hand, the not identified students in this study had higher attitude scores towards academic reading in comparison with the students who are identified. Therefore, skills affects one’s reading attitude towards different kinds of reading. Nevertheless, proper reading attitude affects, develops and enhances one’s reading skills and capabilities that will pave way for success.
It is important to determine the reading attitudes of students so that at an early age, the mentors would be able to improve its weaknesses and maintain its strengths. Furthermore, knowing reading attitude of each student or the whole group of students will help the mentors provide the approaches to be made for effective teaching.
Whenever they thought of attitudes, they often times thought of the negative side, the attitude problems. But there were also positive attitudes which when discovered may be emulated, that will aid the people in all aspects of life: physical, social, emotional, spiritual and mental. Positive habits would brought someone fulfillment every time they were successfully carried out (Querubin, 2011). The researcher believes that positive attitude to reading cannot be developed overnight. They say it takes 6 weeks to develop a habit, but only 2 to break it (Querubin, 2011). Therefore molding the students for a success through molding their attitudes requires patience.
The study aimed to look into the different reading attitudes of students. The population was those students of Saint Louis University – Laboratory High School.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This section presented the concepts which served as legal basis to describe properly the process of the study. It also presented the definitions of some words to be used in the research.
Reading as a Process One form of acquiring knowledge is through reading. Gambrell, Morrow and Pennigton (2002) used the definition of Galda which defined reading as ‘transaction with a text’. The reader brings meaning to a text in order to create meaning from it. The same view was shared by Webster’s Dictionary as mentioned by Jose Mari Querubin (2011) in his study Factors that Affect Comprehension Level of Second Year Students. He stated that reading is a means of acquisition, of communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Like all language, it is a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is shaped by reader’s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude and language community which is culturally and socially situated. The reading process requires continuous practices, development and refinement.
In addition, Staiger (2006) mentioned in his study the definition of Bond and Tinker. They defined reading as the recognition of printed or written symbols which served as stimuli for the recall of meanings built up through the reader’s past experience.
As mentioned in the study of Gokhan (2012), Allen and Bruton defined reading as a complex process of making meaning from a text, for variety of purposes and in a wide range of contexts.
Reading Attitude as a System of Feelings
As mentioned earlier, reading attitudes was viewed as a system of feelings related to reading which caused the learner to approach or avoid a reading situation (Parker, 2004).
In other words, reading attitudes were the feelings of a reader towards reading, which later on will have effects on the act of reading and furthermore affect the comprehension of the reader.
According to Tunnell, Calder, Justen and Phaup as cited by Parker (2004), a student’s feelings towards reading may later on affect his/ her level of understanding of the text. Hence, reading attitudes are significant as a student's ability to read.
Influences on Reading Development The context in which students live and learn influences the way they developed reading skills. Students’ reading attitudes were positively and/or negatively shaped by innate, family and school factors. These factors influence the way students perceived themselves as readers and the degree to which they were motivated to engage in reading (Black, 2006). She enumerated these influences on reading in her study Attitudes to Reading: An Investigation across the Primary Year Students. These were Innate Influences, Family Influences and School Influences.
Innate Influences Innate influences are crucial determinants of students’ level of reading engagement and their type of attitudes. These included students’ motivation to read, individual self-efficacy, and curiosity (Black, 2006). These influences in feeling of readers toward reading were in the reader itself.
According to Hidi and Harackiewicz as cited in the work of Anne Marie L. Black (2006), intrinsic motivation is the desire to engage in an activity for enjoyment or personal pleasure or to satisfy curiosity. On the other hand, extrinsically motivated students complete activities to comply with social group pressures or to avoid punishment and do not complete reading tasks for personal enjoyment or pleasure.
On the other hand, mentioned by Black (2006) in her study the ideas of Kostelecky and Hoskinson, that curiosity influences students’ motivation to read and is a complex trait that motivates them to seek and explore a wide variety of unique stimuli. She also mentioned the idea of Gutherie and Wigfield about curiosity which stated that curiosity is an internal factor that guides students to want to know more about a given topic, to fulfill an innate desire to learn about and understand their world.
Black (2006) also shared in her study the ideas of Bandura that self-efficacy influences students’ motivation to read and is the internal judgments and beliefs people have regarding their capabilities to perform actions required to achieve a confident and designated level of achievement. She also mentioned the idea of Pajares which stated that students’ perceived beliefs about their own reading competence are as significant an indicator of student reading attitude as measures of actual reading competence. According to Cole as mentioned by Black (2006), students’ self-beliefs about reading can be affected by the environment in which they live and learn and both past and present experiences can have an effect. Pajares furthermore explained that positive verbal communication from teachers and parents/guardians enhances students’ sense of self-efficacy and motivates students to engage in reading activities.
Family Influences Family is the basic unit of the community. It is within the four walls of the home that one’s values were formed. They looked at their parents, siblings and even extended families as role models and let them mold and influence one’s activities such as reading.
Black (2004) mentioned in her study some ideas of Love and Hamston that reading involves using a set of practices embedded in social relationships of a particular family and their community culture. She added the ideas of McCarthy and Moje that a student’s identity as a reader is regarded as relational and hybrid since Identities are constructed from the range of experiences and relationships people have over their lifetime.
In simpler sense, each of the family members influenced a student or a child’s identity as a reader. Simple routines such as storytelling and simple reminders that let their children engage in academic reading would affect the attitude of the student.
School Influences
Particular students are empowered or disempowered because schools provide unequal access to literacy and reinforce the cultural capital of certain social and cultural groups. The capital some students gather into their ‘backpack’ and bring to school is more valid in certain contexts than others (Black, 2006).
In school, students brought with them their own culture and beliefs at the same time preparing these to be shown and be shared. The school made it possible for students to exchange culture and beliefs, thus influencing one another. It was also in school where students learn from their mentors. Teachers must reflect critically on how class reading practices position students as either achievers or those who will fail. A curriculum needed to be planned and implemented that addresses social, cultural and learning needs of all students (Black, 2006).
According to Turner and Paris as mentioned by Black (2006), activities students engage in influence what they regard as reading, the importance of reading, and the impact of reading in their life.
Under School Influences on reading are two kinds of reading which were recreational reading and academic reading. Since the research is about the reading attitudes of students, the research would be focused more on these areas of reading.
School-based Reading Activities Black (2006) mentioned in her study the ideas of McCarthy and Moje that school-based recreational and academic reading activities promote and challenge students’ identity as a reader and their attitude towards reading.
In the study, the researcher aims to determine the reading attitude of students on these two classifications of reading activities which were recreational reading and academic reading.
Recreational Reading
Recreational reading was a reading that is done for relaxation or amusement, or to satisfy interests unrelated to educational or vocational obligations. It is also defined as reading for personal enjoyment (Black, 2006).
In simple terms, recreational reading was not related to any aspects of school. It was a reading classification in which the act of reading was not mandated by teachers to students or not performed by students for the sake of grades and participation in class. Furthermore, it was a reading act freely done by a student without being told to do so and no connections to subject matters. The study will be discussing how the students feel during recreational reading.
Academic Reading
Academic reading was complex, multi-level and different from other kinds of reading. Academic reading was purposeful and critical reading of a range of lengthy academic texts for completing the study of specific major subject areas. Academic reading was extended reading of a range of texts varying in length (Sengupta, 2002).
Classroom practices influence students’ academic reading attitudes and the extent to which they engage in reading activities (Black, 2006).
Thus, academic reading may be any reading act related to school subjects. There were some factors that urge a student to read such as grades, participation in class and teachers. School, particularly in each classroom, greatly shaped and influenced reading attitudes of students through their activities and routinely task. The study will be discussing how the students felt during academic reading.
The following paradigm had served as a guide in order to understand the study.
The basis or input in this study was the reading attitude of students at particular reading activities such as recreational reading and academic reading. Another input in the study was the different factors that influence one’s reading attitude namely the innate influences, family influences and school influences.
The process of the study included evaluation of students’ reading attitudes and its influences which will help in planning of effective approaches in teaching to students given these reading attitudes of students.
The expected outcome would be a more effective way of imparting knowledge and a better reading experience.

OUTPUT
PROCESS
INPUT

More effective way of imparting knowledge and a better reading experience. * Evaluation of students’ reading attitudes and its influences. * Planning of effective approaches in teaching given these reading attitudes of students.

* Reading Attitudes of Students * Recreational reading * Academic reading * Influences on Reading Development

Figure 1: Paradigm of the Study

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study aimed to identify the reading attitudes of students of Saint Louis University Laboratory High School of the school year 2012-2013.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the reading attitudes of the students of Saint Louis University Laboratory High School? 2. What are the factors affecting the reading attitudes of the students of Saint Louis University Laboratory High School?

CHAPTER II
METHOD AND PROCEDURES

This chapter presented the method which was used in evaluating the reading attitudes of the students of Saint Louis University-Laboratory High School for the school year 2012-2013.
It also discussed the tool and the procedure used in gathering the data, the population of the students involved in the study and the statistical treatment used in analyzing and interpreting the data.
RESEARCH DESIGN
The descriptive method of research was used in the study. It collected data in order to answer questions about the current status of the subject or topic of study. It uses formal instruments to study preferences, attitudes, practices, concerns, or interests of a sample (Jacobs, 2012)
Descriptive research is non-experimental in that it deals with relationships between non-manipulated variables in a natural rather than artificial setting. (Best, 1991).
According to Gay and Airasian as mentioned by Maseko (2009), the main aim of descriptive research is the exploration and clarification of some phenomena where accurate information is lacking.
In addition, such research is intended to provide thorough descriptions, with a view to providing material and generation assumptions and targets for subsequent research (Maseko, 2009).
Since the study was concerned with the current attitudes or feelings towards reading, in both academic and recreational reading, the reading attitudes of the students was to be described.
Through this method, the normative survey which looked into the reading attitudes of students and commonality of some factors about the study was interpreted through a rubric together with its appropriate description.
POPULATION AND LOCALE OF THE STUDY The focus of the study was conducted in Saint Louis University – Laboratory High School.
The necessary data regarding the sections of the fourth year students was obtained from the Registrar’s Office. As of December 10, 2012, the total population of the students enrolled for the school year was 1546. The researcher had taken representatives from the different year level through stratified sampling. Through the process, the researcher had obtained only 366. The sections that were chosen with the use of the lottery method were the following: Grade 7-Mapagkawanggawa, 7Mapagkaisa, Mapagpakumbaba, 2-Magalang, 3-Mapagkaisa, 3-Mapayapa, 4-Magalang and 4-Mapagkaisa.The total population involved in the study was 189.
The researcher had determined the actual size of the sample with the use of the Sloven’s Formula. The researcher had allotted a margin of error of 5% for economy both in time and resources.
The formula is n= ____N____ 1 + Ne²
Where: n= sampling size
N= population size e= margin of error
The division of the students involved in the study per year level and section can be seen from the table.
Table 1: The Respondents per Section SECTION | TOTAL POPULATION PER CLASS | TOTAL REPONDENTS | 1-Mapagkawanggawa (Sci C)1-Mapagkaisa (E) | 4348 | 2225 | 2-Mapagpakumbaba (Sci A)2-Magalang (B)3-Mapagkaisa (E),3-Mapayapa (F)4-Magalang (B)4-Mapagkaisa (E). | 345045474950 | 182623242526 | TOTAL | 366 | 189 |

DATA GATHERING TOOL
The researcher had consulted varied references and related literature to the study in order to evaluate the reading attitudes of students.
The researcher also had integrated her own experiences and observation of the things that had happened around the school where the researcher conducted the study. The researcher also conducted an informal interview to the students.
The instrument used to collect data is the questionnaire.
The first question was to be answered by the data gathered through a questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on a standardized reading attitude survey by McKenna and Kear (1990). The adapted questionnaire was modified.
For validation purposes, the questionnaire was given to 10 high school students per year level for them to fill up. These students were not included in the study. After they had filled up the copies, they were collected by the researcher to find out the assessment of the questions. Questioned items were revised for more clarity and definiteness.
The second question was to be answered by the data gathered through the same questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on the influences on reading development.
The researcher also conducted an informal interview to the students for more information, clarification and explanation.
DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
The researcher personally asked permission from the head of office and the students involved in the school where she had conducted the study.
A questionnaire based on the common reading attitudes of students and factors affecting these attitudes were prepared and were administered to the students of SLU-LHS.
The use of the questionnaire was very helpful in answering objectively the questions raised in the study.
The questionnaire was administered to the respondents on January 2013. The researcher collected these data during break time and dismissal.
STATISTICAL TREATMENT
The data gathered will be treated statistically.
First, the researcher had consulted varied references and related literature to the study in order to determine the students’ attitudes towards reading in two specific reading activities, namely academic reading and recreational reading, and the factors affecting these attitudes. Then the reading attitudes of students towards the two reading activities and the factors affecting these attitudes were identified through the data gathering tool. The average weighted score was used in order to identify the reading attitudes of students in each reading activity.
The formula is as follows: | ∑ WF_____N | AVS = | | | |

Where in:
AVS = average weighted mean
W = weight
F = frequency
N= number of respondents
∑= summation of score
The kind of reading activity, having the lowest value is the reading activity which gives the students a very negative overall attitude toward reading.
Since reading attitude is defined in the previous chapter as a system of feelings towards reading, in giving the interpretation to the reading attitudes of students in recreational or academic reading activity, the following was used:

RANK | LIMITS | RATE | SYMBOLS | 5 | 4.50-5.00 | Very Positive | VP | 4 | 3.50-4.49 | Positive | P | 3 | 2.50- 3.49 | Averagely Positive | AP | 2 | 1.50-2.49 | Negative | N | 1 | 0.00-1.49 | Very Negative | VN |

On the other hand, the researcher used percentage to identify the factors affecting the reading attitudes of students.
The formula is as follows: | F_____N | % = | | | |

Where in:
F = frequency
N= total number of respondents The factor having the highest percentage will be considered as the most common factor that affects the reading attitudes of students.
In addition, the following interpretation was used in describing the factors that affect reading attitude: PERCENTAGE | RATE | SYMBOLS | 81-100 | Very Common | VC | 61-80 | Common | C | 41-60 | Averagely Common | AC | 21-40 | Uncommon | U | 0-20 | Very Uncommon | VU |

CHAPTER III
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The presentation, analysis and interpretation of gathered data on reading attitudes of students for the School Year 2010-2011 were presented on this chapter.
Reading attitudes of the students of SLU-LHS
Reading attitudes was defined as a system of feelings related to reading which causes the learner to approach or avoid a reading situation (Parker, 2004).
First, the researcher looked into the reading activities in which the reading attitudes of students can be manifested. These reading activities are recreational reading and academic reading.
Table 1: Reading Attitudes of Students in Academic and
Recreational Reading READING ACTIVITY | AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN | DESCRIPTION | Academic Reading | 2. 43 | Negative | Recreational Reading | 2.87 | Averagely Positive | Overall Reading | 2.65 | Averagely Positive |

The table had presented the reading attitudes of Saint Louis University – Laboratory High School.
It could be seen that academic reading, recreational reading and overall reading were described differently but were close in their limits. Academic reading had the weighted mean of 2.43. This was described as “Negative” therefore indicating a relatively indifferent attitude towards academic reading activities.
Academic reading was described as “Negative” as the reading attitude towards the said reading activity because according to the interview conducted with the different students, the subject that does not interest them. They added that the way the reading material was written could also one reason. There were some terms used in the material that they do not understand which greatly affects their understanding of the paragraph as a whole. Another reason was that they were lazy to read their academic books. They lack the motivation to read because they do not enjoy the reading material which will go back to the reason that the reading material or the subject matter does not interest them.
Thus the implication then was that academic reading implores students to have to go the extra effort to read something they're not even interested in. Students were motivated to read academically if the subject matter or the reading material interests them. Moreover, terms which must be further elaborated by subject teachers, also affects students reading attitude.
The type of texts students choose to read depends on their topic of interest, reading ability, and purpose for engagement (Black, 2006). According to Turner and Paris as cited by Anne-Marie L. Black (2006), texts students enjoy most are those they have self-selected and with these they were more likely to expend a higher degree of effort to understand or grasp textual or concept material.
Recreational reading had the weighted mean of 2.87. This was described as “Averagely Positive” as the attitude towards the said reading activity.
Recreational reading was described as “Averagely Positive” as the reading attitude towards the said reading activity because according to the interview conducted with the different students, they prefered reading for pleasure for it is where they read things without a set deadline and without having to write a paper about what they've read. The students also added that they get to choose what they want to read and of course, they choose what interests them. Reading during past time also relives the stress in them.
The implication then was that students will more likely to have a positive reading attitude if no outputs is expected from them. Reading for recreational purposes has become a favorite hobby for a lot of people since recreational reading is a form of meditation and a source of inspiration not only for students but for all people. Also, students had an averagely positive reading attitude towards recreational reading when they were not forced to read but rather they were given the free to choose the kind of reading material, the place and time to read it.
According to worthy as stated by Black (2006), self-selecting texts enhances students’ recreational reading motivation and attitudes as they are able to choose their own texts to match personal reading tastes and interest topics. Reading attitudes improve when academic textual content is personally relevant to students and when there is recreational access to an interesting range of texts.
Overall reading had the weighted mean of 2.65. This was described as “Averagely Positive” therefore indicating a good overall attitude.
Overall reading was described as “Averagely Positive” as the reading attitude because according to a student interviewed, students nowadays prefer on doing something more entertaining in their part like social networking sites and video games since they are more exposed to these modern technologies and innovations.
It could be implied that students’ exposure to various recreational activities may also affect the one’s feeling towards reading as they are attracted to spend their leisure time with different activities.
Despite current advances in information technology and the development of a range of communication tools in the modern world, learning to read and maintaining an interest in reading remain important Black (2006).
Student at present only had an averagely positive overall reading attitude. With a lot of competing leisure activities around, reading books would be a hardly noticeable activity thus developing a lifetime love for reading would be hardly fulfilled.
Therefore it was suggested that reading books must be encourage to children and adolescents both at home and in school.
Students must see reading as valuable and enjoyable if they are to engage in both recreational and academic reading (McKenna & Kear, 1990). The students must value reading and therefore must have a positive attitude towards reading.
Reading for pleasure refers to reading that we do out of our own free will anticipating the satisfaction those we will get from the act of reading. It also refers to reading that having begun at someone else’s request we continue because we are interested in it. It typically involves materials that reflect our own choice, at a time and place that suits us (Clark & Rumbold, 2006). Academic reading may become a recreational reading provided that students will be interested in it.
To improve the student’s reading attitude especially towards academic reading, students must be interested in reading the material which can be influenced by home and school. In this techno-information age, students need to be exposed varied reading materials. They should not only read because it was mandated but rather because they prefered to read with their own choice.
Factors Affecting the Reading Attitudes of the Students
The context in which students live and learn influences the way they develop reading skills. Students’ reading attitudes are positively and/or negatively shaped by innate, family and school factors. These factors influence the way students perceive themselves as readers and the degree to which they are motivated to engage in reading (Black, 2006).
The researcher had consulted first varied references about factors affecting the reading attitudes of students.

Table 2: Factors Affecting the Reading Attitudes of Students FACTORS | PERCENTAGE | DESCRIPTION | Motivation to Read | 46.56 | Averagely Common | Self-Confidence | 28.57 | Uncommon | Curiosity | 47.09 | Averagely Common | Family | 27.51 | Uncommon | School | 30.69 | Uncommon |

The table had presented the factors affecting the reading attitudes of students of all year level of Saint Louis University Laboratory High School.
It could be seen that motivation to read and curiosity were described as “Averagely Common” but were close in their limits. However, curiosity and motivation to read had the highest and very close percentage. Curiosity had the highest percentage of 47.09. This was described as “Averagely Common” factor affecting reading attitude. Curiosity was described as “Averagely Common” as a factor affecting reading attitude because according to the interview conducted with the different students, they said that whenever they were curious, they often try to learn something new or learn more about an old topic. Out of curiosity, that is, to know more about a reading material, students perform reading activities. Thus, out of this curiosity and desire to learn more, they would try to read more to add to their knowledge and satisfy their curiosity.
The implication then was that persons’ curiosity about a certain idea, concept or even a book cover affects how much a person is willing to read. Without curiosity, one will not have the willingness to open a reading material.
In the study of Black (2006), she mentioned a statement of Gutherie and Wigfield that curiosity is an internal factor that guides students to want to know more about a given topic, to fulfill an innate desire to learn about and understand their world. She also mentioned a quote by Yopp and Yopp which states that being curious and wanting to investigate or read something to gain personal understanding enhances task enjoyment and engagement and affects the attitude students have towards reading.
Second in rank was motivation to read which had the percentage of 46.56. This was described as “Averagely Common” factor affecting reading attitude. Based on the interview with some students, they mentioned that the reason motivation to reading had the second highest percentage and was describe as “Averagely Common” as a factor affecting reading attitude was because they found it easier to read and understand what they are reading when they are motivated. It also gave reading, according to them, a more fun and enjoyable experience since they had an objective and thus a desire to read, which gave them a positive attitude towards reading. On the other hand, if they were not motivated to read, they found reading boring and unexciting, which lead them to avoid a reading circumstance.
The implication then was that a persons’ motivation to read encourages students to continue and finish what they had been reading. Without motivation, the students would not be able to enhance and improve their reading attitude towards a certain material.
Clark and Rumbold (2006) mention in their study a statement by Hidi, that is, readers who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to find a variety of topics that interest them and to benefit from an accompanying sense of pleasure. Moreover, Neuman, as cited by Black (2009), said that students’ motivation to read is enhanced by being read to regularly and experiencing the pleasurable dimension of reading.
The factor that got the lowest rank was family influences which had the percentage of 27.51. This was described as “Uncommon” factor affecting reading attitude. According to the interviews with some students, family was the factor that had the lowest percentage because not all students live with both parents or had been living with the complete family members. Moreover, not all parents introduced reading to their children, had a quality time reading as a family and had encouraged them to read.
The implication then was that it is in the family where children first learn to love reading. If children learned to love reading at home and spent quality time with their families in reading activities, they would likely to have a positive reading attitude. Otherwise, they would develop a negative reading attitude.
Baker stated, as mentioned in the study of Clark and Rumbold (2006), that children whose home experiences promote the view that reading is a source of entertainment are likely to become intrinsically motivated to read. Children whose home environment is more cognitively stimulating have higher academic motivation than children whose home is lacking such stimulation. Both home and school equitably contribute to shaping students’ reading attitudes (Black, 2004).
In general, present students did not have a positive overall attitude because they are not influenced properly by the factors affecting these reading attitudes. Students need to be intrinsically motivated for them to develop a positive reading attitude. Having a purpose and being motivated by both the teachers and parents will keep them reading and give them a positive reading attitude thus helping them develop a positive attitude whenever they read. Reading must also start in the four walls of home. At a young age, parents must develop in their children a positive reading attitude and the love of reading. In school, teachers must continuously develop these attitudes and guide the students in reading. In other words, teachers and parents must go hand in hand to develop the children’s positive reading attitude.

Chapter IV
Conclusions and Recommendations
Presented in this chapter are the conclusions based on the findings and the recommendations of the study.
Conclusion
Based on the result of the study, the following conclusions were formed: 1. The reading attitude of Saint Louis University – Laboratory High School students towards academic reading was negative and their attitude towards recreational reading was averagely positive. The students’ overall reading attitude was averagely positive. Reading attitudes of students must be and can be improved. 2. Curiosity was the factor that affect students’ reading attitude which ranked the highest. Motivation to read was the factor that affects the reading attitudes of students which ranked second. Curiosity and motivation to read could affect and help improve students’ reading attitudes.
Recommendations
Based on the study, it was found out that the overall reading attitude of students was averagely positive. Also, curiosity and motivation to read were averagely common factors that affect the reading attitude of students. Thus, the following were recommended: 1. Teachers and parents must motivate and encourage students to read. This encouragement should not stop especially in this technological age. 2. Teachers must facilitate reading activities in class where they are to identify their goal or purpose in reading a certain material before starting reading. 3. Teachers must not let their students be accustomed to reading only for rewards and punishment in order to develop in them intrinsic motivation. This can be done by asking students to bring a book to read and allotting reading period in each grading quarter where they can read it. The teacher must see to it that they only read and avoid making their other requirements during the said time. 4. Teachers in all subject areas must create a classroom where students can see the relevance of their topics to their life. This can be done through experience sharing and open forums. When students see the connection of these in their life, they may be encouraged more to study as well as to read their books. 5. Curiosity must be enhanced in every student. This can be done by having an open classroom atmosphere where queries could be freely raised by any student. 6. Teachers must give reading assignments to students so they will be able to allot time for academic reading. 7. Parents must encourage and constantly remind their children to read their notes beforehand, as to also prepare for examinations. 8. For parents, they must discover ways on how to make their children read, in spite of a lot of recreational activities available, which will make reading enjoyable. 9. For the teachers, they have to discover varied activities that will enhance their students’ curiosity. 10. For the teachers, they have to discover varied and creative strategies in giving reading task to students so that they will enjoy academic as well as recreational reading. 11. For the teachers, they have to discover varied and creative strategies, but not too hard tasks on the part of the students, in order that they do not develop reading avoidance. 12. For the students, they have to allot time each day for reading. 13. To the researchers, it is recommended that an extensive study on academic reading attitudes of students should be conducted in order to evaluate the practices and habits of each student that developed these attitudes. 14. To the researchers, it is also recommended that an extensive study on the effects of the reading attitudes of students should be conducted in order to evaluate the effects of these attitudes in students’ academics, relationships within the family, school and other areas of students’ life. 15. To the researchers, it is also recommended that an evaluative study on the reading attitudes of students per year level be conducted.

REFEREED MATERIALS
A. JOURNALS
Gonzales, A. (2003, August). Is it nature or nurture that encourages achievements. The Teachers Magazine: The Philippine Journal of Education, 82(3), 244.

B. UNPUBLISHED THESES
Querubin, J.M. (2011). Factors that affect comprehension level of second year students (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Saint Louis University Laboratory High School Library. (TP 280).

C. INTERNET
Best. (1991). Research Approach and Designs. Retrieved from http://www.lotsofessays.com/viewpaper/1705744.html

Black, A.L. (2006). Attitudes to reading: An investigation across the primary year students (Master's thesis, Australian Catholic University). Retrieved from http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/digitaltheses/public/adtacuvp136.17052007/02whole.pdf

Clark, C, & Rumbold, K. (2006). Reading for pleasure: A research overview. Retrieved from: http://www.scholastic.com/content/collateral_resources/pdf/i/Reading_for_ pleasure.pdf Gambrell, L.B., Morrow, L.M., & Pennington, C. (2002, February). Early childhood and elementary literature-based instruction: Current perspectives and special issues. Reading Online, 5(6). Available: http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index. asp?HREF=handbook/gambrell/index.html Gökhan B. (2012, June). Reading attitudes of high school students: An analysis from different variables. Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications,3. Available: http://www.ijonte.org/FileUpload/ks63207/File/04.bas.pdf

Jacobs, R.M. (2012). Educational research: Descriptive research [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://www83.homepage.villanova.edu/richard.jacobs/index.html

Maseko (2009). An investigation into learner violence in township secondary schools: A socio-educational perspective. Retrieved from http://uir.unisa.ac.za/handle/10500/2134

McKenna, M. C., & Kear, D. J. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, 43(9), 626-639. Retrieved from http://professorgarfield.org

Parker, C.T. (2004). An evaluation of students’ reading attitudes: Does ability affect attitude?. (Master's thesis, University of North Carolina). Retrieved from http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncw/f/parkerc2004-1.pdf

Sengupta, S. (2002, April). Developing academic reading at tertiary level: A longitudinal study tracing conceptual change. The Reading Matrix , 2. Retrieved from http://www.ijonte.org/FileUpload/ks63207/File/04.bas.pdf

Staiger, R.C. (2006). The teaching of reading. International Reading Association. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0000/000045/004510eo.pdf

Toit, C.M. (2001). The recreational reading habits of adolescent readers: A case study (Master's thesis, University of Pretoria). Retrieved from http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/submitted/etd-12192005-115229/unrestricted/dissertation.pdf

Ziglar, H.H. (2011). Crossfit casco bay. Retrieved from: http://crossfitcascobay.com/blog/2011/08/03/its-not-what-happens-to-you-that-determines-how-far-you-will-go-in-life-it-is-how-you-handle-what-happens-to-you-zig-ziglar/

Ziglar, H.H. (2012). Did Zigziglar influence your life?. Retrieved from: http://www.timothy-carter.com/did-zig-ziglar-influence-your-life/

Appendix A
THE QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondent, The researcher is conducting a study on the Reading Attitudes of Students, specifically on the high school students of Saint Louis University – Laboratory High School for the school year 2012-2013. The study aims to gather data to identify attitudes of students towards reading. The researcher requests your cooperation in answering the following questions and assures you of the confidentiality of all answers submitted as well as the respondent’s identity. Thank you and God bless!
Respectfully yours,

Abegail N. Angeles
4-Mapagpakumbaba
The Researcher
-------------------------------------------------

Year Level: ________

The statements in this survey are concerned with the way you feel about reading. There are no right or wrong answers because people have different opinions and feelings about reading. Therefore, it is important that you indicate how you really feel.
Please put a check mark () on the box that corresponds to your answer.

Scale: 4 - Very Happy 3 - Happy 2 - Upset 1 – Very Upset

Situations | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | 1. How do you feel spending free time reading a book? | | | | | 2. How do you feel about reading instead of playing? | | | | | 3. How do you feel about getting a book for a present? | | | | | 4. How do you feel about reading for fun at home? | | | | | 5. How do you feel about reading your school books? | | | | | 6. How do you feel about taking an English exam (reading test)? | | | | | 7. How do you feel when it’s time reading for class? | | | | | 8. How do you feel when a teacher asks you a question about what you read? | | | | |

9. What are the factor(s) that affect your feelings towards reading (reading attitudes)? (You may check more than one.)
__ Motivation to read __ Family __ others (please specify):
__ Self-confidence __ School _____________________
__ Curiosity

Appendix B
THE TABLES

Figure 1: The Respondents per Section SECTION | TOTAL POPULATION PER CLASS | TOTAL REPONDENTS | 1-Mapagkawanggawa (Sci C)1-Mapagkaisa (E) | 4348 | 2225 | 2-Mapagpakumbaba (Sci A)2-Magalang (B)3-Mapagkaisa (E),3-Mapayapa (F)4-Magalang (B)4-Mapagkaisa (E). | 345045474950 | 182623242526 | TOTAL | 366 | 189 |

Table 2: Factors Affecting the Reading Attitudes of Students FACTORS | FREQUENCY | PERCENTAGE | DESCRIPTION | Motivation to Read | 88 | 46.56 | Averagely Common | Self-Confidence | 54 | 28.57 | Uncommon | Curiosity | 89 | 47.09 | Averagely Common | Family | 52 | 27.51 | Uncommon | School | 58 | 30.69 | Uncommon |

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