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Reading Competencies

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Reading Competencies of Grade 1 Pupils of Kids At Heaven Christian Academy by Almira B. Delos Reyes
Master of Arts in Education
Major in Educational Administration

Abstract This study aimed to observed the development of the pupils in Kids At Heaven Christian Academy reading comprehension skills during this period. Four measurements were conducted during this period, and four tests were used as indicators.

1. Introduction

There is not an area in the school curriculum that does not demand an ability to read. Reading skills are an important tool that pupils need to become academically successful. Good readers are better students than poor readers in every subject area.Even when a pupil is studying practical or mathematical subjects he or she has to read instructions before starting to solve the task. When reading a text the goal is to understand its content. It is a process that exceeds decoding, and includes comprehension processes of the word, sentence, and text level. A child who does not learn to read and comprehend in the early school years has severe difficulties also in studying other school subjects. (Bowyer-Grane & Snowling 2005, 190; McGee & Johnson 2003, 49.)
An important goal of literacy teaching is to awaken pupil’s interest in language and literature and also give them a lasting positive attitude towards reading. The aim is to support the development of pupil’s ability to read, interpret and use different texts. Each pupil should adopt a habit of evaluating and observing himself or herself as a reader. In addition, he or she should learn to select appropriate reading material for different purposes and to find information in various sources. (Merisuo-Storm 2006.)
Attitudes towards reading and writing develop early. A child is likely to adopt a positive attitude when the home provides a rich reading environment that includes books and magazines, and when parents read to their children frequently. When a child observes the members of his or her family reading and writing, it is possible that his or her awareness of the various purposes of the written text increases. Furthermore, in this kind of environment a child may already before going to school obtain a relatively rich vocabulary and a sense of story structure. Consequently he or she often learns to read without struggle and for him or her reading can become a pleasant pastime. (Wallace 1992, 7.)

Language arts concern the ability to communicate with others thoughts and feelings. Likewise, it is used to convey meaning in different forms of communication such as the written, spoken, sign facial, gestures, pantomime art. There are four modes of communication, namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing. The communication art is likewise interrelated with the learner’s behavioral and mental processes. The child’s progress in any communication art depends upon his growth in the others. Thus, instruction that facilities improvement in one communication art is likely to strengthen the gains in the other three communication arts. Language basically is oral. Students should develop their listening and speaking skills side by side with their reading and writing skills. “Listening and reading are active forms of communication ( Alcantara,2003).

“Reading is the mother of all skills; according to Santiago (2003) of Department of Education, National Capital Region. Reading covers the three communication skills. If you are a good listener, you will be able to pronounce correctly. Then, you will develop the speaking skill. Having a wide vocabulary through reading, a person can effectively apply it by means of writing. An important area of difference among the four communication skills is the child’s command of vocabulary. In his preschool years, the child has an extensive vocabulary. He understands far more words and sentence forms than he can utilize in his own oral expression.
Reading is a very important aspect in education because competence in reading can open the door to a world-wide store of knowledge and information. It is a subtle and complex process that involves sensation, perception, comprehension, integration and application. It is a means that enables man to ponder the mysteries of the world, to explore the accumulated knowledge and to contemplate the unknown. It is the magic key to the world of enlightenment and enjoyment. Reading is the basic tool to al subject areas. All subjects in the elementary school such as Arithmetic, Science, Makabayan, Spelling and others, require competence in reading in order to understand the relationship between these subjects.
Reading is a complex process. Reading performance is affected by the number of correlates so that it is not easy to explain why an individual’s reading performance may be satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Those individuals having difficulties in achieving reading skills may be affected by any of the following conditions or factors. Some of these include the physiological,pyschological, environmental, sociological, parent factor, and teacher factor. Each of these factors influences to some extent one’s performance. One of them though may appear to be more dominant influencing factor that the rest.
Being a mother and a first teacher to my kids, to develop reading skills is a sequential and developmental process that involves a program for acquiring and developing reading concepts and skills. It requires more effort in my part and it takes a lot of patient to teach them familiarize the letters in the alphabet down to their sound until they reach the fluency of reading. Traditionally, the purpose of learning to read in a language has been to have access to the literature written in that language. In language instruction, reading materials have traditionally been chosen from literary texts that represent "higher" forms of culture. Reading is an activity with a purpose. A person may read in order to gain information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writer's ideas or writing style. A person may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance knowledge of the language being read. The purpose(s) for reading guide the reader's selection of texts.

The purpose for reading also determines the appropriate approach to reading comprehension. A person who needs to know whether she can afford to eat at a particular restaurant needs to comprehend the pricing information provided on the menu, but does not need to recognize the name of every appetizer listed. A person reading poetry for enjoyment needs to recognize the words the poet uses and the ways they are put together, but does not need to identify main idea and supporting details. However, a person using a scientific article to support an opinion needs to know the vocabulary that is used, understand the facts and cause-effect sequences that are presented, and recognize ideas that are presented as hypotheses and givens. 2. Statement of the Problem/Objectives This study aims to know the reading competencies of Grade 1 Pupils in Kids At Heaven Christian Academy. Specifically the following questions shall be answered: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Sex 1. 2 Age 2. What are the factors in gaining competencies in reading of the Grade 1 pupils of Kids At Heaven Christian Academy : 1.1 a. Interest b. Atittudes 1.2 a. Visual Activity b. Auditory Activity 3. What is the reading assessment of the pupils in Kids At Heaven Christian Academy? 4. What are the hindrances to the development of reading competencies of the pupils of Kids At Heaven Christian Academy?

3.Methodology The study employed the dual method to give more comprehensive picture to know the reading competencies of Grade 1 Pupils in Kids At Heaven Christian Academy. The research used survey question and interviews with the pupils and the teacher as instruments of the study. Questionnaires were distributed to the English/Adviser teacher who is legible and passed the board exam as requirements by the PRC to conduct interviews and question to the respondents. On the first part of the questionnaire, respondents were asked to identify this gender and sex. The second part answered the different factors in gaining competencies in reading by determining their affective part such as their interest and attitudes towards reading, their physical factors that includes the visual and auditory activity. The next question is the reading assessment of the pupils. The last part will identify the respondents the hindrances to the development of their reading competencies. The development categorized strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree and strongly agree. The accomplished questionnaires were tabulated, interpreted and analyzed. Interviews with their English/Adviser teacher were done to verify the responses of the pupils and determine teacher’s observation the overall performance of the respondents with regards to the task in the questionnaire that they have. Related studies conducted also to provide necessary information in giving shape to the questionnaire used, in verifying universal conditions and in making sense of the data gathered and collected.

4. Statistical Treatment of the Data The following statistical tools were used in the presentation, interpretation, and analysis of data: 1. Frequency Distribution – the number of occurrence of respondents in terms of sex and it shows number of cases falling with a given class interval or range of scores. 2. Percentage – this was used for identifying the profile of the respondents according to selected variables. This statistical treatment measured the description of respondents to show the differences of respondents in sex and gender. p = fn *100 Where : p = percentage f = frequency n = total number of respondents

5. Analysis and Interpretation of Data The data gathered and collected were analyzed and interpreted to attain the objectives of this research. Problem 1: What is the profile of the respondent in terms of the following? a. Sex Table 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Sex Sex | Frequency | Percentage | Female | 9 | 0.5625 or 56.25% | Male | 7 | 0.4375 or 43.75% | Total | 16 | 100% | The table above shows that 16 respondents or 56.25 are female and 43.75% are male with a total of 16 respondents from my studies. b. Age Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to their Age Age | Frequency | Percentage | 7 years old | 10 | 0.625 or 62.5% | 6 years old | 6 | 0.375 or 37.5 % | Total | 16 | 100% | Table 2 shows that 62.5% are 7 years of age and 37.5% are 6 years of age with the total of 16 respondents.

Problem 2: What are the factors in gaining competencies in reading of the Grade 1 pupils in Kids At Heaven Christian Academy according to the following: A. Affective Factors 2.1 Interest Table 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to their Interest Interest | Frequency | Percentage | Playing Blocks and Legos | 2 | 0.125 or 12.5% | Computer Games | 3 | 0.1875 or 18.75% | Read/Browse Books | 11 | 0.6875 or 68.75 % | Total | 16 | 100% | Table 3 shows that the respondents who played blocks and legos are 12.5% only while 18.75% played the computer games and majority of the respondents who gathered 68.75% read and browse book. The findings indicate that majority of the pupils in Kids At Heaven Christian Academy read/browse books compared to those playing blocks or legos and computer games. 2.2 Attitudes Table 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to their Attitudes Attitudes | Frequency | Percentage | Very positive in learning to read | 7 | 0.4375 or 43.75% | Willingness to cooperate | 9 | 0.5625 or 56.25% | No indicators of interest in reading | 0 | 0 | Total | 16 | 100% | Table 4 shows that children or the respondents that are positive in learning to read is 43.75% and willingness to cooperate gathered 56.25% meaning almost of the respondents have the willingness to cooperate to read and amazingly no children of my respondents shows no indicators of interest in reading.

B. Physical Factors
2.1 Visual Activity Table 5 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Visual Activity Visual Activity | Frequency | Percentage | The pupils have very good eyesight | 16 | 100% | There is a problem in eyesight | 0 | | Total | 16 | 100% | Table 5 shows that all of the respondents are very good in eyesight. No indicators of problem in eyesight. The findings indicate that 100% of them are very good in eyesight. 2.2 Auditory Activity Table 6 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Auditory Activity Auditory Activity | Frequency | Percentage | There is indication of hearing difficulties. | 1 | 0.0625 0r 6.25% | No indication of hearing difficulties | 15 | 0.9375 or 93.75% | Total | 16 | 100% | Table 6 shows that 93.75% of the respondents have no indicators of hearing difficulties and only 6.25% of the respondents show that there is the indication of hearing difficulties.

Problem 3: What are the reading assessments of the Grade 1 Pupils of Kids Heaven Christian Academy? Table 6 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Reading Assessment

Reading Assessment | Frequency | Distribution | Child shows great potential to become a good reader | 13 | 18.84% | Child show difficulty to read long words | 11 | 15.94% | Has the capacity to understand and explain the material | 10 | 14.49% | Possess a limited sight of vocabulary | 8 | 11.59% | Fluently express of what he knows. | 8 | 11.59% | Weak in blending sound together. | 4 | 5.80% | Cannot write a lot of words during exam. | 7 | 10.14% | Finger pointing in reading aloud | 8 | 11.59% | Total Votes: | 69 | 100% | Table 6 illustrates the comparison in each respondent. The total numbers of votes are 69. It shows that18.84% of the respondents shows great potential to become a goo reader. 15.94% of the total respondents show difficulty to read long words. 14.49% of them have the capacity to understand and explain the material. And it shows that 11.59% of the respondents possess a limited sight of vocabulary, fluently express of what he/she knows and finger pointing in reading aloud. 5.80% of the respondent as well shows weak in blending sound together. And 10.14% of the respondent cannot write a lot of words during exam. The findings show that pupils in Grade 1 pupils, shows great potential to become a good reader than other given assessment.

Problem 4: What are the hindrances to the development of Reading Competencies of the Pupils? Table 7 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to the Hindrances to the Development of Reading Competencies

Hindrances… | Frequency | Distribution | 1. A non- encouraging reading home environment. | 36 | 8.55% | 2. A non-encouraging reading classroom environment | 29 | 6.89% | 3. Vision problems. | 34 | 8.08% | 4. Lack of interest in the book. | 45 | 10.69% | 5.Hearing (Deafness/Hard of hearing) | 27 | 6.41% | 6. Lack of support by the parents | 28 | 6.65% | 7. Poor health condition | 35 | 8.31% | 8. Cultural Differences/Dialect | 30 | 7.13% | 9. Lack of strong vocabulary base | 38 | 9.03% | 10. Family Problem | 36 | 8.55% | 11. Emotional disturbance | 32 | 7.60% | 12. No -intelligence with the ability to learn in reading. | 51 | 12.11% | Total | 421 | 100% | Table 7 shows what are the different hindrances to the development of reading competencies. It illustrates that 12.11% of the pupils of grade 1 in Kids Heaven Christian Academy possess intelligence with the ability to learn in reading. 10.69% of the respondents are lack of interest in the book. 9.03% of them have lack of strong vocabulary base while 8.55% of the respondents show that family problems and a non-encouraging reading home environment are the cause. Poor health condition 8.31%.8.08% of the respondents has vision problems. Some has emotional disturbances with 7.60%. 7.13% of them have cultural differences/dialect the other hand; a non-encouraging reading classroom environment gathered 6.89 of the respondents.6.65% of the respondents has lack of support by the parents. Some of them has hearing problem with 6.41%. The findings illustrates that the no intelligence with the ability in reading shows the big factor of the hindrance in the development of reading followed by lack of interest in the book of the respondents. 6. Discussion/Conclusion/Recommendation

In the light of the findings presented in this study the following are hereby presented:

1. Pupils:

The pupils should exert greater effort in reading and studying. Willingness and determination to learn and show interest in the book must they possess. They must serious in reading even when they got home. 2.Parents Why? This is the question we parents are always trying to answer. As a parent, you can awaken your children to joy of learning while reading by encouraging their imagination. Support the kids what they do. When the parents help their children learn to, they help open door to a new world. You can begin an endless chain. Give enough time to the kids. Read with your child and make this all-important time together enjoyable. Stimulate your child’s interest in reading and language and learn about your child’s school reading programs and find ways to be available. 3. Faculty/Teacher The teacher should continue to encourage pupils in exerting their efforts to achieve better in reading. The teacher-student relationship is very important for the children achieve the better reading style. This research which identified the reading competencies of Grade 1 pupils found out that the respondents have gain competence in reading. They are more interested and willing to cooperate. When it comes to school and learning, the attitudes of teacher and families regarding reading habit affects the competencies of each child. Educational psychologists have found fundamental differences in the factors of motivating in each individual needs.


Barton, J. & Sawyer, D.M. (2003). Our students are ready for this: Comprehension instruction in the elementary school. The Reading Teacher 57 (4), 334�347. Biemiller, A. (2003). Vocabulary: Needed if more children are to read well. Reading Psychology 24 (3/4), 323�335. Bimmel, P. & van Schooten, E. (2004). The relationship between strategic reading activities and reading comprehension. L1 � Educational Studies in Language and Literature 4 (1), 85�102. Bowyer-Grane, C. & Snowling, M.J. (2005). Assessing children�s inference generation: What do tests of reading comprehension measure? British Journal of Educational Psychology 75 (2), 189�201.

Letter of Request

Michelle Trixia A. Agdon
School Head/Administrator

Dear Ms. Trixia,

My name is Almira B. Delos Reyes and I am a student in University of Batangas in Batangas City. The research I wish to conduct for my Masters Degree involves in “Reading Competencies of Grade 1 Pupils in Kids Heaven Christian Academy”. This project will be conducted by Ms. Ryna Rose de Torres their school adviser.

I am hereby seeking your consent for a survey to your pupils and rest assured that their response will be kept confidential.

Respectfully Yours,

Almira B. Delos Reyes Researcher

Appendix II
Letter to Respondents

Michelle Trixia A. Agdon
School Head/Principal

Dear Sir/Madam,

Good Day!

The undersigned below is a student of Master of Arts in Educational Management. May I request to be one of my research participants in study entitled “ Reading Competencies of Grade 1 Pupils in Kids at Heaven Christian Academy. Your favorable action and approval regarding this request will be highly appreciated. Rest assured that my information that you supply will be treated with the utmost confidentiality and anonymity. Thank you for your kind consideration.

Respectfully Yours,
Almira B. Delos Reyes Researcher

Appendix III
Survey Questions

I. Student Background
Student Name: ________________________________________________ Age: _______________
School: __________________________________________________________________________

II. Factors in gaining competence in Reading of the pupils.
Direction: Shade the box in which the students are making adequate response in their reading competencies. Play blocks and legos | Computer Games | Read/ Browse books | 3.1 Affective Factors

Interest Attitudes

Very positive in learning to read. | Willingness to cooperate | No indicators of interest for reading. | There is indication of hearing difficulties. | No indication of hearing difficulties. | |
2.2 Physical Factors

Visual Activity Auditory Acuity The pupils has very good eyesight. | There is a problem in eyesight. | |


I. Reading Assessment of the Pupils

Direction: To determine the reading competencies, the pupils were given a list of sentences to read aloud by the teachers. Kindly check the blank on where the respondent belongs.
_____________1. Does the child show great potential to become a good reader?
_____________2. Does the child show difficulty to read long words?
_____________3. Has the capacity to understand and explain the material.
_____________4. Possess a limited sight of vocabulary.
_____________5. He/she fluently express of what he knows.
_____________6. Weak in blending sound together.
_____________7. He cannot write a lot of words during testing.
_____________8. Finger pointing when he is reading aloud.

II. Hindrances to the Development of Reading Competencies of the Pupils.
Direction: The following statements represent opinion. Check the numbers of your choice.

Strongly Agree 5 Disagree 2 Agree 4 Strongly Disagree 1 Uncertain 3

| (SA)
5 | (A)
4 | (U)
3 | (D)
2 | (SD)
1 | 1. A non- encouraging reading home environment. | | | | | | 2. A non-encouraging reading classroom environment. | | | | | | 3. Vision problems. | | | | | | 4. Lack of interest in the book. | | | | | | 5. Hearing (Deafness/Hard of hearing) | | | | | | 6. Lack of support by the parents | | | | | | 7. Poor health condition | | | | | | 8. Cultural Differences/Dialect | | | | | | 9. Lack of strong vocabulary base | | | | | | 10. Family Problem | | | | | | 11. Emotional disturbance | | | | | | 12. Intelligence with the ability to learn in reading. | | | | | |

Appendix IV
Curriculum Vitae
Manghinao Proper, Bauan Batangas
Cell #: 09258043078
Email Add:

June 2013 – March 2104 University of Batangas
Master of Arts in Education June 2010-October 2010
Major in Educational Administration Certificate of Teaching Program June 1998 – March 2002
Bachelor of Science in Commerce
Major in Business Management WORK EXPERIENCE

Observing Teacher : University of Batangas (High School Department) Bolbok Elementary School (Grade 1-6)
Administrative Staff : Kids At Heaven Christian Academy Bauan, Batangas November 22, 2010
Faculty/Teacher : Kids At Heaven Christian academy Bauan, Batangas March 2011 – March 2104
Teacher 1 : Dep-Ed (Coral na Munti National High School) Coral na Munti Agoncillo, Batangas June 2 up to present PERSONAL DATA

Age : 35
Birth Date : Cansojong Talisay Cebu
Gender : Female
Civil Status : Married
Religion : Catholic
Nationality : Filpino

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