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SCHOOL OF LAW
Assessment on the Effect of Filming Activities on public and individual level in Gondar Town
Prepared by:
Name ID no 1. Ethiopia Getachew------------------------------------------------3446/03 2. Berhe Gessesew---------------------------------------------------3441/03 3. Heyredin Ahmedin------------------------------------------------3460/03 4. Kirubel Fikre------------------------------------------------------3448/03 5. Kassahun Zeleke---------------------------------------------------3446/03 6. Petros Dea----------------------------------------------------------3489/03 7. Goitom Birhane----------------------------------------------------3454/03 8. Abinet Kumsa-------------------------------------------------------3446/03 9. Wubetu Melkamu--------------------------------------------------3501/03 Submitted to: Ins. Muluken G.
Submission date: May, 2/2013

Acknowledgment
Our first and foremost gratitude is forwarded to the respondents who deliver us their kind support in filling the questionnaires and to respond for our causal interview as the responses they provide determine the analysis & conclusion of the research.
We would also like to offer our heart full thanks to our Instructors, of legislative drafting Ato mulken who make us to study on this area
Finally our thanks goes to the secretary who, prepared this final report paper.

List of tables
Table 1- The effect of filming activities conducted across the roads of the town on the normal traffic follow-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 2-Problems occurred due to filming activities conducted across the roads (for the purpose stated under table 1 above). -------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 3 - The status of video taping and photography by foreigners. --------------------------
Table 4. - The effect of filming activates through noise pollution on the inhabitants of Gondar town. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Table 5; this table has a question to identify whether there is an established institution which takes responsibility to control and supervise the filming activity in Gondar town. -----------------------
Table 6: Regarding existence of any governmental intuition that controls their activities. -----
Table 7: Regarding the time and place limitation to perform filming activates taking place out of regular studios. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Definition of term
Cinematography=the art of technique of motion picture photo graph.
Photography= the art practice or occupational taking and printing photographs.
Filming activities=videotaping, filming, photography, sound records.
Commercial filming=taking of video and photograph pictures for either to sale, promotion, advertizing and for film production.

Table of contents
Contents page
Acknowledgment………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Acronyms…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Definition of terms……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
List of tables……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Table of contents………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of the study…………………………………………………………………………………………..
1.2 Statement of the problem…………………………………………………………………………………………
1.3 Hypothesis....................................................................................................................... 1.4 objective of the study……………………………………................................................
1.4.1 General objective…………………………………………………………………………
1.4.2 Specific objective………………………………………………………………………
1.5 Research methodology……………………………………………………………….
1.5.1 Description of study area……………………………………………………………
1.5.2 Research method (methods of data analysis)…………………………………………….
1.5.3 Sample size and sampling techniques…………………………………………………..
1.5.4. Data sources……………………………………………………………………………..
1.5.5 Data collection method………………………………………………………………..
1.6 scope of the study…………………………………………………………………. 1.7 limitation of the stud…………………………………………………………………… 1.8 Organization of the paper………………………………………………………………
CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2.1 Definition of filming and commercial filming ………………………………………………………………
2.2 Photography and the law…………………………………………………………………………………………
CHAPTER THREE
Data Analyzation and Interpretation…………………………………………………………
3.1 Analization and interpretation of data taken from the town dwellers……………………
3.2 Anlyization and interpretation of data taken form the town administrative bodies………
CAHPTER 4
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION………………………………………………………………………….
4.1 conclusions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4.2 Recommendation……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
4.2.1 Institutional related measures…………………………………………………………………………………..
4.2.2 Legal measures …………………………………………………………………………………………………

Abstract
This study is aimed at overall assessment of the effect of filming activities conducted in Gondar town. Especially the study focus the investigation of effects of filming activities conducted in public places such as; across the roads in light with normal flow of traffic, privacy matters and whether the town administration gets appropriate fee from such activities. Besides the study had also specific objectives such as examine whether filming activities are regulated by an established autonomist responsible organ and their effect on secrecy matters.
In order to accomplish these objectives, the researchers employed dominantly primary sources. The primary data we gathered through questionnaires, interviews and observations. Secondary data is employed for literature review purpose as no secondary data was accessible except internet websites. The analysis of this paper was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques but dominantly quantitative technique.
The findings of this study revealed that the filming activates conducted in Gondar town are not regulated and no responsible institution which control and supervise these activates thus, it shows as they have negative impact on the society that seeks remedy. The researchers recommended appropriate remedies to be taken.

Chapter one 1.1 Background of the study
Gondar town situated at northern part of the country, in northern Gondar part of ANRS, is endowed with the natural and man made (historical, recent) beautiful and attractive sites. The town is the destination of tourists whether from abroad or from other parts of Ethiopia. Like in other parts of the country, there are also cultural ceremonies, such as; wedding ceremony, religious celebration (such as epiphany, meskil festival). Among the man made historical sites; Fasiledas palaces, Fasiledas swimming pool, kuskuam church are the major one.
Due to those cultural and religious practices and as the town is a center of tourist attraction, so many people from a board or from other parties of the country conducts filming activities such video taping and photographing in the town.
The filming activities are conducted for different purpose whether for entertainment (especially during celebration of marriage and at graduation days) ,for commercial purpose(to sale the pictures or to made film production) or for any other purpose. During celebration of marriage the celebrating peoples goes through the main roads and conduct video taping while they entertain using a considerable number of vehicles. This is becoming a customary practice in the town. During graduation days, the graduating students goes to the main site such as Tewodros memorial monument , Fasileds palace and other recreational area for photography and video taping whether with their families, friends ,classmates, dorm mates etc.
As we said above foreign nationals also conduct filming activities on the town whether when they came to visit the town of when the pass through the town. Especially when they came to visit the town they conduct video tapping, recording and take photo pictures of any thing they want moving across the town. Even they took the picture of individual and historical heritages they want. 1.2 Statement of the problem
When the filming activities are conducted in the town there are so many apparent problems occurred do to that activity. In the first place the filming activity conducted for entertainment such as during marriage ceremony; a vehicle in the carnival moves slowly for the sake of video tapping, it crowds and hampers the normal traffic flow. It is barrier for the day to day social activity as it becomes case of delay for those who hurry to reach on time at their work place, private business, appointment (e.g. attorney client litigation appointment ) when the normal traffic flow is hampered there are occurrences which negatively affect the society such as theft, robbery, car accident for instance if there is a single individual who is an imminent danger of injury or illness who seeks to reach at hospital or other health center in a certain short time through ambulance, his or her chance will be denied in such events . Thus the people is scarifying its golden time even its life and suffer from devastating impacts for entertaining others. The filming activity during graduation days and other times has also such like impact. For instance a considerable number of students go to Tewodros memorial monument for photograph purpose. But such monument is situated at the main vehicle flowing area (i.e. piazza). During that time the normal traffic flow is hampered and even that public property is endangered .Since it is public property the town administration have to collect fee for such activity. In case where the film activity is conducted it may hurt the government secrecy and /or security matters .There is no law or established institution to control thus activity whether through restricting particular area or through issuance of prior permits. Even the town administration is not collecting fees in light with the service it renders. Concerning with privacy of individuals, taking pictures of them with out their consent also offends their privacy right. Through out the town the foreigners conduct photography and video taping with nobody consent. They may use such photos or films for commercial purpose i.e. for sale, promotion, advertisement or film productions.
Restrictions on photography and videotaping are not covered by laws and the absence of any established instruction to control that area may result taking individuals activity through video taping and record and taking of their photography by any one and can follow danger and is violence to their privacy as such should be noted and respected. Even though, the government (town administration) is allocating certain budget, for the protection and preservation of some selected locations; such as Fasiledes palace, Fasiledes swimming pool, Tewodros memorial monuments and other tourist sites;it is not getting appropriate fee .

1.3 Hypothesis As per they identification of the problem we formulate the hypothesis as follows.
The effect of filming activities on social, economic and secrecy matters in Gondar town. 1.4 objective of the study
1.4.1 General objective * To investigate and understood the impacts of under regulated timing activities at individual and a public level. * To set possible available remedies through enacting a law after the detail problems are empirically proved.

1.4.2 Specific objective * To assess the impact of filming activities on day to day activities of the society. * To assess the impact of filming activity on the privacy of individuals and on secrecy matters at government level. * To evaluate whether the town administration is collecting appropriate fee from that particular activity. * To identify the places , where such activity is frequently practiced (to help us setting the available remedies) * To identify certain locations that requires special protection and prior permit to conduct filming activities there. * To examine how photographing activities in any public or private place or to taking picture of a single individual could be controlled. * To asses whether the sounds released during filming activities results noise pollution. * To examine how and when filming activities should be conducted. * This research could also help, as input for perspective researches in relation to this area. * To identify the responsible institutions who engage in controlling that activity. 1.5 Research methodology
1.5.1 Description of study area The researchers selected sites which have necessary information concerning the study. The site of the study area covers from Arada up to university of Gondar president office in which the main road crosses. Further they take two sample sites of Azezo. The reason why select those site is ,because they are areas where filming activities frequently practiced where there are marriage ceremonies, carnivals, graduation days. Because they have different recreational area such as Maraki view recreation, Tabor recreation, and good hotels like Florida international hotel, Quara hotel, Hard rock , Dashen beer garden and different historical sites such as Fasiledes palace , kuskuam church ,Tewodros memorial monument etc. that is why we selected those areas, as study area.
1.5.2 Research method (methods of data analysis)
To accomplish the research objectives the researchers used quantitative research method in order to collect data easily to save time and as it are most effective. Even though the above method is that of widely used how ever researcher were employing unstructured interviews to grasp people and officials responses opinions and perceptions and direct observation methods in same instances about filming activities. Open ended closed ended questionnaires were used as the main instrument of the research.
1.5.3 Sample size and sampling techniques
In order to collect primary data the researchers used three different sample size with different sampling producers. In all cases sample sizes were determining by considering financial, time and resource constraints.
Accordingly the sampling technique preferred to the study is deliberative sampling technique. Because in the first sample size i.e. in the case of town administration offices the researchers selected the administrative bodies which have close relation with the matter under study, such as; Gondar town administration, municipality of Gondar town, Gondar town culture and tourism bureau, Gondar town administrative revenue authority and Gondar town traffic office. In case of the second sample size i.e. person who engaged in filming activities out of their regular studio, those who work in the recreational sites are selected as they have relation with the matter under study. In the case of third sample size the dwellers of the town those who live at sides of the asphalted road started from kebele 9 up to Florida (through collage) ,and (up to tabor recreation through hospital) and in Azezo the two main recreational site are selected. The dwellers of the area of the town had equal chance to fill the questionnaires.
Taking in to consideration time and financial constraints the researchers limited the sample size: total of 40 questionnaires; which is 30 for the dwellers town,5 to administrative bodies of the town and five for persons who engaged in filming activity out of their regular studio.

1.5.4. Data sources
The researchers used both primary and secondary sources to obtain the desired information. A. Primary data – primary data is obtained form the dwellers of the town, from the official administrative bodies of the town and from the person who engage in the filming activities through questioners, unstructured interviews and through the direct observation of the researchers. B. Secondary data – in addition to primary sources the researchers also used secondary data source i.e. internet websites to understand other countries experience and any necessary information.
1.5.5 Data collection method One the research sites were selected the research questionnaires were prepared in Amharic version for making it is easily understandable for respondents and distributed to the forty( 40) respondents .when the researches distribute the research questionnaires they were also forward unstructured interviews to get the required information ,then the data was collected by the researchers. 1.6 scope of the study
The study was confined to northern Gondar zone Gondar town this is because the researchers are learning in university of Gondar and they observe apparent problems in the town concerning filming activities. 1.7 limitation of the study
The researchers were faced with different short comings; some of them were lack of data especially secondary data, shortage of money during data collection. Official workers in the town administration office also were refused to give detail information’s related to filming activities due to their work load. 1.8 Organization of the paper
These paper organized in to four chapters: the first part is chapter one which is an introductory part of the paper dealing on background of the study, statement of the problem, the hypothesis the objective of the study ,the research methodology, scope of the study and limitations of the study. The second chapter deals with review of related literature obtained from internet websites. The third chapter deal about data analyization and interpretation. The last chapter compromises the conclusion which deals with finding in summarized manner and the recommendation which possible solution are forwarded by the researchers.

CHAPTER TWO Literature Review
2.1 Definition of filming and commercial filming
Filming refers to the act of making film, cinematography, motion picture photography, picture taking and the act of taking and printing photographs.
Filming activities in different cites is generally more tightly controlled. Filming permits are permits issued by governments to allow the filming of motion pictures. Most states and city has some sort of council or office that handles filming permits. Obtaining film permit are process of location scouting and they are us ally the responsibility of the location manager. Permits are issued prior to the shouting with details about location, data, time, equipment, personnel, special effects, action and stunts. The process of applying for filming permits may include fees and often requires production of insurance.
The filming or electronic videotaping for educational, entertainment or other commercial purpose, other than for news purposes, at any place other than an established motion pictures or television studio requires a filming permit in Los Angles.
Commercial filming permit is defined as digital or film recoding of visual image or sound recording by a person for market audience such as for documentary, television or feature film, advertisement or similar project. Thus, commercial filming permits are required for any filming or photography that involves the use of a model, actor (s) set, or prop: require entry into a closed area or requires access to the park after normal working hours.
Filming refers to the recording on film, video tape, or other medium of movies, commercials, documentaries, serials, shows performances or other similar events or activities, including still photography but not to include the coverage of news political, cultural, local sports or school events.
2.2 Photography and the law
Legal restrictions on photography
In different jurisdictions there is a legal limit to filming activates.

United kingdom- land owners are permitted to impose any conditions they wish up on entry to a property such as ; forbidding and restricting photography, two public locations in UK, Trafalgar square and parliament square have a specific provision against photography for commercial purpose with out the written permission of the mayor or the squares Management Team and paying a fee and permission is needed to photograph and film for commercial purpose in the Royal parks. Besides, persistent or aggressive photography of a single individual may come under the legal definition of harassment. It is a criminal offence of contempt to take photo graph in any court which also leads to a prison sentence; the right to privacy results in restriction on photography or publication.
Greece -
Photography or other depiction of any identifiable person is illegal unless consent has been obtained from the depicted person (s) prior to photography taking a picture of a person in public space requires consent. Taking a photo or video of some one or drawing them in a painting constitutes an illegal act by it self according to article 57 of the Greek civil code even with out any publication of the resulting photo, video or drawing the law assumes that consent has been provided silently if the depicted person has been paid for the photography session.

South Orange village
Under its domestic law Art 140(2) states, no person or organization shall film or permit filming on pubic or private land with the township of Montclair with out first having obtained a permit form the office of municipal cleric, which permit shall set forth the approved location of such filming and the approved duration for such filming by specific reference to day or dates.

CHAPTER THREE Data Analyzation and Interpretation
In this chapter the data collected through quantitative method is analyzed and interpreted in support with the information collected through unstructured interviews and direct observations. So long as one of the method employed by the researchers to gather information is by preparing and distributing questioners, the information obtained are presented in tabular form below.
The interpretation starts with analyzing the information obtained from the dwellers of Gondar town next section are the interpretation and analyization of the data obtained from officials of Gondar town administrative bodies and from those who engaged in filming activities
3.1 Analization and interpretation of data taken from the town dwellers
Table 1- The effect of filming activities conducted across the roads of the town (either for commercial or personal purpose like during marriage ceremonies and graduation days )on the normal traffic follow.

Problem | No of respondents | Percentage % | It affect the normal flow of vehicles | 9 | 30 | It affect the normal flow of pedestrian | 5 | 16.6 | It affect the working time of the people | 4 | 13.3 | More than one of the above(2 all of that | 12 | 40 |

From the effect on the normal traffic flow the majority of respondents i.e. the 12 individual goes for the fact that the filming activities affects the normal flow of vehicle ,pedestrian and working time of the people.
Nine (9) of the respondents replied that the filming activity affect the normal flow of vehicle by making the road crowded by vehicles. This number constitutes 30% of the respondents.
On the same talking 16.7% and 13.4% of the respondents replied the filming activity affect the normal flow of the pedestrians and working time of the people.
Generally this indicates that the filming activity conduct across the road of the town is a barrier of a normal traffic flow of town. If the normal traffic flow of is hampered, it is inevitable the socio economic life of society is affected. because it influence individuals to perform their activities on their time plan.
Table 2-Problems occurred due to filming activities conducted across the roads (for the purpose stated under table 1 above).

problem | No of respondents | [percentage % | Theft and robbery on shops and super markets | 4 | 13.4 | Theft committed on pedestrians | 7 | 23.4 | Traffic accident | 19 | 63.3 |

The problem occurred due to filming activities conducted across the roads are not as such exhaustively listed. The research came up with the above listed main problems
Regarding the negative impact of filming activities the majority of the respondents responds as it has traffic effects on traffic accident, out of total respondents 63.3% says such.
On the same talking a considerable number of individuals go beyond selecting a single problem. This indicates that the problems listed above are almost apparent. and are affecting the people.
Out of the total respondents 23.4 % indicates as theft committed on pedestrians is the filming activities conducting across the roads, while the remaining indicate theft and robbery on shops and super markets are the effect of filming activities conducted across the roads.
From this it can be inferred the impact on the individuals is sever, even it takes away their life through accidents.
Table 3 - The status of video taping and photography by foreigners. This table presents whether video taping and photographic activities conducting by foreigners are based on the free consent of the considered individual or not. The respondent replies as follows. Question | response | no | Percentage | Is it based on consent of individuals? | A, yes | 5 | 16.6 | | B, no | 25 | 83.3 |

As it is the clearly envisaged in the table above the majority of the respondents vote for the fact that foreigners are taking video record and photograph pictures against the consent of inhabitants. From this we infer that, the privacy right of individual is violated, because their picture is taken with out their free consent.
Table 4. - The effect of filming activates through noise pollution on the inhabitants of Gondar town.
This table shows the effect of sounds released through speakers when filming activities are conducted during marriage ceremonies, carnivals etc.

Level of noise pollution | No of respondents | % | A | Very high | 20 | 66.7 | B | High | 4 | 13.3 | C | Medium | 4 | 13.3 | d | Low | 2 | 6 |

Regarding the degree of noise pollution during filming activates 20 respondents w/c constitute 66.7 of the whole replied, as there is a very high noise pollution 13.3% of the respondents said as the noise pollution during filming activates is high while the other 13.3 said, as it is medium. The remaining 2 respondents which constitute 6% of the whole respondents as there is no pollution.
As per the data, it is inferred that the filming activity is also a cause for noise pollution for the dwellers of Gondar town.
The proposed remedies and solutions forwarded by the respondents to reduce the problems related with filming activates are;

* The town administration should have an intuition which control & supervise the filming activates. * There should be a governing law. * There should be a legal permit to take the pictures of some heritages and even to enter in to specific areas. * To take a picture of a single individual (whether by foreigner or by domestic nationals) his/her consent must be asked in advance.
3.2 Anlyization and interpretation of data taken form the town administrative bodies
Table 5; this table has a question to identify whether there is an established institution which takes responsibility to control and supervise the filming activity in Gondar town. Question | Respondents | Yes | No | Is there any institution that takes responsibility to control filming activities? | 1. Gondar town administration office | - | x | | 2. Municipality of Gondar town | - | x | | 3. Gondar town culture and tourism bureau | - | x | | 4. Gondar town administrative revenue authority | - | x | | 5. Gondar town traffic office | - | x | Percentage % | | 100% |
NB: ‘’x’’ This mark represents the “no” Response

As per the finding of this data, there is no established institution which take responsibility to control the filming activates. This is the main problem and gap in the administration. Because on the one hind, the society are affected on their day to day life activates, their privacy and their safety. On the other hand, the town administration doesn’t get an appropriate revenue form such activities.
As per the inquiry of the research through the questioner the town administration revenue authority reveals on its response of the questioner and to the unstructured interviews, the filming activates that conducted either in group, or in individual out of the regular studio or those who have mobile studio are not asked any fee. How ever, soloing as the administration of the office spend some considerable expenditure to protect, renew, modify the sites of attraction and allocate budget to construct additional, comfortable roads and to security personnel’s, it should get corresponding revenue form the activity regularly.
The town administration responds that the reason why appropriate fee is not collected is due to the reason that no institution is established to take responsibility to control, limit and collect the required amount of fee, having its own rule and procedure.
Regarding the place where the filming activates are conducted, the town administrative bodies, have opinions as there should be limitation but in very limited circumstances, i.e. if the public property or the heritage would be exposed to any danger. In addition to this where the video toping or photographing especially by foreigners would hurt the government’s security and secrecy matters, the should be limitation and prohibition.
3.3 Analyzations and interpretation of data taken from those who engage in filming activates.

This data is taken form the film professionals who perform filming activities out of their regular studios. Table 6: Regarding existence of any governmental intuition that controls their activities. Question | Respondents | Percentage | Is there any administrative body that asks you any payment (fee) for filming activates that you perform every where out of the regular studio. | Yes | 3 | 60% | | No | 2 | 40% |

According to the questionnaires 3 of the respondents, replied as the is no government body that control them and ask them an additional fee, to the activities they conduct out of their regular studious. Those, who answered yes; when they explained at the questionnaires, about the payment and the institution which ask them, they cited the town tax authority and the payment is in the form of taxation. Yet, it is for their regular work that identified according to their income assessment as per to the regular studio, not additional fee by controlling and supervising their activates out side their regular studio.

Table 7: Regarding the time and place limitation to perform filming activates taking place out of regular studios. kind of limitation | Response | No | % | Place limitation | Yes | 3 | 60 | | No | 2 | 40 | Time limitation | Yes | 4 | 80 | | No | 1 | 20 |

Three of the respondents that constitute the highest share (60%) indicated as there is no place limitation and the majority of then 80% respond as no time limitation.
The respondents replied as almost there is no limitation of place and time to conduct filming activities except some areas such as Fasiledes palace and Air port. But the absence of time limitation at least results tracffic load. For instance, if the filming activities are conducted at morning about 1:00 – 2:30 local time, that is the time when every one goes to its work place, school, business place, and so on. Where as the time between 6:00- 7:30 local time is the time when gets back to lunch and return to work place and the time from 11:00-12:00 o’clock local time is where the people gets back to home.
Thus, if the filming times are not limited, the traffic load becomes high in those times. This would result different accidents, delay to reach on time (erred punctuality) and generally affect the society.

CAHPTER 4 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION 4.1 conclusions
This paper has attempted to assess and analyze the effects of filming activates in Gondar town. In particular the study explored the impacts of filming activates conduced in public places on the residents day to day activities by blocking the normal traffic flow, and on their privacy right when their pictures are taken with out their consent and its impact on the town administration as it does not collect appropriate fee form the activities or it endangers the secrecy matters. These investigations were addressed dominantly by employing questionnaires and in some situations through observation and unstructured interviews with dwellers and administrative officials. Finally on the basis of quantitative and qualitative analysis of data, the findings of this study are summarized an follows:
The filming activities conducted either for commercial or for personal purpose like during marriage ceremony across the roads affects the normal traffic flow of the town. Besides such activities also results other problems such as theft, robbery and car accidents. The video filming and photography taking place in public places are also not based on the consent of those whose picture is taken.
This research investigated the main factors that cause the problem are; the absence of responsible institution that control and supervise that filming activities conducted out of regular studios and the absence of particular law that govern such activity.

4.2 Recommendation
Based on the findings of this study, the following measures are very important to overcome the problems related with filming activities.

4.2.1 Institutional related measures * There should be formally established separate intuition that take responsibility to control filming activates conducted in the town which have sufficient human resource. * Even though having a separate institution is an appropriate remedy but other administrative institutions such as office of traffic regulation, the culture and tourism management Bureau, the town administration, the police officers of the town have to assist and collaborate with that institution, since the problem touches the whole community.
4.2.2 Legal measures
There should be a law that governs that filming activities of the town that; * Prohibit filming activities at times when there is traffic load. * Prohibit taking pictures with out the consent of the individual. * Prohibit some areas or materials picture to be taken. * Limit amount of fee required. for instance to conduct photography individually or on group in Tewodros memorial monument * That incorporate how complain is heard.
Generally speaking there should be responsible institution and a law that govern this area

--------------------------------------------
[ 2 ]. Definition of filming in web search results(http:// search.babilon.com)
[ 3 ]. http://film L.a.in Los Angeles
[ 4 ]. Ibid
[ 5 ]. www.nps.org/commericial filming
[ 6 ]. http://.filming in town of Mamaroneck
[ 7 ]. www.filming regulations

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