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Red Ocean

In: Business and Management

Submitted By yangan0110
Words 351
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何謂紅海策略、藍海策略?

紅海策略的商場廝殺,就是深陷血流成河的紅海市場,不分敵我都得承受獲利縮減的後果。
真正持久的勝利,不在降價競爭求勝,而是創造「藍海」(blue ocean)-嶄新未開發的市場空間。

「藍海策略」旨在脫離血腥競爭的紅色海洋,創造沒有人與其競爭的市場空間,把競爭變成無關緊要。這種策略致力於增加需求,不再汲汲營營於瓜分不斷縮小的現有需求和衡量競爭對手。

《藍海策略》(Blue Ocean Strategy),作者是金偉燦(W. Chan Kim)與莫伯尼(Renee Mauborgne)兩位歐洲管理學院(INSEAD)的傑出學者。他們針對過去120多年來,30多種不同行業別採取的150多種策略行動(Strategic Move)進行分析,結果發現大多數企業以價格競爭為本位,這樣只會形成廝殺局面慘烈的紅色海洋,而紅色海洋是市場萎縮的頭號殺手。企業的永續成功,需要不斷以創新的精神加上有競爭性的成本概念來經營,才能成為藍海型的企業。

邁向藍海的六大途徑 一) 改造市場疆界 二) 專注於大局而非數字 三) 超越現有需求 四) 策略次序要正確 五) 克服重要組織障礙 六) 把執行納入策略

以經營者的角度來看,我認為後面二大原則尤為重要。因為人通常不願意去接受改變,且缺乏執行力。當新的想法及策略出來以後,如何去與員工溝通及參與,最後克服介於目前的做法(As is)及未來的做法(To be)中間障礙。藍海策略一再強調的全新商場勝出邏輯──經營者不應該把競爭當做標竿,而是要超越競爭,開創自己的藍海商機。企業應該經常用下面四個問題自我檢驗︰ 一) 在自己的行業要成功考量的因素中,有哪些已不適用而應消除(Eliminate)。 二) 有哪些因素應該減少(Reduce)到遠低於行業中的標準規定。 三) 有哪些因素應該提昇(Raise)到遠高於行業中的標準規定。 四) 有哪些因素應該在行業中被創造(Created)出來

這四個問題能協助企業釐清自己的新價值曲線(New Value curve)。接下來我再用書中的第一個成功藍海個案來與大家分享。

夕陽產業也能成功轉型 - 太陽馬戲團

1982年幾個來自魁北克會踩高蹺的年輕人,創建了太陽馬戲團(Cirque Du Soleil)。他們利用過去流浪式表演的馬戲團帳棚做為表演的場地,表演踩高蹺、雜耍、變戲法、吞火等特技。傳統的馬戲團向來都以討好兒童為主,太陽馬戲團不願跟當時的龍頭老大玲玲馬戲團(Ringling Bros. And Barnum & Bailey)競爭。相反的,太陽馬戲團洞悉到當時沒有人瞭望到的藍海。這層體認使太陽馬戲團走出紅色海洋的競爭路線競爭,邁向全新的藍海領域。

太陽馬戲團體認到贏在未來唯一的選擇,就是要徹底跳脫同行競爭,另闢蹊徑,吸引全新客群。因此它「消除」了傳統馬戲的動物表演、中場休息時的叫賣小販;「減少」了特技表演帶來的驚險刺激。然而,太陽馬戲團居然可以「提昇」它的票價,締造前所未有的成功轉型,為什麼?

依據前面提出的四個問題,作者分析,太陽馬戲團「創造」出許多同業沒有提供的價值——它招募一批體操、游泳、和跳水等專業運動員,好讓他們踏上另一座舞台成為肢體的藝術家;它運用炫麗的燈光、華麗的服飾、撼人的音樂加上融合歌舞劇情的節目製作,創造感官上的新體驗。許多成年觀眾以及企業團體因此成了忠實觀眾,這些新客戶讓太陽馬戲團掙脫傳統的桎梏,走上藍海的道路

藍海持續一段時間後會轉紅, 而競爭的優勢是不可能長期存在的, 要不斷的去邁向創新為主,
來打敗其他競爭者, 之後有了創新, 大家都持續模仿, 又要競爭還有創新

紅海策略以競爭為中心 - 鴻海

其代表公司為像鴻海等大型企業-->透過不斷的上下游整合兼併來降低成本擴大自己版圖。

藍海策略以創新為中心 - Skype
其代表公司為像現在最熱門的Skype這類的新興企業或像Apple這類市場已經飽和必須另闢市場的公司-->透過創新的產品(網路電話,iTuns...)來開拓新的版圖。

其實可以看的出來,會以紅海策略為主的公司通常是該業界的龍頭,因為市場一旦飽和就不免產生紅海,這時就需要有藍海策略協助走出困局,可是當新的市場被開發出來後,也會慢慢的出現競爭對手或者市場慢慢的飽和,於是新的紅海又形成了,不過通常賺最多的都是藍海的開拓者,因此策略上應該是當你開拓了新的藍海後就要小心估算著這個領域何時會開始變紅,並開始並且尋找下一個藍海。

藍海策略強調不甩競爭者,才能超越現有的需求,擺脫競爭局面,為顧客創造有價值的創新。認為以創新為中心,有效擴大需求,使產業的框框變大,產生新的領域,新領域沒有競爭者存在或競爭者寡,因而獲利豐厚,企業便得以兼顧成長與獲利。

以經濟學觀點來說,藍海策略創造最大的消費者剩餘,顧客的效益,同時產生比較大的生產者剩餘,獲利。

經濟學也說經濟體系是在價格機能下運作, 競爭市場下, 如果因創新而獲利豐厚, 就吸引新競爭者加入, 瓜分獲利, 藍海立刻染紅

其實藍海不存在,否則就沒有競爭市場的存在 , 藍海不存在,但維持動態創新的策略, 維持領先的創新,先期進入競爭市場, 佔有先期利潤,卻是企業生存之所需

《藍海策略》的作者認為,真正持久的勝利不在競爭求勝,而是創造「藍海」→嶄新未開發的市場空間。作者稱這種策略為「價值創新」→創造重大價值,讓對手相形見絀,無法趕上。

對於企業而言,沒有什麼是不會飽合的市場,所以當一個市場的利潤漸漸被瓜分後,若一直要把成本壓低來創造利潤,消費者到時還是會感到產品沒有獨特性,很容易被消費者所放棄。所以唯一的方法就是去開發一個新的市場,因為若最初踏進這塊未開發的市場,就是最大的贏家

1. 藍海策略 創造新需求 維持高獲利 藍海策略從顧客觀點著手,進行有價值的差異化、策略定價模式與選擇性降低成本;為顧客創造最大效益,同時讓生產者產生最高獲利...... 1980年代以來,廠商奉為圭臬的波特(Michael Porter)競爭策略主流思考,是以競爭為中心的「紅海策略,取得最有利的位置。」。企業首先在產業中做選擇,一旦選定後,產業結構即告確定,並在此結構下,透過策略擬定 一般策略包括低成本、差異化或專注經營於某一特殊市場區隔,透過低成本或差異化,提高公司績效;在產業架構不能改變的前提下,這對所有競爭者是一種零和遊戲。欲達到較佳獲利,常必須根據個別客戶的獨特需求客製化,將市場進一步細分,這樣的策略模式,企業雖然維持獲利,市場並無法成長。

2.紅海策略 以競爭為中心 企業希望差異化,又要成本領導,是否可能?用競爭力公式(競爭力=價值/成本)來看,追求價值的增加,另一方面降低成本,一向是策略的兩難:選擇差異化,只能提高成本;選擇降價,就須大幅刪減成本。 上述「紅海策略」的困難取捨出現了,公司究竟要成長、還是獲利?若要追求營收成長,由於市場競爭者眾,只能以較小的毛利換取較大的數量,接受低獲利的現實,從薄利到微利到現今的奈利,個人電腦及周邊科技產品是最好的實例;或是忍受成長限制,在小市場維持獲利,將客製化做得非常徹底,但由於很難複製,成長空間較少。 因此兼顧營收及獲利成長,不是非常困難就是不符實際。這些是以競爭為中心「紅海策略」的主要思考,也是策略管理理論中產業結構-廠商行為-績效(S-C-P)分析架構的主要精髓。產業的框框一旦固定,在其中競逐較大的市占率,顯然將是殘酷的存亡賽局。 歐洲管理學院教授金偉燦與莫伯尼所提的「藍海策略」,是有別於波特競爭策略的另一種思考。他們認為產業的框架可以改變,以創新為中心,有效擴大需求,使產業的框框變大,產生新的領域,新領域可能沒有競爭者存在或競爭者寡,因而獲利豐厚,企業便得以兼顧成長與獲利。 3.「藍海策略」邏輯的最大差別在於,不僅公司營收可以成長,獲利也可以成長,最重要的關鍵是消費者得到最大價值。其中祕訣是創造有效的新需求,進行有價值的差異化、策略定價模式與選擇性降低成本。以經濟學觀點來說,「藍海策略」創造最大的消費者剩餘(顧客的效益),同時產生比較大的生產者剩餘(獲利)。 「藍海策略」中最常用的例子是Swatch。Swatch將手表計時的理性功能訴求,轉變成時髦的產品。過去一個人一生只擁有一只瑞士表,現在一個人會同時擁有多隻Swatch。此外,Swatch的策略定價在30到100美元之間,與瑞士傳統手表動輒數千、數萬美元差距很大。Swatch顧客平均年齡45歲,成年人,年輕人、小孩子、不同性別對Swatch皆有需求。 為何亞洲公司無法模仿Swatch的模式?因為在設計及製造都出現進入障礙。Swatch將瑞士表原本多而複雜的元件大幅減少,成本也因製程簡化(例如不用螺絲,改用雷射銲接)而大幅下降,即使Swatch在瑞士生產,仍比在亞洲生產更為便宜。Swatch透過將理性訴求轉為感性訴求的價值創造,創造需求,加上成本具競爭力,這便是「藍海策略」的主要精髓。

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