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All students will use the Harvard System of referencing. References are indicated in the text as either “Recent work (Smith 1970)” or “Recently Smith (1970) has found.” Where a direct quotation is used the page number should be noted e.g. (Smith 1970 pg. 17).
All such references should then be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper in accordance with the following conventions:
1. Books surname, forename and/or initials, (year of publication), title, place of publication: publisher, e.g. Baker, Michael J. and Hart, Susan J. (1989), Marketing and Competitive Success, Hemel Hempstead: Philip Allen.
2. Journal Articles surname, forename and/or initials, (year) “title”, journal name, vol, issue, pages, e.g. O’Malley, L. and Tynan, C. (1999), “The Utility of the Relationship Metaphor in Consumer Markets: A Critical Evaluation”, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 587-602.
3. Contributions in books, proceedings, etc. surname, forename and/or initials, (year), “title”, ‘In:’, editor’s surname and/or initials, book title, place of publication: publisher, pages, e.g. Doyle, Peter (1990), “Managing the Marketing Mix”. In: Baker, Michael J, ed., The Marketing Book 2nd Edition, London: Heinemann Ltd., pp. 227-267.
4. Websites / Online resources.
Author/Editor surname, forename and/or initials, (year), “title”[online], place of publication: publisher. Available at: URL, [accessed date] e.g. Baker, Michael J. (1998), “Individual Branding”, Westburn Dictionary of Marketing [online], Helensburgh: Westburn Publishers Ltd. Available at: [Accessed 14th February 2006].
When citing material found on a website, you should identify the authorship of the website. This may be a corporate author, an organisation or a company; a guide to this can be found by…...

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