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REPUBLIC OF THE

PHILIPPINES
Public Administration
Country Profile
Division for Public Administration and Development Management (DPADM)
Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA)
United Nations
February 2004

All papers, statistics and materials contained in the Country Profiles express entirely the opinion of the mentioned authors.
They should not, unless otherwise mentioned, be attributed to the Secretariat of the United Nations.
The designations employed and the presentation of material on maps in the Country Profiles do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents........................................................................................... 1
Philippines .................................................................................................... 2
1. General Information ................................................................................... 3
1.1 People.................................................................................................. 3
1.2 Economy .............................................................................................. 3
1.3 Public Spending ..................................................................................... 4
1.4 Public Sector Employment and Wages....................................................... 4
2. Legal Structure .......................................................................................... 5
2.1 Legislative Branch.................................................................................. 5
2.2 Executive Branch ................................................................................... 6
2.3 Judiciary Branch .................................................................................... 6
2.4 Local Government.................................................................................. 7
3. The State and Civil Society .......................................................................... 8
3.1 Ombudsperson ...................................................................................... 8
3.2 NGOs ................................................................................................... 8
3.3 Civil Society .......................................................................................... 8
4. Civil Service .............................................................................................10
4.1 Legal basis...........................................................................................10
4.2 Recruitment .........................................................................................11
4.3 Promotion............................................................................................11
4.4 Remuneration ......................................................................................12
4.5 Training...............................................................................................13
4.6 Gender................................................................................................13
5. Ethics and Civil Service ..............................................................................15
5.1 Corruption ...........................................................................................15
5.2 Ethics..................................................................................................16
6. e-Government ..........................................................................................19
6.1 e-Government Readiness .......................................................................19
6.2 e-Participation ......................................................................................20
7. Links .......................................................................................................21
7.1 National sites .......................................................................................21
7.2 Miscellaneous sites................................................................................21

1

PHILIPPINES
Philippines
Click here for map of Asia and the Pacific
Government type
Republic
Independence
12 June 1898 (from Spain)
Constitution
2 February 1987, effective 11
February 1987 (click here)
Source: Gov't Portal - General Information

Legal system
Mixed Roman Civil Law and
Anglo-American Common Law
Source: Tilburg University - Paper

Administrative divisions
17 regions, 79 provinces and
115 cities
Source: Gov't Portal - General Information

Mrs. Aquino assumed power in 1986, putting an end to the
Marcos
regime.
President
Ramos was elected in 1992 continuing the political and economic policies of the
Aquino administration.
Mr. Joseph Estrada was elected President in May
1998. During 2000, President
Estrada
faced opposition primarily due to allegations of corruption, which eventually led to an impeachment trial
On January 20, 2001 the former Vice President, Mrs.
Macapagal-Arroyo was sworn in as President after the
Supreme Court had declared the presidency vacant.
Source: European Commission - PHL
Source: The World Factbook - Philippines

2

1. General Information
1.1 People

Philippines

Indonesia

Malaysia

Population

1 a Total estimated population (,000), 2003

79,999

219,884

Female estimated population (,000), 2003

39,719

109,975

24,425
12,026

Male estimated population (,000), 2003

40,280

109,909

12,399

Sex ratio (males per 100 females), 2003

101

100

103

Average annual rate of change of pop. (%), 2000-2005

1.79

1.26

1.93

Youth and Elderly Population

b

Total population under age 15 (%), 2003

36

30

33

Female population aged 60+ (%), 2003

6

9

7

Male population aged 60+ (%), 2003

5

7

6

59

42

58

Human Settlements

c

Urban population (%), 2001
Rural population (%), 2001

41

58

42

Urban average annual rate of change in pop. (%), ‘00-‘05

3.19

3.59

2.86

Rural average annual rate of change in pop/ (%), ‘00-‘05

-0.19

-0.63

0.07

11

10i

12.1

1

Education

d

Total school life expectancy, 2000/2001
Female school life expectancy, 2000/2001

i

..

Male school life expectancy, 2000/2001

9.6

1

11.8

1

ii

..

12.4 i 2

10.4

Female estimated adult (15+) illiteracy rate (%), 1990

5.2

16.6

18.1

Male estimated adult (15+) illiteracy rate (%), 1990

4.9

8.6ii

8.2

Employment
9.8iii

Unemployment rate (15+) (%), 2001
Female adult (+15) economic activity rate (%), 2001

ii

1991;

iii

Month of October;

iv

1998, Month of May;

5.5iv vi 53

Male adult (+15) economic activity rate (%), 2001
Notes: i 1994;

2

e

52

vi

82 v Ages 15 to 64 years;

1.2 Economy

85 vi 1999;

vii

3.9v

1

vii

2

vii

2

47
83

2000, Ages 15-64 years

Philippines

Indonesia

Malaysia

77,076

172,911

95,157

GDP

2 a GDP total (millions US$), 2002
GDP per capita (US$), 2002

964

817

3,915

321,495

664,409

216,836i

4,022

3,138

8,921i

Value added in agriculture (% of GDP), 2003

14.5

16.6

9.7

Value added in industry (% of GDP), 2003

32.3

43.6

48.5

Value added in services (% of GDP), 2003

53.2

39.9

41.8

3.7

6.6

3.5

Private consumption (% of GDP), 2003

72.3

65.6

43.7

Government consumption (% of GDP), 2003

11.4

9.2

13.9

PPP GDP total (millions int. US$), 2002
PPP GDP per capita(int. US$), 2002
Sectors

b

Miscellaneous

c

GDP implicit price deflator (annual % growth), 2003

Notes: i Estimate is based on regression; other PPP figures are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Programme benchmark estimates 1

United Nations Statistics Division:
Statistics Division and Population Division of the UN Secretariat; b Statistics Division and Population Division of the UN
Secretariat; c Population Division of the UN Secretariat; d1 UNESCO ; d2 UNESCO; e1 ILO; e2 ILO/OECD
2
World Bank - Data and Statistics: a Quick Reference Tables; b Data Profile Tables ; c Country at a Glance a 3

1.3 Public Spending

Philippines

Indonesia

Malaysia

Education (% of GNP), 1985-1987

2.1

0.9ii

6.9

a

Education (% of GNP), 1995-1997

3.4

1.4iii

4.9

a

Public expenditures

3

Health (% of GDP), 1990

1.5

0.6

1.5

Health (% of GDP), 1998

1.6i

0.8i

1.4

Military (% of GDP), 1990

1.4

1.3

2.6

b

Military (% of GDP), 2000

1.2

1.1

1.9

b

Total debt service (% of GDP), 1990

8.1

8.7

9.8

Total debt service (% of GDP), 2000

9

12.2

6.7

Notes: i 1999; ii Data refer to a year or period other than that specified, Data refer to the ministry of education only; government only

iii

Data refer to the central

1.4 Public Sector Employment and Wages
Philippines
1991-1995

Philippines
1996-2000

(,000)

675
1.11

0.57

.. average4 1996-2000

Middle income group average4 1996-2000

0.63

..

0.59

0.63

..

0.59

0.76

..

1.20

0.16

..

0.70

0.26

..

0.30

0.53

..

0.46

1.18

..

3.61

..

..

6.05

417.5

(% pop.)

East Asia &
Pacific
average4
1996-2000

Data from the latest year available

Employment
Civilian Central Government5
Sub-national Government5

Education employees

Health employees

Police

Armed forces

SOE Employees

(,000)

245

368

(% pop.)

0.40

0.51

(,000)

441

526

(% pop.)

0.73

0.74

74

27

(,000)
(% pop.)

0.12

0.04

(,000)

..

40.5

(% pop.)

..

0.05

(,000)

135

133

(% pop.)

0.20

0.18

(,000)

128

97

(% pop.)

0.19

0.13

(,000)

..

1,609

(% pop.)

..

2.22

Total Central gov't wage bill

(% of GDP)

..

7.1

9.4

..

8.5

Total Central gov’t wage bill

(% of exp)

..

..

24.4

..

21.6

Average gov't wage

(,000 LCU)

52,470

125,310

Real ave. gov’t wage ('97 price)

(,000 LCU)

70,970

125,310
2.9

..

4.2

Total Public Employment

Wages

Average gov’t wage to per capita GDP ratio

2.3

3.7

Source: World Bank - Public Sector Employment and Wages

3

UNDP - Human Development Report 2002
Data refer to total public expenditure on education, including current and capital expenditures.
As a result of a number of limitations in the data, comparisons of military expenditure data over time and across countries should be made with caution. For detailed notes on the data see SIPRI (2001).
4
Averages for regions and sub regions are only generated if data is available for at least 35% of the countries in that region or sub region.
5
Excluding education, health and police – if available (view Country Sources for further explanations). a b

4

2. Legal Structure

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, as in past constitutions, vested the power of government on the legislative, executive, and the judiciary.


The Legislative Power is vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and referendum;



The Executive Power is vested in the President of the Philippines, and;



The Judicial Power is vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law.
Source: House of Representatives - Constitutional Mandate

The Constitution ensures the separation of powers among the three branches. The set-up provides a system of check-and-balance to prevent abuses and unbridled discretion of a branch of government
Source: Civil Service Commission - Assistant Commissioner Mary Ann Fernandez-Mendoza

2.1 Legislative Branch
Bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or
Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (226 seats; - members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms note - additional members may be appointed by the president).6
Women in parliament: Senate - 3 out of 24 seats (13%). House - 40 out of 226 seats: (18%).7

The Senate is composed of twenty-four Senators. The term of office of the Senators is six years. No Senator shall serve for more than two consecutive terms.
Source: 1987 Constitution

The Constitution provides that the House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than two hundred and fifty
(250) members, unless otherwise fixed by law, who shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants, and on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio, and those who, as provided by law, shall be elected through a party-list system of registered national, regional, and sectoral parties or organizations. Fact box: elections: Senate - last held 14 May 2001 (next to be held 16 May 2004);
House of Representatives
- elections last held 14
May 2001 (next to be held
16 May 2004) election results: Senate seats by party – Senators;
House of Representatives
- seats by party - Lakas
82, NPC 53, LDP 21, LP
21, independents 10, party list 20, others 198

The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per cent
(20%) of the total number of representatives including those under the party list.
The Members of the House shall be elected for a term of three years, and shall serve for no more than three consecutive terms.
Source: House of Representatives - Constitutional Mandate

6

Source of fact boxes if nothing else stated: Official Government Portal - General Info
Inter-Parliamentary Union - Women in National Parliaments, Senate - Senators & House of Representatives - House
Members
8
House of Representatives - House Members
7

5

All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall, upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of their financial and business interests.
There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the
Senate, as ex officio Chairman, twelve Senators, and twelve Members of the House of Representatives, elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein.
Source: 1987 Constitution

2.2 Executive Branch cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments elections: President and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for six-year terms; election last held 11 May 1998 (next to be held 16 May 2004)

The executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines.
The President and the Vice-President shall be elected by direct vote of the people for a term of six years. The President shall not be eligible for any re-election. No Vice-President shall serve for more than two successive terms.
The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the
Commission on Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in the Constitution.

Fact box: chief of state and head of government: President Gloria
MACAPAGALARROYO (since 20
January 2001) and
Vice President
Teofisto
GUINGONA (since
20 January 2001)

Source: 1987 Constitution

2.3 Judiciary Branch
Supreme Court (justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar
Council and serve until 70 years of age).

The national court system consists of four levels: A 15-member Supreme Court,
Local and regional trial courts; a national Court of Appeals divided into 17 divisions; and an informal local system for arbitrating or mediating certain disputes outside the formal court system. The Sandiganbayan, the Government's anticorruption court, hears criminal cases brought against senior officials. A Shari'a (Islamic law) court system, with jurisdiction over domestic and contractual relations among Muslim citizens, operates in some Mindanao provinces.
Source: U.S. Department of State - Human Rights (2001)

The Supreme Court is comprised of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate Justices.
The Court may sit en banc or, in its discretion, in panels of three, five or seven. The members of the Supreme Court and the lower courts are selected by the President from a list of nominees submitted by Philippine Judicial and Bar Council; confirmation by the legislature of the President's Judicial appointments is not required. Only natural-born citizens of the Philippines may hold a position on the Supreme Court or any lower court. Members of the Judiciary may hold office, during good behavior, only until the age of 70.
Source: Pittsburgh University - Jurist Legal Intelligence

6

2.4 Local Government
Philippine political subdivisions comprise the national government, together with what are termed Local Government Units: provinces and independent cities, cities and municipalities (towns) which are components of provinces, and barangays
(villages or village-sized communities) which are components of cities and municipalities. Government structure:

Under the Local Government Code of 1991, each Unit is composed of an executive and legislative power, together with local special bodies, as follows:
Subdivision

Executive

Legislative Council

Local Special Bodies

Province

Governor

Sanggunian Panlalawigan

Provincial Boards, Councils and
Committees

City

Mayor

Sanggunian Panlungsod

City Boards, Councils and
Committees

Municipality

Mayor

Sanggunian Bayan

Municipal Boards, Councils and
Committees

Barangay

Punong Barangay

Sanggunian Barangay

Barangay Development Council

The Code itself mandated a review after 10 years, and, as part of this, the
Department of the Interior and Local Government in partnership with the PhilippinesAustralia Governance Facility published A Study on People’s Participation in Local
Development Councils in November 2001.
Source: Interregional Workshop on Engaged Governance - ... An Overview of the Philippine Experience (12/2003)

7

3. The State and Civil Society
3.1 Ombudsperson
The fundamental law of the land gives the Office of the Ombudsman the calling and badge of "Protector of the People". This constitutional appellation captures the nature of its various functions: The Ombudsman protects the people from abuse and misuse of governmental power for personal aggrandizement. It summarizes the role of the
Ombudsman in the scheme of governance. The Office of the Ombudsman is clothed with corresponding authority to implement this constitutional mandate with the passage of Republic Act No. 6770, otherwise known as the Ombudsman Act of 1989.
The Office of the Ombudsman is charged with five major functions. These are Public
Assistance, Graft Prevention, Investigation, Prosecution and Administrative
Adjudication. The framers of the 1987 Constitution defined the role of the Office of the Ombudsman as a watchdog, to monitor the "general and specific performance of government officials and employees." It also serves as a mobilizer, to effectively
"utilize the support of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the youth sector and other major sectors of society" in the campaign against graft and corruption.
Source: Office of the Ombudsman

3.2 NGOs
The shift in paradigm brought on by the Local Government Code of 1991 has been painful for many NGOs as well as for local officials. As a prominent NGO leader,
Danilo Songco, has pointed out: “Long immersed in a tradition of opposition to the state, nongovernmental organizations and people’s organizations were faced with the challenge of entering into strategic partnerships with government both at the local and national level.” The adjustment entailed an understanding among NGOs of themselves no longer as alternatives to government, but rather more subtly as
“alternative service delivery mechanisms, innovators of effective development strategies that can be translated into actual policy and advocates for alternative developmental policies.” In short, the NGOs needed to engage constructively and strategically rather than reactively and also outgrow their old role as oppositionists.
Source: Interregional Workshop on Engaged Governance - ... An Overview of the Philippine Experience (12/2003)

3.3 Civil Society
Civil society in the Philippines has been growing in influence since the 1980s. But the status of some NGOs has become even stronger since the ouster of former president
Joseph Estrada in January 2001, an episode in which civil society groups campaigned successfully against corruption.
Source: Transparency International - Global Corruption Report (2003)

The focus of civil society in the Philippines has recently centered on government budgets on both national and local levels, with the realization that involvement in the entire budget process stands to greatly enhance public accountability as well as government effectiveness. As prioritization is “the key to a relevant and efficient budget”, there must be “a multi-stakeholder approach to strategic planning” in order to arrive at a “representative prioritization” of the budget.

8

A workshop in June 2001 identified existing civil society initiatives that in fact cover all parts of the process through networking and coordination.9 For example, the
Philippine Governance Forum examines budget formulation and review, as well as working to advance budget literacy and review capabilities; Government Watch of the Philippines tracks what is spent, which is not necessarily identical to what is allocated – particularly in the presence of prevalent graft and corruption; and finally,
Ulat sa Bayan [Message to the Nation] focuses on community monitoring of government reports and discusses the effectiveness of government projects. The
World Bank’s Filipino Report Card complements this network by monitoring society’s level of satisfaction, and local groups are working to continue this in a systematic way. Source: Interregional Workshop on Engaged Governance - ... An Overview of the Philippine Experience (12/2003)

9
Policy Workshop on Participatory Budgeting and Local Government, part of the “National Conference on Prosperity
Building for the Poor, Asian Institute of Management, Manila, 25 June, 2001.

9

4. Civil Service

The civil service system in the Philippines was formally established under Public Law
No. 5 ("An Act for the Establishment and Maintenance of Our Efficient and Honest
Civil Service in the Philippine Island") in 1900 by the Second Philippine Commission.
A Civil Service Board was created composed of a Chairman, a Secretary and a Chief
Examiner. The Board administered civil service examinations and set standards for appointment in government service. It was reorganized into a Bureau in 1905.
The 1935 Philippine Constitution firmly established the merit system as the basis for employment in government. The following years also witnessed the expansion of the
Bureau’s jurisdiction to include the three branches of government: the national government, local government and government corporations.
In 1959, Republic Act 2260, otherwise known as the Civil Service Law, was enacted.
This was the first integral law on the Philippine bureaucracy, superseding the scattered administrative orders relative to government personnel administration issued since 1900. This Act converted the Bureau of Civil Service into the Civil
Service Commission with department status.
In 1975, Presidential Decree No. 807 (The Civil Service Decree of the Philippines) redefined the role of the Commission as the central personnel agency of government.
Source: Civil Service Commission - Historical Highlights

4.1 Legal basis
The present mandate of the Civil Service Commission is derived from Article IX-B of the 1987 Constitution which was given effect through Book V of Executive Order No.
292 (The 1987 Administrative Code). The Code essentially reiterates existing principles and policies in the administration of the bureaucracy and recognizes, for the first time, the right of government employees to self-organization and collective negotiations under the framework of the 1987 Constitution.
Source: Civil Service Commission - Historical Highlights

The Civil Service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Government, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters.
Classifications
Positions in the Civil Service shall be classified into career service and non-career service. The Career Service shall be characterized by (1) entrance based on merit and fitness to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examinations, or based on highly technical qualifications; (2) opportunity for advancement to higher career positions; and (3) security of tenure.
The Non-Career Service shall be characterized by (1) entrance on bases other than those of the usual tests of merit and fitness utilized for the career service; and (2) tenure which is limited to a period specified by law, or which is coterminous with that of the appointing authority or subject to his pleasure, or which is limited to the duration of a particular project for which purpose employment was made.

10

The Executive Order further stipulates which categories of personnel are included in both the Career Service and the Non-Career Service.
Classes of positions in the career service appointment to which requires examinations are be grouped into three major levels: 1) clerical, trades, crafts, and custodial service positions; 2) professional, technical and scientific positions and 3) positions in the Career Executive Service.
Except as herein otherwise provided, entrance to the first two levels shall be through competitive examinations, which shall be open to those inside and outside the service who meet the minimum qualification requirements. Entrance to a higher level does not require previous qualification in the lower level. Entrance to the third level shall be prescribed by the Career Executive Service Board.
Source: Executive Order No. 292 July 25, 1987

4.2 Recruitment
The 1987 Administrative Code reads that opportunity for government employment shall be open to all qualified citizens and positive efforts shall be exerted to attract the best qualified to enter the service. Employees shall be selected on the basis of fitness to perform the duties and assume the responsibilities of the positions.
All appointments in the career service shall be made only according to merit and fitness, to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examinations. A noneligible shall not be appointed to any position in the civil service whenever there is a civil service eligible actually available for and ready to accept appointment.
Source: Executive Order No. 292 July 25, 1987

For every position in government, minimum standards are set pertaining to education, training, experience and eligibility requirements. These standards have been upgraded, e.g., a higher minimum passing mark in the eligibility examination from 70 to 80 and a master degree for division chief position. Only those who meet the minimum requirements of the vacant position shall be considered for permanent position. Source: Civil Service Commission - Diversity Policies and Practices in the Civil Service

An appointment through certification to a position in the civil service, except as herein otherwise provided, shall be issued to a person who has been selected from a list of qualified persons certified by the Commission from an appropriate register of eligible, and who meets all the other requirements of the position.
All such persons must serve a probationary period of six months following their original appointment and shall undergo a thorough character investigation in order to acquire permanent civil service status.
Source: Executive Order No. 292 July 25, 1987

4.3 Promotion
A promotion is a movement from one position to another with an increase in duties and responsibilities as authorized by law and usually accompanied by an increase in pay. The movement may be from one department or agency to another or from one organizational unit to another in the same department or agency.
Within the same level, no civil service examination shall be required for promotion to a higher position in one or more related occupational groups. A candidate for promotion should, however, have previously passed the examination for that level.

11

When a vacancy occurs in a position in the first/second level of the Career Service as defined above, the employees in the department/government service who occupy the next lower positions in the occupational group under which the vacant position is classified, and in other functionally related occupational groups and who are competent, qualified and with the appropriate civil service eligibility shall be considered for promotion.
For purposes of section 21 - Recruitment and Selection of Employees each department or agency shall evolve its own screening process, which may include tests of fitness, in accordance with standards and guidelines set by the Commission.
Promotion boards shall be formed to formulate criteria for evaluation, conduct tests and/or interviews, and make systematic assessment of training and experience.
If the vacancy is not filled by promotion as provided herein the same shall be filled by transfer of present employees in the government service, by reinstatement, by re-employment of persons separates through reduction in force, or by appointment of persons with the civil service eligibility appropriate to the positions.
Qualification in an appropriate examination shall be required for appointment to positions in the first and second levels in the career service in accordance with the
Civil Service rules.10
Qualification standards shall be used as basis for civil service examinations for positions in the career service, as guides in appointment and other personnel actions, in the adjudication of protested appointments, in determining training needs, and as aid in the inspection and audit of the agencies personnel work programs. Source: Executive Order No. 292 July 25, 1987

The competence of the employees in the civil service is gauged through the administration of performance evaluation system which is done every six months.
Those who perform well and exceed the target by more than 50% may be given an
Outstanding rating. The employee could also be a candidate for promotion and may be rewarded through other forms of incentives. On the other hand, a Poor performance could be a ground for separation from the service. There is an Honor
Awards Program conferred by the President of the Philippines which recognizes outstanding employees every year.
Source: Civil Service Commission - Diversity Policies and Practices in the Civil Service

4.4 Remuneration
According to the 1987 Constitution, Article IX, B, Sec. 5, the Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for, their positions.
Source: 1987 Constitution

Adjustments in salaries as a result of increase in pay levels or upgrading of positions which do not involve a change in qualification requirements shall not require a new appointment except that copies of the salary adjustment notices shall be submitted to the Commission for record purposes.
Source: Executive Order No. 292 July 25, 1987

10

Certain exceptions apply.

12

4.5 Training
The Development and retention of a competent and efficient work force in the public service is a primary concern of government. It shall be the policy of the government that a continuing program of career and personnel development be established for all government employees at all levels. An integrated national plan for career and personnel development shall serve as the basis for all career and personnel development activities in the government.
Each department or agency shall prepare a career and personnel development plan which shall be integrated into a national plan by the Commission. Such career and personnel development plans which shall include provisions on merit promotions, performance evaluation, in-service training, including overseas and local scholarships and training grants, job rotation, suggestions and incentive award systems, and such other provisions for employees' health, welfare, counseling, recreation and similar services. The Commission shall be responsible for the coordination and integration of a continuing program of personnel development for all government personnel in the first and second levels.
Central staff agencies and specialized institutes shall conduct continuing centralized training for staff specialists from the different agencies. However, in those cases where there is sufficient number of participants to warrant training at department or agency or local government level, such central staff agencies and specialized institute shall render the necessary assistance, and consultative services.
Source: Executive Order No. 292 July 25, 1987

The Philippine Civil Service Commission (PCSC) made a policy that employees are to be provided with at least one human resource development interventions every year for their personal growth and career advancement.11 A scholarship program (local and foreign) was established to provide educational and other learning opportunities for various levels of personnel.
Source: Civil Service Commission - Diversity Policies and Practices in the Civil Service

4.6 Gender
A lynchpin legislation is the Women in Development and Nation Building Act
(Republic Act 7192). Among the important features of this law are the following:


Review/revision of all government procedures to remove gender bias;

regulations,

circulars,



issuances

and

Equal right of women and men to enter into contracts.

All government agencies have been enjoined to establish Gender and Development
(GAD) focal persons.
The National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCRFW) was created in
1975 to review, evaluate and recommend measures, including priorities to ensure the full integration of women for economic, social and cultural development at all levels and to ensure further equality between women and men.
All government agencies have been enjoined to establish their own Gender and
Development (GAD) focal persons. The NCRFW also oversees the implementation of
11
According to Assistant Commissioner Mary Ann Fernandez-Mendoza of the Civil Service Commission the policy has changed from at least two to one human resource development intervention a year.

13

the Institutional Strengthening Project Phase II which aims to strengthen the capabilities of oversight agencies in mainstreaming gender concerns in planning, policy formulation, program development and implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. There were also a number of programs that addressed violence against women
(VAW) and women’s lack of economic empowerment, namely: the National Family
Violence Prevention Program and the Productivity Skills and Capability Building
Program.
The Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 2001-2004 further ensures that programs and projects financed by the national budget and official development assistance (ODA) appropriately integrate women and gender concerns.
As the central personnel agency of the government, the PCSC has been working with mainstreaming gender and development concerns in the recruitment, appointment, promotion and retention processes.
There are other laws passed which address women’s career concerns, to wit:


Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998 (Republic Act
8551), Reform and Reorganization of the Philippine National Police (PNP), mandates that ten percent (10%) of the police force should be women;



The Solo Parents’ Welfare Act of 2000 (Republic Act 8972) which basically relieve solo parents of the burden of raising a family alone by institutionalizing adequate state assistance and relevant support services both for the solo parents and their children.
Source: Civil Service Commission - Diversity Policies and Practices in the Civil Service

14

5. Ethics and Civil Service
5.1 Corruption
2003 CPI Score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business people and country analysts and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0
(highly corrupt).
Corruption Perceptions Index
2003 CPI
Score

Surveys
Used

Standard
Deviation

High-Low
Range

Number
Inst.

90 percent confidence range

Rank

Country

1

Highly clean

9.7

8

0.3

9.2 - 10.0

4

9.5 - 9.9

92

Philippines

2.5

12

0.5

1.6 – 3.6

8

2.2 – 2.7

133

Highly corrupt

1.3

8

0.7

0.3 - 2.2

6

0.9 - 1.7

Source: Transparency International - Corruption Perceptions Index 2003
Surveys Used: Refers to the number of surveys that were used to assess a country's performance. 17 surveys were used and at least 3 surveys were required for a country to be included in the CPI.
Standard Deviation: Indicates differences in the values of the sources. Values below 0.5 indicate agreement, values between 0.5 and c. 0.9 indicate some agreement, while values equal or larger than 1 indicate disagreement.
High-Low Range: Provides the highest and lowest values of the sources.
Number Institutions: Refers to the number of independent institutions that assessed a country's performance. Since some institutions provided more than one survey.
90 percent confidence range: Provides a range of possible values of the CPI score. With 5 percent probability the score is above this range and with another 5 percent it is below.

According to Social Weather Stations (a nonprofit social research institution) surveys,
Filipinos perceive the following to be the main forms of corruption: (1) general bribery / gift-giving, (2) diversion of budget away from projects, (3) no transparency in bidding, (3) overpricing procurement, (4) doing substandard project, (5) underreporting tax collection, (6) tax and tariff evasion, (7) pork barrel, and (8) cronyism. The Office of the Ombudsman has estimated that US$48 billion has been lost by the
Philippine Government over the last 20 years on account of corruption. This exceeds the present foreign debt of US$40.6 billion. The Commission on Audit (COA) has estimated that corruption costs the Philippines about PhP2 billion (US$44.5 million) each year. It is estimated that some 20 percent of the annual budget is lost to corruption. The Office of the Ombudsman received the most number of corruption complaints for the following agencies of the government:


Department of Public Works and Highways (26.9% of all cases)



Department of Environment and Natural Resources (17.5 %)



Department of Education, Culture, and Sports (15.9%)



Bureau of Customs /Philippine Ports Authority



National Irrigation Administration



Bureau of Internal Revenue



Department of Health

15



Department of Interior and Local Government



National Power Corporation



Bureau of Immigration

There is public perception that the anti-graft bodies and the judiciary have been ineffective against graft and corruption and, worse, are involved in it. In a survey by the Social Weather Stations, 62 percent of respondents believed there were significant levels of corruption in the judiciary. Some 65 percent believed many lawyers could be bribed, and 57 percent believed even judges could be bribed.
Only 0.5 out of every 10,000 civil servants gets prosecuted for corrupt acts in the
Philippines, compared to 8 in Hong Kong. 1998/1999 surveys show 20-22 percent of the public has been asked for bribes in government transactions. Only 4 percent in
1999 bothered to report the solicitation. Those who did not complain reasoned that
(1) it was futile to complain (51%); (2) the amount involved is too small (21%); there could be retaliation (15%); and they did not know where to file the complaint
(10%).
Three notable structural sources of corruption are (1) that candidates must finance their own electoral campaigns, owing a debt of gratitude to many sponsors who call in the favors when the candidates are elected, (2) the incredibly poor compensation and reward system for civil servants, and (3) the poor enforcement of anticorruption laws that renders corruption a low risk, high reward activity. Other causes of corruption in the Philippines are wide discretion of bureaucrats, burdensome regulations and transaction systems, weak control mechanisms, information asymmetry between the rich and the poor, weak public vigilance, and elements of Filipino political culture that translate into tolerance of corruption.
Studies of corruption in the Philippines point to these adverse effects of corruption:
(1) wastage of public resources, as when infrastructure projects are poor and substandard and do not last their projected useful lifetimes; (2) low revenue collection, as when bribes are paid in lieu of taxes and charges in revenue collecting agencies; (3) other socially undesirable behavior such as tax evasion and smuggling;
(4) increases in the cost of doing business in the country; (5) cronyism, the highest form of corruption, expressed in cartels and monopolies that reduce competitiveness in industry; and (6) waste in the resources for development which postpones the poor Filipinos escape from poverty.
Source: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung - ...Transparency and Accountability in Governance and the Civil Service

5.2 Ethics
The Philippines has a comprehensive legal and organizational infrastructure for instilling transparency and accountability in governance. There is an Anti-Graft and
Corrupt Practices Act, as well as a Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public
Officials and Employees. There are three constitutional oversight bodies: The Office of the Ombudsman, the Commission on Audit, and the Civil Service Commission
Source: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung - ...Transparency and Accountability in Governance and the Civil Service

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines provides the basis of ethical and accountable behavior in the public sector. Section 1 of Article XI states that: “Public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees must at all times be accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency, act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives.” This provision requires every public official and employee to exhibit and live certain values while in government service. In addition, the State has been mandated by the Constitution to “maintain
16

honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption”.
In 1989, the Philippine legislature passed Republic Act No. 6713, a law embodying the Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees. The
Code spells out in fine detail the do’s and don’ts for government officials and employees in and out of the workplace. These do’s and don’ts are encapsulated in the eight norms of conduct to be observed by all government officials and employees. An important feature of the Code is the requirement of disclosure of assets and business and financial interests of appointive and elective officials and employees. Another comprehensive law passed to address and curb the commission of malfeasance in government is Republic Act No. 3019 or the Anti-Graft and Corrupt
Practices Act (1960).
The legal infrastructure that prescribes ethical conduct of public servants is reinforced by political commitment. This political commitment, while difficult to benchmark, has been demonstrated by some policy pronouncements. Quite significant is the ten-point action agenda of the present Administration and the
Medium-Term Development Plan (2000 2004) which embody the framework for the country’s socioeconomic development.
The agenda and the MTDP place the implementation of a sustained training and orientation program on anti-graft and corrupt practices and laws, and on the Ethical
Standards Act of Public Officials and Employees among the Administration’s priorities to reduce graft and corruption and exact high standards of ethics in government.
Proceeding from this, departments and agencies of the executive branch have set up and implemented various programs that aim to eliminate bureaucratic red tape. Onestop action centers are now being promoted and institutionalized in the agencies.
In the Philippines, the three constitutionally mandated oversight institutions are the
Civil Service Commission, the Office of the Ombudsman and the Commission on
Audit.
The Civil Service Commission is the central personnel agency of the government.
Under Section 3, Article IX-B of the Constitution, the CSC is mandated to “establish career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the civil service.”
The Office of the Ombudsman acts as a prosecutor against those charged with the violation of RA 3019, RA 6713 and the law against ill-gotten wealth, among others. It is mandated to investigate and prosecute the criminal liability of public officials and employees involved in graft and corruption.
The Commission on Audit is the fiscal watchdog of the government. COA is responsible for ensuring legal and proper disbursement of public funds and preventing irregular, unnecessary, or extravagant expenditures or usage of public funds. It also has quasi-judicial powers.
Source: Civil Service Commission - Ethics and Accountability: The Philippine Experience (2000)

The heads of the Civil Service Commission, the Office of the Ombudsman and
Commission on Audit are all members of the Inter-Agency Anti-Graft and
Coordinating Council (IAAGCC). The IAAGCC was set up in 1997 to ensure coordinated efforts in investigating and prosecuting high-profile cases on corruption.
Another initiative is the lifestyle check on government officials and employees.

17

January 28 and 29, 2004, the three agencies convened an anti-corruption summit.
Their assessment of their mandates, resources and constraints provided them the opportunity to identify priority areas and doable activities and initiatives to be undertaken jointly and individually in the next five years. The commitments are embodied in a document called the Solana Covenant.
Source: Civil Service Commission - Assistant Commissioner Mary Ann Fernandez-Mendoza

18

6. e-Government

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

am et N
Vi

Th a ila

nd

ar
M
ya nm M al ay si a

PD

sia on e

La o C

In d ilip pi Ph

Web Measure Index:
A scale based on progressively sophisticated web services present.
Coverage and sophistication of stateprovided e-service and e-product availability correspond to a numerical classification.

R

0 ne s

The index is comprised of three sub-indexes:
Web Measure Index,
Telecommunications
Infrastructure Index and
Human Capital Index.

e-Government Readiness Index

di a The index refers to the generic capacity or aptitude of the public sector to use ICT for encapsulating in public services and deploying to the public, high quality information
(explicit knowledge) and effective communication tools that support human development.

6.1 e-Government Readiness

am bo e-Government
Readiness Index:

Source: United Nations – World Public Sector Report 2003

Web Measure Index

Telecom. Infrastructure Index

Human Capital Index

1
0.9
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

et
N
am
Vi

ai la nd
Th

ya nm ar
M

ys ia al a M

La o PD
R

es ia In do n

C am bo

di a 0 ne s

Primary indicators are:
PC’s, Internet users, online population and
Mobile phones.
Secondary indicators are TVs and telephone lines. 0.7

Ph ilip pi

Telecommunications
Infrastructure Index:
A composite, weighted average index of six primary indices, based on basic infrastructural indicators that define a country's ICT infrastructure capacity.

Source: United Nations – World Public Sector Report 2003

Human Capital Index:
A composite of the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio, with two thirds of the weight given to adult literacy and one third to the gross enrolment ratio.

19

e-Participation Index

6.2 e-Participation

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

am

nd
Vi
et

N

Th ai la

M

M

e-information:
The government websites offer information on policies and programs, budgets, laws and regulations, and other briefs of key public interest.
Tools for disseminating of information exist for timely access and use of public information, including web forums, e-mail lists, newsgroups and chat rooms.

ya nm ar

al ay si a PD
R

0
La
o

Refers to the willingness, on the part of the government, to use ICT to provide high quality information (explicit knowledge) and effective communication tools for the specific purpose of empowerring people for able participation in consultations and decision-making both in their capacity as consumers of public services and as citizens. Ph i li pp in es C am bo di a
In
do ne si a e-Participation
Index:

Source: United Nations – World Public Sector Report 2003

e-information

e-decision making

e-consultation

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6

e-decision making:

4

The government indicates that it will take citizens input into account in decision making and provides actual feedback on the outcome of specific issues. 2

tN

am

d
Vi
e

la n Th ai ya nm ar
M

al ay si a M

PD
R
o
La

In do ne si a

am bo di a C

Ph ili p

pi ne s

0

Source: United Nations – World Public Sector Report 2003

e-consultation:
The government website explains e-consultation mechanisms and tools. It offers a choice of public policy topics online for discussion with real time and archived access to audios and videos of public meetings. The government encourages citizens to participate in discussions.

20

7. Links

7.1 National sites
Authority

Link

Office of the President

http://www.op.gov.ph/

Cabinet

http://www.op.gov.ph/cabinet.asp

Government

http://www.gov.ph/

Senate

http://www.senate.gov.ph/

House of Representatives

http://www.congress.gov.ph/

Supreme Court

http://www.supremecourt.gov.ph/

Office of the Ombudsman

http://www.ombudsman.gov.ph/index.html

Civil Service Commission

http://www.csc.gov.ph/

7.2 Miscellaneous sites
Institution

Link

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

http://www.adb.org/Philippines/default.asp

European Union (EU)

http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/...

Transparency International - Philippines

http://ti-ph.tripod.com/

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

http://www.undp.org.ph/

United Nations in the Philippines

http://www.un.org.ph/

World Bank (WB)

http://www.worldbank.org.ph/

21

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...Related Studies Foreign On Study Habits The first Study Habits Inventory (SRI) was prepared in 1933 by Wrenn, with a view to survey this feature among students. In 1935 research workers interested in the improvement of study habits, they paid attention to the discovery of effective study techniques and tried to improve study skills and habits of work through ‘how to study’ courses and other systematic procedures. Cuff (1937) carefully derived study-habits inventory and found that it aids in finding the pupils in need of special guidance and helps to identify remedial work for the good and bad study habits of individual cases. Brown and Holtzman (1955) constructed a questionnaire to survey students ‘study habits', as well as their attitudes and motivation towards academic work. Items were compiled from group interviews with good and poor students, existing inventories on study habits, studies using observational and interview techniques and reports on related experiments in the field of learning. Scoring keys based on validity studies in ten colleges were developed. Study habits basically consist of effective methods of study (Sorenson, 1954). Study is the total of all the habits, determined purposes and enforced practices that the individual uses in order to learn. Study is hard work, no easy substitute is available (Armstrong, 1956), Brown and Holtzman (1956) and Srivastava (1967) point out that for good academic success, good study habits and attitudes are important....

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...was devoted to the use of experimental methods in psychology research. * 1955 - Lee Chronbach published Construct Validity in Psychological Tests, which popularized the use of the construct validity in psychological research. * 1958 - Harry Harlow published The Nature of Love, which described his experiments with rhesus monkey's on attachment and love. * 1961 - Albert Bandura conducted his now-famous Bobo doll experiment, which demonstrated the effects of observation on aggressive behavior. Methods Used in Experimental Psychology Experimental psychologists use a variety of different research methods and tools to investigate human behavior. Experimentation remains the basic standard, but other techniques such as case studies, correlational research and naturalistic observation are frequently utilized in psychological research. The basics of conducting a psychology experiment involve randomly assigning participants to groups, operationally defining variables, developing a hypothesis, manipulating theindependent variables and measuring the depending variables....

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