Premium Essay

Relating Hard Power and Soft Power

In: People

Submitted By mukanijojo
Words 1794
Pages 8
Relating Hard and Soft Power
Power is not black and white. Power is a shade of gray. What is power to one individual or state may not be considered power to another individual or state. Each international relations theory provides its own unique, largely ambiguous definition of power. Realism says that power is derived from military capabilities and to a lesser extent a state’s potential military abilities embodied in population size and economic resources available for conversion into military assets. (Shirk, “Realism” 2014) Liberalism and constructivism agree that while military and economic power are certainly important, a state’s economic power is not merely a mechanism to potentially strengthen military capacity but an influential factor that can be used to weaken an adversary. Likewise, a state’s international standing in well-established institutions like the World Trade Organization or the United Nations can greatly influence relations between states and should be considered a form of power. (Shirk, “Liberalism” 2014) Realism’s definition of power is more concerned with hard power, or a state’s ability to force another to behave in a manor it otherwise would not through military or economic means. Liberalism and constructivism’s definitions of power, though different, largely focus on soft power, or one state’s ability to convince another state that it wants what the first state wants too. (Shirk, “Power” 2014) Both kinds of power, hard and soft, do exist and are successfully implemented on the world stage. However, soft power has limits and is difficult not only to obtain, but to implement and maintain without a hard power base to lean on for support. For these reasons, hard power is slightly more relevant than soft power but power as a whole can only be optimized when both are achieved.
Soft power is certainly not without strengths and...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Yogesh Chander Deveshwar

...the book, derive the concepts embedded within and relate it to the theories studied in relation to Individual dynamics and leadership. The Objectives of the Study for the Students: * To understand and analyze the varied pattern of human behavior * To develop the ability to draw inferences with respect to work behavior and relate it to the concepts being studied in the course ‘Individual Dynamics and Leadership’ in the present Trimester Based on the above broad objective the assignment should be able to cover at least the following specific objectives: i) The critical analysis of each chapter (if written chapter wise) / part wise in the book. ii) Interpreting the behavioral theories from the writings. iii) Relating theories to practical behavior. iv) Your learning from this exercise. v) Group processes followed and peer evaluation of interpersonal skills of group members Method of Study: The students will have to identify a relevant book and take approval from the faculty for the same. The book can be selected by taking a cue from the following categories; * Autobiography or biography, * Management/business history * Motivational Guidelines for the Structure of the Report: The report is to cover the topics as given below in the same sequence: 1. Introduction and summary of the book. 2. Statement of Objectives of the Study 3. Method of Study 4. Chapter wise summary and critical analysis. 5.......

Words: 734 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Analysis of a Conflict Situation

...interaction and what could be done to try to achieve a better outcome for all parties. In this report firstly a literature review was undertaken in order to introduce the reader in the types of theories which would be examined in the context of the work place case study. Next a detailed discussion of the workplace scenario was undertaken highlighting the key points of the situation and interactions as well as a detailed description of the three key characters and the key behaviours which they are seen to display. In the main section of the report a detailed review of the applicable theories and how they are demonstrated in the case study. The theories investigated cover the areas on Conflict, Communication, Negotiation and the use of Power Bases and found that many different different theories were visible in the day to day communication. Some of the theories which were seen and discussed were Negotiation Styles and Strategies, use of a BANTA, the use of nonverbal communication techniques and theories of social tension. In the final section of the report three recommendations were given which when used would provide the parties a more successful communication and negotiation experience. The recommended strategies were to practice emotional intelligence in their interactions, to recognise that a negotiation does not require a win-lose outcome and finally that when entering a negotiation to ensure you have a BANTA which will assist in preventing an outcome which is not......

Words: 5133 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Power and Politics

...Power and Politics In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence the behavior of people. The term authority is often used for power perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust, but the exercise of power is accepted as endemic to humans as social beings. In the corporate environment, power is often expressed as upward or downward. With downward power, a company's superior influences subordinates. When a company exerts upward power, it is the subordinates who influence the decisions of the leader (Greiner & Schein, 1988). The use of power need not involve coercion (force or the threat of force). At one extreme, it more closely resembles what everyday English-speakers call influence, although some authors make a distinction between power and influence – the means by which power is used (Handy, C. 1993 Understanding Organisations). Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the enabling nature of power. A comprehensive account of power can be found in Steven Lukes Power: A Radical View where he discusses the three dimensions of power. Thus, power can be seen as various forms of constraint on human action, but also as that which makes action possible, although in a limited scope. Much of this debate is related to the works of the French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926–1984), who, following the Italian political philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), sees power as "a complex...

Words: 8519 - Pages: 35

Premium Essay

Pet Therapy

...Pet therapy Throughout the history, animals played very important role in human existence – protection. People always believe in animal’s supernatural power: for example, in Egypt people worshiped cats and believed in Bastet – a goddess with cat’s face who protected people from evil spirits (Mark, 2012). In present days, many people still believe in animal’s supernatural power and think that to have a pet in the house will help them to keep evil spirits away and keep households safe. Of course, animals have no supernatural power but for example to have a dog in the house is truly good for protection like burglary or a cat can keep rodents away. Unfortunately, people do not think of a pet more than protectors or somebody to have around the house. It is not so ordinary to have a pet these days and people used to them so much that they do not think about how many health relating benefits pets bring to a household. Back in 18th century, Dr. William Tuke in his mental institution, that located in York, England, conducted an experiment that used animals in therapy (Perelle & Granville, 1993). His idea was to help patients to control themselves by having a dependable creature (Perelle & Granville, 1993). He was the first person to record such an experiment (Perelle & Granville, 1993). After Dr. Tuke’s success in animal- therapy, many other facilities from different countries begun to use the same method with positive results (Perelle & Granville, 1993). In 1969 Dr...

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Basic of Hrm Explained

...organization. HRM is structured and supported by a number of theories relating to the behaviour of people and organisations, strongly concerned with ethical employment and how people should be treated in terms of moral values. HRM aims to build good relationships with employees based on trust and personal achievement therefore benefiting the achievement of business goals. HRM deals with all aspects of employees within an organization. Areas of HRM include recruitment, interviews, orientation, induction, motivation, learning, performance reviews, employee relations & wellbeing, training, development, change management and complying with employment law. The core purpose of HRM is to develop and make efficient use of the workforce within an organization. HRM is people management within organizations designed to maximise employee performance focusing on the company’s strategic objectives. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute productively to the overall company direction and accomplishment of the organizations goals and objectives. What was the main message of the Harvard framework? Through my research and understanding I have come to the conclusion that the main message of the Harvard model by Beer et al is that decisions and actions made by line managers have a long term effect on relationships between employees and organizations. The Harvard model is a strategic map focusing on the human or soft aspect of HRM. Armstrong (2014, loc 1473) states that: ‘Beer......

Words: 1786 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Okonkwo Character Analysis

...From Warrior to Ruin In Chinua Achebe’s novel, Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo, the protagonist, represents the manly ideal in a native African society of the Igbo that puts great value on masculinity. He prides himself on the fact that he became a well-respected member of the community with little help from others. However, he is not without flaws. When European powers begin colonizing Africa, Okonkwo finds his way of life disrupted. His greatest challenge becomes accepting the beliefs of others and relating to the majority. Okonkwo resists change, trying to hold onto the old way of life. In Things Falls Apart, Okonkwo proves himself to be a notorious anti-hero as he struggles with his own self-image, rules his household with fear, and rejects changes in his society upon the arrival of the white man. Okonkwo’s own destruction is a result of his high expectations and obsession with toughness. His father, Unoka, was a good-spirited but generally unproductive member of the community. He acquired no fortune and preferred music and story-telling to hard physical labor. Okonkwo dismissed his father’s outlook on life as foolish, and devoted his time to masculine things such as wrestling, sharecropping, and the acquisition of titles. The culture of their tribe is to judge an individual based on their strength and proficiency, or lack thereof. To appear sentimental would be a reflection of his father’s persona. It is Okonkwo’s greatest fear to be judged as inept or weak. When the......

Words: 760 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Human Resource Management

...1. Employee participation is defined as a process of employee involvement designed to provide employees with the opportunity to influence and where appropriate, take part in decision making on matters which affect them in the context of their employment. Employee participation is part of a process of empowerment in the workplace. Empowerment involves decentralising power within the organisation to individual decision makers further down the line. Team working is a key part of the empowerment process and team members are encouraged to make decisions for themselves. Examples of employee participation include: i. quality circles or project groups in which employees work on projects where considerable responsibility is delegated to the team. You often see this in industrial manufacturing companies for assembling products ie. cars. ii. Suggestion system - where employees are given channels to provide suggestions or new ideas to managers within the organisation. iii. Team meetings or town halls where employees are encouraged to share ideas freely without retribution from management. iv. Delegation of responsibility within the organisation. In modern organisations the entry level employees need to be given considerable responsibility because they are often the face of the company. Their direct contact with customers on a day-to-day basis is where many customers form their image and opinion of a company. Furthermore, these employees feedback are often......

Words: 2205 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Curricular Activity

... ensuring legislative and regulatory compliance and providing security and accountability of information. 3. What is required to be done & how:- • Student has to choose 9 cases individually of their choice. To choose the case they might also refer case study books, journals in our library & from Ebsco too. • Students are expected to choose the cases from their respective specialization but there is no compulsion to it. Moreover the student has the freedom to choose cases relating to companies he / she wants to join after semester examination. • Out of these 9 cases student has to give presentation on 4 cases while forming a group with one more student i.e. group of two students would be formed (which they can form by themselves). Out of the 18 cases selected by the two students in a group, each group has to present 4 cases (2 cases individually) using power point presentation in a structured format. • Before giving the presentation student has to submit the hard copy of the presentation to the concerned faculty one day in advance. • Time allotted for presentation would be minimum 20 minutes and maximum 30 minutes per case. In this...

Words: 1009 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

King Sab

...analysis (appendix 1); Porters 5 forces (appendix 2); THE BCG matrix (appendix 3) and its competition Analysis (appendix 4). After conducting Porter's five forces of the Brewing Industry; I have found many interesting outcomes relating to SABMiller as the overall markets of the brewing industry aren't clearly attractive; its performance depends on the ability to expand its market share and exploit opportunities in the emerging markets. However, the brewing industry in growing markets, which SABMiller operates, is highly attractive but not for new entrants; it's especially attractive for the dominant players in the Industry; which in this case SABMiller is one of them. After analysing my Porter's 5 forces; it is conclusive that it would be extremely hard for new entrants to compete in these emerging markets due to the high dominance of the main competitors. I have also observed other good points such as the low level of power within suppliers; however the power of suppliers is increasing especially in USA due to the rising costs of energy and Aluminium but in under developed countries; it is conclusive that SABMiller has the overall power of its suppliers; as it's an international brewer; finding suppliers wouldn't be a major issue. Its Conclusive that the power of Buyers is very high;...

Words: 1632 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...Q2: There are a variety of definitions of power. Using these definitions analyse and discuss how you observe power being exercised in the world as you experience it. The term “power” has a number of different meanings and definitions relating to all aspects of life. In Kenneth E. Boulding’s book “The Three Faces of Power” he writes, “The various forms of power act and interact on each other so significantly that if the study of power were confined to a single aspect of it, … , much would be lost in the understanding of the over dynamics of the system.” Boulding broadly defines power as the ability of people to get that which they desire. In the context of politics; power concerns all social activities at each level of society. In a sense; politics is power i.e. “The ability to achieve a desired outcome, through whatever means” (Haywood, 2002). Politics can be seen as the fight for scarce resources, and the power lies in the ability to conduct and control this struggle. However power must not be confused with “force”, a much narrower concept, as this is “linked to the concept of domination, which, indeed is only a small part of the general nature of power”(Boulding, 1990). In this essay I am going to discuss some of the different definitions and aspects of power, referring mainly to the “Faces” of power, and giving examples of my observations of different types of power being exercised in the world today. The idea of power is key to the understanding of politics for “...

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Scenario Planning

...and Trading Company, p.l.c. directly or indirectly own investments are separate and distinct entities. The expressions “Royal Dutch/Shell Group” and “Group” are used to refer to the companies of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group as a whole. The words “Shell”, “we”, “us” and “our” are used in some places to refer to the Group and in others to an individual Shell company or companies where no particular purpose is served by identifying the specific company or companies. Limited, its affiliates and their respective officers, employees and agents represents the accuracy or completeness of the information set forth herein and none of the foregoing shall be liable for any loss, cost, expense or damage (whether arising from negligence or otherwise) relating to the use of such information. Introducing our Global Business Environment To use the metaphor of air navigation, the work of the Shell Scenarios team is designed to help charter routes across three interrelated levels: the Jet Stream level of long-term predetermined trends, uncertainties, and...

Words: 5392 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Racial Profiling

...Imagine driving to work, running late for an important meeting. You are driving the posted speed limit, obeying all traffic laws, and you car is in perfect working order. All of a sudden, flashing red and blue lights are behind you and you’re being pulled over. The officer treats you as a suspect right off the bat, smothering you with questions concerning what you’re doing, where you’re going; yet never really telling you why you’ve been pulled over. Without any warranted reason the officer wants to search your car. After much hassle you are finally free to go, yet still have no explanation as to why you were pulled over to begin with. Now imagine you are black and the officer is white. You have probably just experienced racial profiling. Racial profiling is a problem which is gaining widespread notoriety in the United States. It may be the most important homeland issue we face today. Racial profiling is a clear violation of the civil rights of United States citizens. Not only does racial profiling affect civilians, but it actually makes law enforcement ineffective. Most efforts to investigate and eradicate racial profiling have failed due to unclear findings and a lack of accountability on the part of law enforcement. New measures must be taken in conjunction with current measures to curb racial profiling. A stringent federal program to monitor and survey our nation’s police officers is needed. The public also needs to become more involved in efforts to stop racial......

Words: 3179 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay


...critical factors; 1. The Source of Demand Generation; 2. Demand Fulfillment; 3. After Sales Services; and, 4. Information/Market Feedback for Strategy Development. Finally, the nature of product or services for distribution, are there any competitive advantages in either or partial perspectives by creating value; 1. Exclusive Distribution Exclusive distribution usually can be seen in retailing market, especially for the high-end products or high-priced products e.g. Cars, Jewelry. The most advantage is marketer can enjoy lack of competitors in the same marketplace. However, the retailer need to committee larger volume of sales with the supplier. 2. Selective Distribution Selective distribution usually can be seen in hard products, such as electronic appliances, furniture. The supplier will select a limited amount of retailers / dealers. Usually the retailer need to committee to sell those products in agreed price and quantity. Sometimes, there may be a specific requirement...

Words: 1076 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Change Management

...Contents Introduction Task 1 – Examine the past performance of your company to identify areas with the need for change. 2 3-4 Task 2 – Discuss any three models of change and evaluate their relevance of these models to contemporary organizations in Myanmar economy. Assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques in organizations. Determine the efficacy of applying these models to your organization. 5-7 Task 3 – Develop a change management strategy for your organization that involves stakeholders and a strategy for managing resistance to change. Formulate and evaluate a system to involve stakeholders in the planning of change. 8-9 Task 4 – Create an appropriate model for change in your organization and draw a plan to implement and develop measures to monitor it. 10-11 References 1|Page Delta Net Media Company is one of the largest and most innovative Media (Paid Satellite TV Network) & Internet Service Provider Company in Myanmar. Delta Net offer consumers in two different categories, DTH – Direct to Home satellite television network and MPS – Multi Play Services which adds satellite broadband internet to television network service. Delta Net is providing these services nationwide in Myanmar. It was launched in November 2010 and started with total 48 channels including sports, entertainment, news, movies, music so on and later expands to 83 channels as of 2013 and keep expanding the network to provide varieties of channels for consumers......

Words: 3364 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Effective Nonverbal Communication at Work

...Effective Nonverbal Communication at Work Steven D. Gubbins Indiana Wesleyan University BBAO58 ADM201 Principles of Self-Management February 23, 2011 Dean Moore, Professor I have read and understand the plagiarism policy as outlined in the syllabus and the sections in the Student Bulletin relating to the IWU Honesty/Cheating Policy. By affixing this statement to the title page of my paper, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. If it is found that cheating and/or plagiarism did take place in the writing of this paper, I understand the possible consequences of the act/s, which could include expulsion from Indiana Wesleyan University. Effective Nonverbal Communication at Work Success in leading and functioning within any organization depends upon the effective use of nonverbal communication. On the factory floor or in the corner office, getting things done requires employees and managers alike to become skilled at reading others and emitting appropriate nonverbal cues that support their messages. The effectual exchange of ideas and clear delivery of instructions relies on something more than selecting the “right” words. As we will see, most of the communication process takes place in the realm of the unspoken. Understanding Nonverbal Communication Anthropologist Ray Birdwhistell asserted that 95 percent of communication is unconsciously expressed through subtle body movements and posturing (Talley...

Words: 1900 - Pages: 8