Premium Essay

Religion Nd Philosophy

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By Arifah
Words 1880
Pages 8
Irawan Febianto (

(Chartered Islamic Finance Professional) Konsentrasi, Manajemen Syariah, FE Unpad



 The

Nature and Characteristic of Man.  The Concept of Din and its Significance to Economic Activity.  Islamic Worldview vs. Secular Worldview.  Implications of Different Worldviews on Man’s Way of Life  Definitions of Islam: Iman, ‘Amal, Ihsan.  Concepts of Tawhid, Khilafah, Adalah.  Concepts of accountability, transparency and trustworthiness



What do you understand by the Worldview?



Worldview explain how man perceives this world. It denotes “a set of implicit or explicit assumptions about the origin of the universe and the nature of human life”.



 Every

community or system is controlled or influenced by its own worldview. different worldviews among communities or among systems lead to dissimilar end means of human life.

 The

 Separation

between religion and other aspects of life,  Materialistic,  Individualistic,  Less socio-economic justice,  Less public relations,  less concern with the Hereafter life.


Belief in a dual worldviews: this world & the hereafter.  Religion is part of his/her daily life.  Maslahah of the ummah (public benefit),  Accountability,  Trustworthiness,  Transparency etc.





According to Islamic belief, Allah has created man (and jinn)only to worship Him.

The word worship here encompasses all permissible human activities and intentions as part of the general act of acceptable worship (ibadah). Within the...

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Short Essay on the Hamartiology: Problem of Evil The question of evil is a common hot button topic among atheists and non-Christians who attempt to disprove Christianity. They argue that an omnipotent and omniscient God cannot exist in a world with so much evil. The argument is used by them to prove that Christianity is “internally self-contradictory and thereby to be rejected” (Feinberg, 413). So, the problem of evil is explaining that a perfect, all-powerful, and all-loving God can exist in a world with so evil. First, natural and moral evil need to be distinguished. Natural evil is defined as “evil which occurs in the process of the functioning of the natural order” (Feinberg, 414). People are not responsible for these happenings; they are simply victims and no one is to blame. The devastation that resulted from Hurricane Sandy is a perfect example of such evil, along with afflictions such as cancer and earthquakes. Moral evil, on the other hand, is defined as “evil produced by activities of moral agents” (Feinberg, 414). This evil stems from intentional action, such as murder, stealing, and adultery. Natural evil is part of the consequences of moral evil that resulted from the fall of man in the Garden of Eden. The vast amount of evil that exists in the world is not because God created it, but because man allowed it. Man was not created with a built-in evil nature; he was created with a free will that was exercised to purposefully sin. God gave Adam a choice to......

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Philosophy of Religion

...Introduction Philosophy of religion is a branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion, including the nature and existence of God, the examination of religious experience, analysis of religious vocabulary and texts, and the relationship of religion and science. It is an ancient discipline, being found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy, and relates to many other branches of philosophy and general thought, including metaphysics, logic, and history. Philosophy of religion is frequently discussed outside of academia through popular books and debates, mostly regarding the existence of God and problem of evil. The philosophy of religion differs from religious philosophy in that it seeks to discuss questions regarding the nature of religion as a whole, rather than examining the problems brought forth by a particular belief system. It is designed such that it can be carried out dispassionately by those who identify as believers or non-believers. Religion: A Part of Metaphysics Philosophy of religion has classically been regarded as a part of metaphysics. In Aristotle's Metaphysics, the necessarily prior cause of eternal motion was an unmoved mover, who, like the object of desire, or of thought, inspires motion without itself being moved. This, according to Aristotle, is God, the subject of study in theology. Today, however, philosophers have adopted the term philosophy of religion for the subject, and typically it is......

Words: 1759 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Phil201 Study Guide Lesson 16

...Study Guide: Lesson 16 Philosophy of Religion: Introduction Lesson Overview: With this lesson, we begin our unit on philosophy of religion. Religious questions are among the most important for the vast majority of persons: Is there a God? Is there an afterlife? Why does God allow evil and suffering? How can we know God? Are miracles possible? What is the relation between faith and reason? In this first lesson, we explore exactly how philosophy and religion relate to each other. Can we objectively explore religion from a philosophical vantage point? We will critically examine 2 extreme answers to this question and then arrive at a proposed way that religious beliefs can be philosophically investigated. Tasks: Read chapter. 1 of Philosophy of Religion: Thinking About Faith, “What is Philosophy of Religion?” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions: * Explain the distinctions between philosophy of religion and sociology, history, theology, and religious philosophy. * Explain the arguments for and problems with fideism. * What 2 factors do Evans and Manis raise in answering the fideist claim that critical reflection about religious beliefs is arrogant and presumptuous? * According to Evans and Manis, is it possible to be completely neutral, and is it valid? * How is critical dialog a balance between fideism and neutralism? * What are some criteria for testing basic religious beliefs, suggested in Evans and......

Words: 259 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Theodicy A theodicy is simply a justification of God’s ways. Theists are generally compelled to express a theodicy in response to the unfortunate, painful, evil events and circumstances found in our world. A theodicy is necessary only if we believe in a God who is inherently good, thus requiring an explanation of the apparent discontinuity between a good God and evil in the world. In order to express my own theodicy, I will discuss the forms of evil in the world and their various manifestations as well as whether or not creation as a whole is a “good” expression of the creator God. I will also discuss how eschatology affects our view of evil and God’s part in allowing or interfering with evil. Finally, I will discuss which theodicy I find most complete and why, as well as some of the strengths and weaknesses of my own theodicy. Evil in the World Expressing a theodicy requires a basic understanding of evil which can be referred to in light of that expression. The problem of evil has been dealt with in three separate classifications during our class time and reading; moral, natural and gratuitous evil. Moral evil is an evil event or circumstance caused by a human. Examples of moral evil would be murder, lying, stealing and greed. Moral evil results as the consequence of the decisions made by human beings exerting their free will. War, oppression and slavery are prime examples of moral evil perpetrated by human beings. Natural evil includes the pain and suffering......

Words: 1951 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Problem of Evil

...storms, flood, drought, and blight (philosophy. These evils happen with thousands of people dying daily for no reason. The problem of evil is a touchstone of any religion. The direct confrontation with evil results in suffering, and thus endless questions about the meaning of life. That is why all religions have to give a proper answer regarding the origin, nature and end of evil ( Many people think these occurrences are evil and why does God allow them to happen. To believe in God is difficult because of all of the evil that he allows. This is because many evils (for example, the suffering of children) seem to serve no justifiable purpose. Therefore, these kinds of evils count against the existence of God. These evils are called gratuitous (or pointless) evils. ( The pointless evils that exist show that God may not exist. The different religions of the world justify that a God does exist. Many religions of the world believe that you cannot have good without evil because it helps to keep things balanced. Brihaspati, the guru of the gods says: "All creatures, even gods, are subject to passions. Otherwise the universe, composed as it is of good and evil, could not continue to develop” ( Some religions believe that to exist on earth is evil in it self. These religions believe that everything that a......

Words: 1601 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Rationalization of Belief

...“It is fashionable to wax apocalyptic about the threat to humanity posed by the AIDS virus, “mad cow” disease, and many others, but I think a case can be made that faith is one of the world’s great evils, comparable to the smallpox virus but harder to eradicate. Faith, being belief that isn’t based on evidence, is the principle vice of religion.” - Richard Dawkins Many other philosophers and professionals of academia criticize religion for its reliance on faith. More specifically, they condemn the act of using faith to reason –rationalizing actions based on something other than evidence or proof. My argument does not necessarily confine itself to the focus frame of religion, but more generally, I argue that it is justified to form beliefs that are not grounded in sufficient evidence. I will use my initial motivation for this topic as an appropriate introduction for this argument. Throughout the semester I was genuinely intrigued by the atheistic arguments of astounding philosophers –most notable and influential on my own beliefs were the ideas of Hume, Dawkins, Clifford, and even Nietzsche. In light of this and the logically superior option to argue against the existence of God, … I did. In fact, I was four pages into what was shaping out to be the best paper I’ve written since my secondary school thesis on underwater basket weaving. At some point, however, I could not continue writing. I had no passion, desire, or any sense of purpose while trying to grind......

Words: 1528 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...Question 2: What exactly is the “problem of evil”? What is the difference, if there really is any difference, between so-called “moral evil” and “natural evil”? How does John Hick, in his essay “Problem of Evil”, set about solving the problem of both “moral evil” and “natural evil”? Do you think that either, or both, of Hick’s solutions is really able to solve what appears to be an unique problem of evil in Arthur C. Clarke’s story, “The Star”? Andrew Craven 4734976 PHIL1F90 Brandon Keyes The problem of evil can be looked at in a variety of perspectives, John Hick the author of “The Problem of Evil” states that “if God is perfectly loving, he must wish to abolish evil; and if he is all powerful, he must be able to abolish evil. But evil exists; therefore God cannot be both omnipotent and perfectly loving” (TP.64). Throughout this essay John Hicks’ solutions to the problem of evil will be analyzed and compared to the unique problem of evil in Arthur C. Clarke’s “The Star”. Another subject that will be deliberated on are the differences between moral evil and natural evil. Moral evil in general is wickedness and cruelty. God can be held indirectly responsible for this form of evil in the way that he created human, and humans cause wickedness and cruelty in almost all aspects of life whether it be towards others or self inflicted. On the other hand, God can be held directly responsible for natural evil which he has complete control of. Natural evil can be related...

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Does God Exist

...Does God Exist “You can’t prove God exists and you can’t prove God doesn’t exist”. This is the response one often hears when the question of God’s existence is raised. If God is not material, but spiritual, then science can’t prove that he exists, because he can’t be measured. Also, science can’t disprove, because it can’t give a definite answer. In this paper, I will present both sides of the argument and conclude that God must exist. First, I will begin by examining Augustine’s evidence supporting God’s existence. Then, I will lay out the opposing viewpoints. While I present Augustine’s evidence, I will give special attention to his primary argument which is based on the fact that if there is something superior to reason, then it must be God. We are not asked to believe in God on the basis of faith alone, without any evidence, but we can indeed prove the existence of God to a reasonable degree of certainty. Even though we can prove that God exists with a reasonable amount of certainty, I ponder whether or not there is a sound argument for the nonexistence of God. I order to prove anything; we must first start with a foundation that must be accepted as truth. Augustine begins with the platform that we exist. Augustine makes this clear to Evodius by saying “It is obvious that you exist, and this could not be obvious unless you were alive, therefore it is also obvious that you are alive” (33). The mere fact that we can argue is a proof of our existence. Next he asks whether...

Words: 1048 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Is Science a Religion?

...INTRODUCTION Is science a religion? This topic has been debated by many creationists and scientists alike. The philosophy of science makes no claims to knowledge about the supernatural or metaphysical and, by not so doing, is left with an enterprise that although hugely successful is also permanently on trial (Manne, 2010). The only thing scientists can agree upon is the empirical nature of science, but the steps from observations to theory are not without philosophical problems. DISCUSSION Thomas Kuhn thinks that scientific paradigms are essentially pictures of the world that are consistent with observations and logically coherent. But such pictures are necessarily always incomplete, at least until such time as we know everything, and our minds seem to struggle to accept this; it seems like there is an aesthetic compulsion to create harmonious images, even if that means filling in the spaces with metaphysical constructs. Andrew Brown states that the dictionary is wrong; science can be a religion too. He explains that if you strictly use the dictionary definition of science then it cannot be considered a religion, but if you look at science objectively you can see how it could be considered one. He makes a strong argument that religion has too many definitions for science to not be considered one. Richard Dawkins believes the opposite. He states that science is based upon verifiable evidence. Religious faith not only lacks evidence, its independence from evidence is its......

Words: 1808 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Atheism and Postmodernism

...not actively deny Gods existence, so could be interpreted differently. Positive atheism: Like negative atheism there is an absence of God however, positive atheism goes one step further. It is the firm denial of religion, the person has thought about the possibility of religion and has consciously denied it. For example, Prof Brian Cox has suggested that religion is a 'fairy story' which shows positive atheism as he has consciously made the decision to reject religion. We can assume God does not exist. Gavin Nyman 'Definitive metaphysical claim about the non-existence of God' Negative atheism: Absence of God: does not actively deny God. An example of this would by a baby who has not had time to make a conscious decision about the existence of God. We cannot assume anything, so we must assume he does not exist. Agnosticism: From the Latin 'without knowledge.' Like Negative atheism there is an absence of belief, however, unlike Negative atheism it does not deny the existence. Postmodernism One of the key ideas of a postmodernist view of religion, unlike traditional views, is that there is no objective knowledge or absolute representation of reality. It is culture or society that dictates our concepts and the way we categorise and see the world. Hence religion is seen as a cultural construct. Religious claims have no claim to absolute truth. They are merely relative and subjective. This reliance on a person’s perspective therefore means that there is no grand or meta‐......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essay On Augustine On Evil

...The main big issue which occurs in problem of evil is that how God and evil can exists together, for instance if God exists, then there should be the prevention of evil, and if evil exists in the world that shows that God does not exist. This problem is logically explained by the Augustine in this paragraph. All powerful, all knowing and perfectly nice God would not allow any evil or suffering in the world. Augustine considers God as “completely innocent of evil”, the almighty all powerful God all good wouldn’t create anything evil or do anything evil. Evil is although a corruption in the good created by the God. It is not anything that God created by itself but it is the beings who did corruption in the good, which leads that to evil. Evil and bad deeds depend on good, but good does not depend on evil. Pride is the beginning of sin (Ecclesiastes 10:13). Consequently the bad will is the cause of the bad action, but nothing is the efficient cause of the bad will. An evil will in that thing in which there had been previously a natural good, which the evil will was able to diminish by corrupting it. He who inordinately loves the good which any nature possesses, even though he obtained it, himself becomes evil in the good and wretched because deprived of a greater good. Augustine says that evil does not exist but evil is the corruption in the good of creation. Our bad choices of the free will lead to evil. God is the ultimate being and the ultimate reality. Human beings created......

Words: 737 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Phi 200

...Philosophy and Religion PHI 200 Angela Lohr Ashford University Abstract Philosophy and Religion have always been a source of contention between people. In the following pages we ask ourselves and discuss if humans need to prove the existence of god and if it is necessary? What the strongest argument for the existence of God is and what are the foundations of the universe. These are all important questions that we need to ask ourselves. In the end, no matter what your beliefs are, as long as you are happy with your life that is all that matters. God affects the lives of people differently and has certainly been a contentious subject for hundreds of years. Despite the antiquity of this question, new aspects of this debate have arisen recently, partly because of developments in science and philosophy. Big Bang cosmology is the best-known example, but each year brings new results of research into the origins of life and of our universe. Craig, W. Lane, Sinnott A. Walter (2004). Some people go through their entire lives and fully believe that there is a greater all powerful being somehow surrounding them and watching them. Others believe that there is nothing out there and that when you die that there is nothing in the universe that is going to judge you and condemn you to a life of pain and suffering, you just return to the earth and that’s it. So back to the question, is proof for the existence of god necessary. Clearly the answer to this question......

Words: 2137 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

The Problem of Evil

...The problem of evil is no problem at all In religious texts the world over the Abrahamic God possesses three inherent traits. He is omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent. God's omnibenevolence is one of the most appropriate reasons for worshiping him. But with that being said one finds it hard to view God as omnibenevolent when there is so much evil and suffering in the world. Some Atheists, perhaps unjustly, wield this discrepancy between idealistic dogma and perceived reality as strong evidence against the existence of God. First assume God exists. Along with his other powers, and most importantly for our species, God is supposed to possess omnibenevolence. Imagine a world created by an omnibenevolent god. What would this world look like? Most simply stated it would probably be a world like our own but with the absence of malevolence and suffering. This is a problem however, because by definition it does not match the world in which we exist. By imagining a universe without evil surely an omnipotent being could create such a thing if he so chose. God does not seem to have created such a universe, therefore he cannot be said to possess omnibenevolence. Or perhaps God wished to create such a universe but was incapable, refuting his omnipotence. Some atheists have used this line of thought to argue against any notion of a benevolent, all powerful God. At face value some might find this completely plausible but it is not as firm an argument as an atheist would hope. The...

Words: 1191 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Star

...Father Tom: On a recent trip to a far away galaxy, a team of astro-physicists, including me, came across a planet that was engulfed by a super-nova explosion. When we got to that planet we found evidence of human-like life. How can God create an entire planet and then destroy it just as quickly? What are the characteristics of this God? Is this God worthy of our worship? How does God allow for such evil? John Hicks: Father Tom, it seems like you have come across the problem of evil. Sarah: What do you mean of the problem of evil? Is evil not a consequence of the devil? A fallen angel who wants all of God’s followers to turn to him instead? The Devil: Yes, Sarah you are correct. I am the source of all evil; the one who causes the pain and suffering in the world today. JH: Sarah, do not listen to him. He is not as powerful as God. His power is not enough to cause all of the evil on the world. S: Then what is the “problem of evil”? JH: God is known as all powerful, all knowing, all good. If God exists, and if he is all powerful then he is able to change and eliminate evil. If God is all knowing then he has full knowledge of all evil that occurs in the world. If he is all good then he wants to create a freedom from evil. But, evil exists. So, if evil exists then God isn’t all powerful, all knowing and/or all good, or God does not exist. FT: Without God, there would be no problem of evil. God created all things, so God created evil; natural and moral. S: What do you......

Words: 994 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Short Essay 1 Bailey, Jesse

...Essay on Topic [e.g., Hamartiology: The Problem of Evil (Theodicy)] [Write your essay here, which must contain 600–800 words for the first 3 Short Essays.] Word count: [Post the word count of just your actual essay, not including title.] The problem of evil is perceived to be portrayed by the following propositions: 1, God is omnipotent; 2, God is wholly benevolent; 3, evil consequences that result from the actions and events befall mankind; 4, the omnipotent being of 1 and 2 eliminates all the evil that he can; 5, there are no nonlogical limits to what an omnipotent being can do; 6, so God will therefore eliminate every evil that is logically possible for him to remove (Elwell, pg. 413). The prepositions 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 would mean that 3 is negated making the six points self-contradictory. In the Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, we find two types of evil; the bad (or moral evil) and the harmful (natural evil). These two evils are distinct from eachother but, you cannot seperate them. Natural evil is the consequence of moral evil. Moral evil is when man breaks God's law and natural evil is a result of mankind's sinful nature. Adam brought on God's curse on mankind and the world when he willfuly disobeyed God. With this disobedience, man invited sin and corruption into God's perfect creation. A theodicy is a defensive position on the goodness and omnipotence of God in view of the existence of evil. Many such theodicies exist with scientists, philosophers,......

Words: 789 - Pages: 4