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Religion and Politics

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Submitted By radioheaded
Words 500
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"ღმერთი რომ არ არსებობდეს, აუცილებელი იქნებოდა მისი გამოგონება." ვოლტერი რელიგია ჩვენი დღევანდელი კულტურის განუყოფელი ნაწილია, მაგრამ არავინ იცის, თუ ზუსტად როდის გაჩნდა იგი, სწორედ ამიტომ არსებობს საფუძვლიანი ეჭვი იმისა, რომ რელიგია ყოველთვის არსებობდა. მანამ, სანამ უშუალოდ რელიგიის წარმომავლობაზე დავიწყებდე საუბარს, თვითონ ამ ცნების განმარტებაა აუცილებელი. რელიგია არის რწმენის, კულტურული სისტემებისა და განსხვავებული მსოფლმხედველობის კრებული, რომელიც კაცობრიობას არსებობის ცნებასთან აკავშირებს. სამი ყველაზე უფრო გავრცელებული მონოთეისტური რელიგია (იუდაიზმი, ქრისტიანობა, ისლამი), რომელთა მიხედვითაც ღმერთი იყო ის, ვინც შეგვქმნა ჩვენ და ყველაფერი ჩვენს გარშემო, მხოლოდ დაახლოებით 4000 წლის წინ გამოჩნდა, მაგრამ ადამიანები მანამდეც არსებობდნენ და, შესაბამისად, არსებობდა რელიგიაც. ვფიქრობ, რომ აუცილებელია რელიგიისა და რწმენის ერთმანეთისაგან გამიჯვნა. რწმენა არსებობს მას შემდეგ, რაც არსებობს ადამიანი, რელიგია კი უფრო კომპლექსური ცნებაა, რომელიც თავის თავში მოიცავს რწმენასაც და მისი მუდმივობა, ასე ვთქვათ, მუდმივად არსებობის დაშვება, არასწორი იქნებოდა, რადგან ის არ ეფუძნება რწმენას, როგორც ასეთს, მისი ყველაზე უფრო ზოგადი მნიშვნელობით, არამედ კონკრეტულად რაღაცის/ვიღაცის რწმენას. გამოცდილება იყო ის, რამაც ქვის ხანის ადამიანებს ასწავლა, რა იყო მათთვის კარგი და რა ცუდი, რა იყო საკვებად ვარგისი და რა - არა, მათი ცოდნა გარესამყაროს შესახებ ძალიან მწირი იყო და მხოლოდ ემპირიულ რეალობას ეყრდნობოდა. ჩემი აზრით, სწორედ უცოდინრობა და სამყაროს შეცნობის წყურვილი იყო ის, რამაც საფუძველი ჩაუყარა რელიგიის შექმნას, რადგან: * რელიგია მეტ-ნაკლებად გვაძლევს პასუხებს იმ კითხვებზე, რომლებზეც პასუხის გაცემა ჩვენ წარმოუდგენლად გვეჩვენება: * ადამიანებმა შექმნეს რელიგია, რათა აეხსნათ ბუნების დამაბნეველი ფენომენი რელიგია, ასე ვთქვათ, მეტ-ნაკლებად გვპასუხობს, თუ რატომ არსებობს ბოროტება და ტანჯვა, რატომ არსებობს ბუნება, რატომ ვარსებობთ ჩვენ. * რელიგია გვიქმნის კომფორტს: რელიგიური ახსნები იმ ფაქტს, რომ ადამიანი მოკვდავია, ნაკლებად აუტანელს ხდის. * რელიგიური ცნებები უდავო და დაურღვეველია და მათი უარყოფა უფრო ძნელია, ვიდრე მათი დაჯერება, ამიტომაც ხალხის მართვის კარგი იარაღია. ადამიანები ვერ ეგუებიან მოკვდავობას, ცდილობენ, მოძებნონ გზები, თუ როგორ დარჩნენ ცოცხალნი სიკვდილის შემდეგ. სწორედ ამიტომ, რწმენა იმისა, რომ ადამიანი არ არის მხოლოდ მატერიალური საგანი და მას აქვს სული, რომელიც სიკვდილის შემდეგაც აგრძელებს სიცოცხლეს, უფრო აიოლებს, მარტივს ხდის ამ ქვეყნად ცხოვრებას. ადამიანი, რომელიც ვერ მიმხვდარა, თუ რატომ გაჩნდა ამ ქვეყანაზე, მიზანს უსახავს საკუთარ თავს, მიზანი, მიუხედავად მისი ბუნდოვანებისა, აზრს აძლევს მის არსებობას. სიკვდილის შიში ყველაზე გამორჩეული და მძიმე ფსიქოლოგიური ტვირთია, რომელიც ადამიანებს გვიწევს, რომ მხრებით ვატაროთ მთელი ჩვენი ცხოვრება. რეალურად, არ არსებობს ახსნა იმისა, თუ რატომ არის ზოგიერთი ადამიანი უბედური, ზოგი - ბედნიერი, რატომ არ არის ყველა ცოცხალი არსება თანაბარ პირობებში, მაგრამ ადამიანის ტვინი ისე არის მოწყობილი, რომ ის ეძებს ახსნას, და თუ ეს ახსნა ძნელი მისაკვლევია, იგონებს რაღაც ზებუნებრივს, ამოუცნობს, რომელსაც მიაწერს ამ აუხსნელ მოვლენას. პირველი რელიგიები სწორედ გონების ძალით აუხსნელის ასახსნელად შეიქმნა. ქვის ხანაში ელვა, ჭექა-ქუხილი, წვიმა და მზის ნათება აუხსნელი მოვლენები იყო, სწორედ ამიტომ, მაშინდელმა ადამიანებმა ამ უკანასკნელთა მიზეზად მათი ღმერთები გამოიგონეს, რომლებიც პასუხისმგებელნი იყვნენ თითოეულ მოვლენაზე, ადამიანებმა კი მოიხსნეს პასუხისმგებლობა თავიანთ ბედზე და სხვას გადააბარეს იგი. ასე შეიქმნა ღმერთი, მაგრამ რელიგია თავის თავში არ მოიცავს მხოლოდ ღმერთსა და ღმერთის რწმენას, ღმერთის შექმნას თან მოჰყვა რიტუალების, თქმულებებისა და სხვადასხვა კულტურული სისტემის გაჩენა, რამაც საბოლოოდ ჩამოყალიბებული სახე მიიღო და მას რელიგია ეწოდა. რელიგიის წარმოშობა ადამიანის გონებრივ განვითარებას მოჰყვა თან და დღეს თავდაპირველისაგან აბსოლუტურად განსხვავებული სახით არის წარმოდგენილი ჩვენს პლანეტაზე, ახლა აღარ გვჯერა, რომ რა ღმერთია, დღეს ჩვენთვის ღმერთი სულ სხვა ვინმეა.

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