Renaissance and Reformantiom
Submitted By Litsch
Renaissance and Reformation Effects
The Renaissance began in the 1300s in Florence, Italy and reached to the 15th Century where it spread to the whole Western Europe. Renaissance means “rebirth” because of its changes from the primitive medieval times to the modern Renaissance. Both, the Renaissance and the Reformation had many effect on the European society and some of their impacts were combined. They believed that the human spirit had to be reawakened as it was in the classical times of Greece and the Roman Empire. Many new inventions, techniques and ideas helped to change the human society and caused a spiritual and religious crisis that shatters the Christian unity known as the Reformation.
Many elements affected the social economic in the Renaissance. Everything began with the humanist as they revived an interest in ancient Greece and Rome to increase their understanding of their own times. During the process of this time period the society shifts from agriculture to urban in which trade is inter-regional and growing fast. The growth of trade helped the merchants to become powerful money leaders and developed a new middle class. In one hand the Renaissance effected individual scholars, writers, artists, wealth merchants and ruler could patronize the arts. But in the other hand the peasants still had their old simple life’s in which they had to work hard and fight for staying alive. But not only had the economy changed, there were also some changes in fine arts, where paintings became more realistic by the use of perspective and shading. However, scientists learned about the human anatomy which gave them a much better understanding of the human body what improved their healing techniques so they actually cured their patients and through the studying of ancient Greece and the Holy Roman Empire many architects adopted the classical style of their domes, columns and arches. All in the entire nation got wealthier more educated and the society focused on emphasizing the role and experience of the individual in achieving human greatness what improved the standards of living.
The Reformation began in Germany and radiated throughout northern Europe where it affected the social economy in its own ways. After people read the Bible in vernacular language they started to realize the church betrayed them and there is no need to go to the divine service anymore. They began to have questioning attitude against traditions and authority which let them demand for a return to an authentic Christian relationship between the individual and society and caused the divisions of the Christian religion into many different sects like Lutheranism or Calvinism. Peasant took up Martin Luther’s ideas and hoped to gain support for changes. German princess advocate his reform for more selfish reasons. They saw it as a change to take over church and the Holy Roman Empire. The Reformation effected individuals on all levels of society and caused fights which killed many or left them homeless and poor. But it also helped to loosen the connection between the church and the nation and ended the religious unity of Europe forever. It strengthens the state as disadvantage for the church and set it into motion as a series of social and political reactions that set the stage for a violent future in Europe.
The Reformation and the Renaissance transformed the relationship of individual and society. People were sick of the old attitude. They started to appreciate their own experience and got new conception of human beings which were not related or controlled by their religion and church. It weakened the hierarchy and caused a social reform where poor peasants and citizen had a better life. Through the invention of the printing press by Johannes von Gutenberg, and the writers’ use of vernacular language, humans started to read more, mostly the Bible, which improved their education and made it possible to spread new reforming ideas to a much larger audience. Indeed the Reformation and the Renaissance promoted secularism and encouraged people to ask questions and learn to dedicate their own future.