Premium Essay

Renal System

In: Other Topics

Submitted By cocoxcourtney
Words 318
Pages 2
Renal system urinary system
The kidney job is to filter metabolic wastes excess iron and chemicals from the blood to form urine. Every day the two kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to be able to produce 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluids. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder by 2 thin tubes of muscle called ureters one tube on each side of the bladder the bladder will then store the urine. The kidneys are important because they keep the composition or make up if the blood stable which in turn will help the body function. The left kidney is located slightly higher than the right kidney because of the liver but more because of the right side of the liver because the right side of the liver is much larger than the left side of the liver.
Urinary Bladder
The bladder is located in the pelvis between the pelvic bones the bladder is hollow and a muscular balloon shaped organ that expands when it is filled with urine. Though a person cannot control kidney function they however can control when the bladder empties. A normal bladder can act like a reservoir and can hold up to 1.5 to 2 cups of urine, how often does the person needs to urinate depends on how fast the kidneys produce the urine that fill the bladder.
The urethra is a tube which passes urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body, the female urethra is approximately 2 inches long and ends inferior to the clitoris and superior to the vaginal opening. In males the urethra is around 8 to 10 inches long and ends at the tip of the penis, the urethra is also an organ of the male reproductive system as it carries sperm out of the body through the…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Acute Renal Failure

...ACUTE RENAL FAILURE Overview Acute renal failure is the most common disease in the acute care setting. It is estimated that acute renal failure occurs in up to 25% of all patients admitted to the hospital with a critical illness (Broden, 2009). It is even noted that patients who are admitted to the intensive care unit with no prior renal insufficiencies seem to have worse outcomes than do patients who have preexisting acute renal failure (Broden, 2009). Acute renal failure is a rapid decrease in kidney function, leading to collection of metabolic waste in the body. The pathophysiology of acute renal failure is reduced blood flow to the kidneys, toxins, infections and obstruction (Broden, 2009). There are three types of acute renal failure. They are pre-renal azotemia. This is caused by poor blood flow to the kidneys. The most common causes of this are hypovolemic shock and heart failure. The second type is intra-renal acute renal failure. This is caused by infections, drugs, tumors, glomerulonephritis, and obstruction. The third type is post-renal azotemia. It is caused by an obstruction outside of the kidneys (Dirkes, 2011). Assessment Data Ongoing comprehensive assessments are critical for the acute renal failure patient. The nurse must be attentive to the signs and symptoms of renal disease as well as complications with other organs and systems. The primary effect of acute renal failure is a decrease in urinary output that leads to fluid retention and edema.......

Words: 1773 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Kidney Worksheet Hca265

...underwent open heart surgery to replace several blocked vessels in her heart. On her first day postoperatively, it was noted that she had very little urine output. Answer questions 1-8 below. In each scenario, the patient is experiencing renal failure. 1. What is happening to Ms. Jones’s kidneys, and why is it causing the observed symptom? when a person produces less than 500 milliliters of urine in 24 hours, this defines decreased urine output (Northwestern Memorial Hospital, 2007). Ischemia, hemorrhage, poisons, and severe kidney disease may cause renal failure. 2. What other symptoms and signs might occur? Lethargy, weakness, shortness of breath, and generalized swelling may occur. Acute Renal failure: sudden drop in urine production, headache, gastrointestinal distress, and odor of ammonia on breath. Chronic renal failure: longstanding kidney disease such as chronic glomerulonephritis, hypertension, or diabetic nephropathy. 3. What is causing Ms. Jones’s kidney disease? The causes can be “from dehydration due to vomiting, diarrhea, or fever, with a lack of adequate fluid intake, severe infection leading to shock, drugs like anticholinergics, methotrexate, and diuretics” (Northwestern Memorial Hospital, 2007). Chronic renal failure: poorly controlled diabetes, poorly controlled high blood pressure, and chronic glomerulonephritis. Damages directly to the kidney itself include sepsis, medications toxic to the kidney like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory......

Words: 837 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Abstract: Renal failure can take its toll on those affected patient and family. At the end of 2009, there were 572,569 U.S. resident under treat for End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Among the U.S resident with ESRD, there were 150.5 deaths per 1,000 patient totaling 88,620 deaths in all patients undergoing ESRD treatment. With so many experiencing the disease, understanding how it occurs and progresses might prove useful. Table of Contents Introduction…………………………………………..…………………………………..4 Mechanisms of Fluid Regulation………………………………………..7 Discussion……………………………………………………………………………….8 Etiology/Cause……………………………………….………….............8 Clinical Manifestations…………………………………………………11 Labs and Diagnostic Tests……………….……………………………..11 Treatment……………………………………………………………………………......13 Pharmacological…………………………………………………..……15 Nutritional………………………………………………..…………….15 Dialysis…………………………………………………………………16 Introduction The kidneys are bean shaped organs that are approximately 12cm long, 6cm wide and 2.5 cm thick. They are highly vascular, receiving 25% of cardiac output. The kidneys efficiently separate the excess of fluids, electrolytes, and metabolic by-products to produce urine. The kidneys’ location is described as retroperitoneal which means they are located outside and posterior to the abdominal cavity but lateral and anterior to the lumbar spine. Both kidneys are protected by the posterior rib cage; with the right kidney slightly lower then the left because of......

Words: 4236 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

The Urinary System

...The Urinary System The urinary system plays a major role in maintaining the salt, water, and pH homeostasis of the blood. It carries out the process of excretion, which is the removal of metabolic waste from the body. The urinary system includes the kidneys, the ureter, the urinary bladder and the urethra. The kidneys produce the urine, the uteter transports the urine, the urinary bladder stores the urine and the urethra passes the urine outside of the body. As the bladder fills with urine, sensory impulses go to the spinal cord and to the brain. The brain can override the urge to urinate. When urination occurs, motor nerve impulses make the bladder contract and the sphincters relax. The functions of the urinary system include excretion of metabolic wastes, maintenance of water-salt balance and the secretion of hormones. The structure of the kidneys include: The renal cortex- It is the outer, granulated layer that dips down in between an inner layer called the renal medulla. The renal medulla- The renal medulla consists of cone-shaped masses called renal pyramids. The renal pelvis- A central space continuous with the ureter. The kidney is composed of over 1 million nephrons or renal tubules. The nephrons filter the blood and produce urine. Each nephron is positioned so that the urine flows into a collecting duct. Nephrons enter the same collecting ducts and the collecting ducts eventually enter the renal pelvis. There are three processes of urine formation:......

Words: 521 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Pathophysiology of Cancer and Renal Failure

...Pathophysiology: Neoplasia and Renal System School of Nursing 1. Cancer Staging Cancer staging describes the severity of a person’s cancer based on the person’s initial tumor, and whether or not the cancer has metastasized (American Cancer Society, 2012, Knowledge of the stage is very important in that is can be used to explain prognosis to the patient, and can be used by the doctor and the patient to plan treatment. Staging of cancer is based on knowledge of the way in which cancer progresses in the body. Malignant cells grow and reproduce without any control or order, and they do not die when they should. In most cases the cancer cells will form a mass called a tumor. As the tumor grows it can invade tissues and organs that are close to it. The malignant cells can also break away from the tumor and enter the bloodstream (Lemone, 2004, p. 284). There are five common elements considered in most staging systems: site of the primary tumor, tumor size and number, lymph node involvement, cell type, and the presence or absence of metastasis. A common staging system is called TNM, which stands for Tumor, lymph Nodes, and Metastasis. When staging a number is added to each letter to indicate the size of the primary tumor and the extent of the cancer spread. (Lemone, 2004, p. 284) Infection, immunity and inflammation in cancer patients are all interrelated. They form what could be...

Words: 1463 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Renal Transplant and Medication Compliance

...Renal Transplant and Medication Compliance: Patient-Centered Nursing Interventions will Facilitate Better Patient Compliance of Medications in Post-Renal Transplant Recipient Yonica Jamieson Jersey College Abstract Patient in compliance with prescribed medications or treatments is warrant, in any medical condition. This research paper, focused and took a look at the effects of non-compliance with immunosuppressant medications in post-renal transplant recipients, such as graft rejection. Identified some barriers to compliance and discussed how patient-centered nursing interventions should be used to alleviate these barriers and bring about compliance with immunosuppressant medications, at the same time decreasing graft rejection in renal transplant recipients. Renal Transplant and Medication Compliance: Patient-centered Nursing Interventions will Facilitate Better Patient Compliance of Medications in Post-Renal Transplant Recipients In medicine, the term non-compliance is commonly used in regard to a patient who does not take a prescribed medication or follow prescribed course treatments (MedicineNet, 2012). This is one of the major issues with post-renal transplantation recipients. Renal transplant is a surgery done to implant a healthy kidney into a person with end-stage renal disease. End-stage renal disease is when the kidney stops function all together, that makes the person unable to live without......

Words: 1277 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Structure of Kidney

...capsule. Excretory systems regulate solute movement between internal fluids and the external environment. The kidney, the excretory organs of vertebrates is the mammal’s principal organ of excretion and osmoregulation. Osmoregulation regulates solute concentrations and balances the gain and loss of water. Thus, regulation of the osmotic concentrations of blood plasma by the kidneys ensures the osmotic regulation of all other body fluids. Excretion gets rid of many toxic metabolic waste products, particularly the nitrogenous compound urea. The mammalian excretory system centers on paired kidneys, which are also the principal site of water balance and salt regulation. Nephron is the functional unit of the vertebrate kidney approximately one million of nephrons can found in human kidney. Nephrons perform the function osmoregulation and excretion by filtration, reabsorption, secretion and excretion. Pressure-filtering of body fluids involve only filtration of most small molecules from blood plasma to form an ultrafiltrate of plasma. Selectively reabsorption by reclaiming valuable solutes like most of the water and other molecules from the ultrafiltrate and leaving behind waste material will be excreted. Secretion of hydrogen ion into the urine helps to maintain the acid-base balance. Excretion is to remove the metabolic waste products and unwanted chemicals or substances into the filtrate. Approximately 99% of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed into the system in the nephron......

Words: 1069 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Case Study

...patient was admitted to the hospital based on an abnormal finding from a CAT scan. They CAT scan showed a mass in her right kidney. The patient described that she had no idea of the mass. She went in for a CAT scan because of blood in her urine and experience of her previous diagnosis of kidney cancer, and was informed of the findings. In June of 2013, she had received a total left nephrectomy because of malignant neoplasm in her left renal pelvis. She also informed me that she was born with three kidneys, one left and two rights. However she now only has the two right ones. Malignant neoplasm of the renal pelvis means any new or abnormal growth of tissue found in the renal pelvis associated with cancer. The kidneys are bean shaped, so the renal pelvis is the hollow collecting area in the center of each kidneys right before the ureters. The renal pelvis and ureters are both lined with a layer of transitional cells, which is the same lining as the bladder. Like with any cancer, the transitional cells continue to multiply causing masses (“Cancer of the renal pelvis”, 2014). Since DK has been a constant smoker for most of her life, her chances of developing this type of cancer were increased. Cancer has been in DK’s generations for years. Her grandmother was diagnosed with breast cancer, her sister died of pancreatic cancer, her sister has been diagnosed with breast cancer, and her other brother and sister both have colon cancer. Cancer is something that has been very familiar......

Words: 4610 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

The Facts on Renal Cell Carcinoma

... The Facts on Renal Cell Carcinoma Carla Henthorn COM/156 5/30/14 Craig Carroll Did you know that the renal cell cancer (RCC) represents 2% of all cancers and about 5% of all epithelial carcinomas (Haase, 2012)? Renal cell carcinoma is a rare but treatable cancer, and collecting duct carcinoma is the rarest of kidney cancers. Renal cell carcinoma and collecting duct carcinoma come in many forms, and can grow to large masses undetected for years without signs or symptoms. By knowing your family history you can assess your risk factors, and possibly prevent getting this disease. Keeping up to date with your yearly exams and tests can prevent or at least catch it early enough to treat and or cure it. In the event you or a loved one does end up with renal cancer, joining a support group such as a greif support, would be beneficial in helping to deal with all the aspects of dealing with having cancer. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common primary malignant (cancerous) renal tumor affecting approximately 170,000 patient per year worldwide (Haase, 2012). With the death toll of about half of that per year. Although renal cell carcinoma is treatable, it can and has gone undetected by signs or symptoms for years. It is not until the patient notices a lump on their side that is uncomfortable when bending over that they suspect something is abnormal. Often the lump is not painful, it is just bothersome. This is how it can fully metastasize (spead to other organs or tissues)......

Words: 1515 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Man with the Swollen Leg

...Urinalysis indicates significant increase due to kidneys inability to reabsorb water during urine formation; suggest a reduced ADH effect Chemistry: * Reabsorption of water depend on hormonal regulation Cells: * Principle cells in collecting duct Tissues: * Tubules are atrophic * Renal tubule are less responsive to ADH * Connective tissues exists between tubule Organ systems: * Brain * Kidney * Skin * Blood * Vessels * Urinary bladder MR. NEWMAN Clinical presentation: * Fever * Severe flank Patient History: * Bilateral lumbar tenderness * Bilateral renal enlargement * Liver enlargement * Ankle and facial edema * Skin pallor * Lung sounds suggest pulmonary edema Vital signs: * BP: 172/100 * HR: 92 * Temp: 102.2 Test and Indications: * Blood test indicates anemia and infection * Urinalysis indicates loss of urine and renal disfunction Chemistry: * Potassium: 5.4 mEq/ liter * Calcium: 6.8mg/ dL * Phosphate: 4.3mEq/liter * Urea: 37mg/dL * Creatinine: 2.0mg/dL * Albumin: 2.9gm/ dL * pH: 7.29 Cells: * Cysts in kidneys Tissues: * Renal (very little exists) * No renal cortex or renal medulla identified Organ Systems: * Lungs * Kidneys * Skin * Blood * Penis * Brain * Heart * Liver ...

Words: 255 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Hs 130 Unit 9 Assignment

...Digestion: A Great Discovery Lauren Walker HS130 Unit #9 Assignment Kaplan University 11/19/13 Good morning everyone!! Are we ready for another exciting trip through the human body?! Today we will be following the food of 55 year old Harold who recently ate a hamburger and French fries and is now washing it down with a nice tall root beer. We will be following his meal through his GI tract and I will tell you all about all the structures that we will see on the way. Once we arrive at the distal ileum, we will make a small change to our route by getting into his blood stream. We will follow the superior mesenteric vein to the renal artery. Once there, we will travel through the heart, lungs and eventually reach his kidney. We will make our way into the urinary tract where we will eventually leave his body by way of his urethra. If we hurry, we can catch a ride on the tail end of it! As long as everyone is ready, let’s go Our journey will begin in Harold’s mouth, where he is chewing the last bite of his hamburger and washing it down with root beer. The clear fluid that you will see mixing with the chewed up bits of food is saliva. Saliva has enzymes that help break down the food for digestion. Next, digestion moves into the pharynx and then further down into the esophagus. Once inside the stomach, which looks like a large sac, you will see a small round muscle, called the sphincter. This keeps Harold’s food (and us) from flowing back up into the esophagus. Now inside...

Words: 1081 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...DOCUMENT #7 ~~~~~~~~ Disorders of the Genitourinary (GU) and Renal Systems Instructions: 1. Read this entire RRD (Required Reading Document) and other documents mentioned. 2. Work on Assignment #7 and submit by designated deadline. Note about objectives /outcomes and studying for this course: For ALL content in this course, the student will be able to DESCRIBE/DISCUSS/IDENTIFY correlations (links) between pathophysiology of the disease and its clinical manifestations. In other words, #1: how does the pathophysiology of a particular disease cause the signs and symptoms, and #2: if a patient presents the signs and symptoms of a disease, be able to use critical thinking to figure out the disease process that is most likely in that context. Objectives /outcomes for this subject: 1. the relationship between key aspects of normal genitourinary function and the pathophysiology involved in select genitourinary-related conditions, including: • female-specific disorders: endometriosis, ovarian cancer, PID, UTIs. • male-specific disorders: testicular cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer • nongender-specific problems: STIs, urologic obstructions 2. the relationship between key aspects of normal renal function and the pathophysiology involved in select renal conditions, including: • hydronephrosis. • glomerulonephritis • acute kidney injury (AKI; previously known as ARF—acute renal failure) and chronic kidney disease 3. signs and......

Words: 6035 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Renal Failure

...Renal failure In this paper we will discuss the cause and effect of renal failure. Renal failure is also known as kidney failure. Your kidneys provide many vital life sustaining functions and when they fail there could be many reasons for this from disease to damage. Depending on the severity of your renal failure your options may or may not be limited. Treatment options consist of Dialysis or kidney transplant. Renal failure is a reduction or total cessation of the glomerular filtration. Your kidneys provide many vital functions for your body to sustain life. Kidneys are responsible for filtering out the waste products from the body. You create waste from the food and drink that is indigested. Kidneys are also responsible for maintaining the water-salt balance in your system which in turn helps maintain blood pressure. They also help maintain the acid base balance in your body. Kidneys produce Erythropoietin, a hormone that travels to the red bone marrow, where it stimulates the production of red blood cells. Your kidneys also activate the vitamin D that is synthesized by your skin via the sun or ingested when we eat certain foods. The kidneys transforms vitamin D into a form that we can use called calcitriol. Calcitriol promotes the absorption and use calcium and phosphorus by the body. (J.G. & B.M. ch16) When your kidneys fail they are then referred to as renal failure. Renal failure can happen for many reasons. Renal failure can be acute, meaning immediate or......

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...also develops earlier. Hypertension may also run in families. Being overweight also increases the pressure on the artery walls. Inactive people also tend to have higher blood pressure rates. People who are using tobacco, too much salt or too little potassium are also considered to be at a higher risk of hypertension. High levels of stress can also lead to a transitory but striking increase in blood pressure. Hypertension is an important risk factor for several serious pathophysiologic conditions, including atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, sleep apnea and renal disease. II. Etiology and pathophysiology of the disease Pathophysiology Hypertension pathophysiology can involve congenital conditions which affect the cardiovascular system, such as heart abnormalities which reduce the cardiac output, or abnormalities in the parts of the nervous system which play a role in regulating blood pressure. High blood pressure can also be caused by a disease process which impairs some aspect of the body involved in blood pressure regulation, but in some cases, hypertension pathophysiology cannot be identified in a specific patient, with the focus of treatment being on lowering blood pressure, rather than trying to determine and address the cause of high blood pressure. The pathogenesis of essential hypertension is multifactorial and highly complex. Multiple factors modulate the blood pressure (BP) for adequate tissue perfusion and include humoral......

Words: 4889 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Urinary System

...Essay Assignment – Unit 3 cont’d Urinary System A. Describe the structure of a kidney nephron and its associated blood vessels. * There are two parts of a kidney nephron; the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule. The renal corpuscle is the part of the kidney where the blood plasma is filtered and the renal tubule is the part of the nephron where the glomerular filtrate passes through after reaching the Bowman’s capsule. The renal corpuscle is made of the Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus. In the glomerulus, there are capillaries located between the afferent arteriole and bring blood into the glomerulus and the efferent arteriole, which drains the blood away from the glomerulus. (IvyRose Holistic) There are cells that form the outer edges of the glomerulus and they form close attachments to cells of the inner surface of the glomerulus and these cells stick together and form a filtration membrane that would enable water and solutes to pass through the 1st wall of the Bowman’s capsule. * In the renal tubule, the first part of it is the Proximal Convoluted Tubule [PCT]. Solutes and water that have passed through the PCT would enter the Loop of Henlé and the water and the substances in it passes from the renal cortex and then into the renal medulla and then back to the cortex. The water and the substances dissolved in it returned to the renal cortex via the ascending limb of Henlé and then it passes through the Distal Convoluted Tubule [DCT]. The DCT converges......

Words: 676 - Pages: 3