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Renewable Energy Wave Technology Overview

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Renewable Energy Wave Technologies

Table of Contents: 1.0) Introduction 2.0) Wave Technologies 3.0) Where can it be used? 4.0) Wave Technologies 4.1) For the Study only consider the following Technologies: 4.2) Current Issues with Wave Energy Generation 4.3) Oscillating Water Column (Scowcroft) 4.3)1. Construction of OWC at Isle of Islay, Scotland 4.3)2. Installed OWC Technology 4.3)3. OWC cost 4.3)4. Problems with OWC 4.4) Pelamis 4.4)1. Construction of Pelamis 4.4)2. Installed Pelamis Technology 4.4)3. Pelamis Costs 4.4)4. Problems with Pelmis 4.5) Wave Technology: CETO 4.5)1. Installed CETO Technology 4.5)2. Construction of the CETO Technology 4.5)3. CETO Costs 4.5)4. Problems with CETO 5.0) Application in Australia 5.1) Wave Technology feasibility in Australia 5.2) What is the plan for Western Australia? 5.2)1. Wave Technology selected for Western Australia is the CETO system by Carnegie Wave Energy Limited 5.2)2. Why is the CETO the right option for Western Australia. 5.2)3. Looking Ahead 6.0) Conclusion

1.0)

Introduction For my assignment I have reviewed the wave technology energy generation. My main objective was to select some technologies that was installed and showed the most promise to succeed in the open market. I also looked at the possibilities for using these technologies in Australia and especially in Western Australia.

2.0) Wave Technology Overview 2.1) What is the Wave Technology about? Wave energy is a renewable energy whereby we capture the energy that is being generated naturally by waves. Waves get their energy from the wind passing over the surface of the sea as well and can transmit their energy over long distances with little degradation; wave energy is considered a significant renewable energy resource. 2.2) Define the goal of this Technology The irregular and oscillating flow of wave energy in oceans – kinetic energy as it is called – has tremendous energy potential and if harnessed could provide a tremendous addition to a clean energy system. 2.3) The potential of this Technology The potential for wave energy is truly tremendous, with some estimates of deep-­‐water wave power resources creating upwards of 10 terawatts, which is a little less than the amount needed to supply worldwide energy consumption.

3.0) Where can it be used? Wave power systems are not practical everywhere due to the variation in wave energy. Ideal locations for wave energy farms exist on the western coasts of Scotland, Northern Canada, Northwest America, Southern Africa, and Australia.

4.0) Wave Technologies The following picture shows all the major wave technologies available. (Mann 2009)

4.1) For the Study only consider the following Technologies: •LIMPET(Land Installed Marine Powered Energy Transformer) or OWC (Oscillating Water Column) •Pelamis • CETO 4.2) Current Issues with Wave Energy Generation •Wave energy is irregular which can create problems with absorption rates •Wave energy devices need to withstand major oceanic assaults such as storms and saltwater corrosion •Currently wave power is very expensive to the point where it is not yet competitive with fossil fuel energies •State and federal legislations as well as public outcries over the degradation of ocean views are stalling several major projects •There are some concerns about the environmental impact of wave energy for marine populations

4.3) Oscillating Water Column (Scowcroft)

•Wave energy farms can result in the displacement of fishing grounds, which can have a negative impact on local economies •Toxic leaks or spills can occur when liquids used in wave power systems are accidentally released, contaminating local habitats

The oscillating water column (Scowcroft) is a device mounted onshore or as an offshore floating device that produces electricity by the movement of air across a turbine. When a wave approaches on shore, the wave displaces air within the OWC, turning a turbine. When a wave retreats back, air is sucked into the OWC and the turbine spins in the same direction as before. This continuous process produces electricity by converting the mechanical work of the turbine into electricity via a generator. Point absorbers are wave energy devices that take advantage of the elliptical motion of particles resting on ocean surface waves. When any object sits on a surface wave, it moves in the lateral direction as well as in an up and down motion, resulting in an overall elliptical motion. Point absorbers utilize this energy by transfer the up and down motion into a hydraulic piston, which pumps water. This pumped water can be utilized to turn a small turbine within the point absorber or to spin a turbine offshore.

4.3.1) Construction of OWC at Isle of Islay, Scotland The first photo shows the virgin landscape before work where started at the site.

The first stage was to drill blast and excavation of rock in the area to install the concrete funnels for the OWC system. This work was under estimated for time, the rock removal took much longer then first plans.(Belfast 2002)

The second stage was the concrete work; this is massive and had to be done in phases.

The third stage is the removal of the wave rock bund that was left in front of the installation, by blasting and excavation.

Fourth stage is the turbine installation with all the control systems and power transmission lines.

The infrastructure of the OWC is mind blowing for just a 500kW output! 4.3.2) Installed OWC Technology

OWC technology is in use in the Isle of Islay, Scotland, where a system called LIMPET has been installed since. This system has a maximum output of 500 kW. It is ideal for locations where there is strong wave energy, such as breakwaters, coastal defences, land reclamation schemes and harbour walls. This form of energy generation is suitable for producing power for the national grid.

4.3.3) OWC cost •The original 400kW project in Portugal was financed largely by the European Commission; estimated total costs are €2-­‐ 3M ($2.4-­‐3.6 million) (Aquaret 2008) That is $7.5 million average for 1 MW. •The OWC energy is currently quite expensive operating at 14 cents per kWh. This is due partly to the expensive installation costs and technology development; note this is calculated at the installation producing its nameplate capacity. 4.3.4) Problems with OWC •The first Norwegian OWC was ripped off a cliff-­‐face during a storm, the Islay station is completely submerged under storm conditions. •Islay Limpet’s OWC production was over-­‐estimated. “In terms of the amount of energy we are generating, we are doing very poorly,” ex-­‐ plains Tom Heath, the engineering manager of Wavegen. “The plant we installed was rated at 500 kW, but at present we are getting no more than 15 kW from the Islay plant. We simply are not getting the power conversion efficiency we planned for.” (MacKay 2007) 4.4) Pelamis The Pelamis is a semi-­‐submerged, articulated structure composed of sections linked by hinged joints. The motion of these joints is resisted by hydraulic rams, which pump high-­‐pressure oil through hydraulic motors. The motors drive generators to produce electricity. Several devices can be connected together and linked to shore through a single seabed cable. The machine is held in position by a mooring system comprising of a combination of floats and weights, which prevent the mooring cables becoming taut to maintain the Pelamis positioned and allow it to swing head-­‐on to oncoming waves. The 750 kW full-­‐scale prototype is 120m long and 3.5 m in diameter and contains three power conversion modules, each rated at 250 kW. Each module contains a complete electro-­‐ hydraulic power generation system.

4.4.1) Construction of Pelamis (Pelamis 2012) The Pelamis first stage is a welded construction, this is labour intensive and the Pelamis is a surface submarine, which needs coded welders to perform this task.

The Second phase is fitment of the hydraulic system and electrical systems

The Final Stage is the assembly of the total system in the dry docks.

4.4.2) Installed Pelamis Technology The Aguçadoura Wave Farm was the world's first wave farm. It was located 5 km offshore near Póvoa de Varzim north of Porto in Portugal. The farm was designed to use three Pelamis wave energy converters to convert the motion of the ocean surface waves into electricity, totaling to 2.25 MW in total installed capacity. The farm was officially opened on the 23rd of September 2008, by the Portuguese Minister of Economy. The farm first generated electricity in July 2008 but was taken offline in November 2008 at the same time as Babcock & Brown encountered financial difficulties and with some technical difficulties.

The construction of Pelamis is highly specialised activity from start to finish. Qualified Welders, Hydraulic Technicians and Electricians are needed for the task.(Carcas 2006)

4.4.3) Pelamis Costs •Pelamis Aguacadora wave power project had cost €9 million (AU$10.8 million) and had a total of capacity of 21 MW. •The world's largest Pelamis generator, with a capacity of 3 MW generated by four Pelamis machines will cost over 4 million pounds to be installed of the cost of Scotland. That is AU$6.25 million which translate to $2 million/MW generated. •Estimated cost of Electricity is around 32.2-­‐ 39.1 c/kWh for a total of 213 x 750 kw units. (Bedard 2005) This value is highly sensitive to the operating and maintenance cost.

4.4.4) Problems with Pelamis •Recurrent problem was detected with the bearings in the hydraulic jack's articulation in all machines, prompting their move to the shipyards. This means disassembly of the unit to replace these bearings.

•Leaks was found in the buoyancy tanks. Leaks are critical because to repair anything on the Pelamis system it must be towed to a dry dock for repairs.

4.5) Wave Technology: CETO The CETO system distinguishes itself from other traditional wave energy devices by being a fully submerged, pumping technology that drives the hydraulic fluid onshore therefore generating power. Submerged buoys are moved up and down by the ocean swell, driving pumps, which pressurize water that is delivered ashore by a subsea pipeline. Once onshore, the high-­‐pressure water is used to drive hydro turbines, generating zero-­‐emission electricity.

The high-­‐pressure water can also used to supply a reverse osmosis desalination plant, creating zero-­‐emission freshwater. Currently, seawater desalination plants are large emitters of greenhouse gases due to the amount of energy required to drive grid-­‐connected pumps that deliver the high-­‐pressure seawater to reverse osmosis membranes, which remove the salt from the seawater

4.5.1) Installed CETO Technology Perth Wave Energy Project (PWEP) •Stage 1 which has already been completed, involved the manufacture, deployment and testing of a single commercial-­‐scale autonomous CETO unit off Garden Island. For this stage, the CETO unit was not connected to shore but was stand-­‐alone and autonomous, providing telemetric data back to shore for confirmation and independent verification of the unit's performance. •Stage 2 of the project involves the design, construction, deployment and operational performance evaluation of a grid-­‐connected commercial-­‐scale wave energy demonstration project, also at Garden Island. The facility will consist of multiple submerged CETO units in an array, subsea pipeline(s) to shore, hydraulic conditioning equipment and an onshore power generation facility 4.5.2) Construction of the CETO Technology The Ceto system consists of the following components, buoyant actuator, connectors, tether, pump, attachment and foundation. Not much detail is available on the construction but the buoyant actuator is from welded construction with some chambers inside which control the buoyancy, the connectors and tether is manufactured from marine grade steel. The pump system is piston that will have a non-­‐return system also from marine grade steel. The attachment will also be manufactured from marine grade steel that is bolded down on the base. The simplicity is such that spare parts can be manufacture and change out on failure or schedule maintenance. (Mann 2009)

4.5.3) CETO Costs •Estimation of 5MW Ceto wave power project was AU$12.5 million, which translate to $2.5 million/MW generated •Carnegie Wave Energy, which is currently working on the installation of the 2MW installation near Fremantle, says its CETO technology will shortly have a levellised cost of energy of around 35c/kWh, which means it will be able to compete with the cost of diesel on island grids, but over the medium term, Carnegie expects its costs to fall to around 25c/kWh, making it cost competitive with offshore wind, and making it an interesting proposition for other wave-­‐rich European countries such as Ireland, Portugal and France, while over the longer term, the aim is to bring the cost down to match that of onshore wind, or around 10c/kWh, where it will be competitive in countries such as Chile. (Parkinson 2012) 4.5.4) Problems with CETO •The unknown is the biggest problem. •The new technology of up sizing, new buoyancy actuator, pump and connection. •Leaks in the buoyancy actuator due to bio fouling. •General corrosion. 5.0) Application in Australia 5.1) Wave Technology feasibility in Australia •Australia has a Renewable Energy Target, which mandates that 45 000 gigawatt hours of Australia’s electricity supply will come from renewable energy sources by 2020. A carbon price will also be introduced from 1 July 2012, which will make large emitters of carbon financially liable for their emissions. (Burea of Resources and Energy Economics 2012) •Current investigations into the feasibility of wave power suggest that wave energy is a technology, which does have the potential to be economically viable in Australia. For wave energy to make this transition will require some improvements in the capital and operations and maintenance costs. (CSIRO 2012)

Australia Renewable Energy Installation Capacity more than 30kW

Capacity of renewable electricity generation in Australia, 2010

What are the current opportunities for wave technology? The total southern part of Australia shows high potential for wave technology installation.

5.2) What is the plan for Western Australia? •The first wave energy project in the Southern Hemisphere is set to commence operation in Western Australia next year, with the federal government announcing almost $10 million in funding May 2012. •WA-­‐based energy company Carnegie will begin construction of Australia's first commercial scale grid-­‐connected wave project next year, which will be located on and around Garden Island, with power delivered by the end of 2013. (Mirghani 2012) 5.2.1) Wave Technology selected for Western Australia is the CETO system by Carnegie Wave Energy Limited. Advantages of CETO •Simple -­‐ pumping system, electrical generation onshore, manageable size •Developed & Proven -­‐ over 10 years in-­‐ocean at 1/3rd & commercial scale •Flexible -­‐operates in variety of water depths, swell directions, tides & seafloor conditions •No Visual Impact -­‐ fully submerged •Storm Survivability -­‐ fully submerged & energy relief system •Security -­‐ provides emissions free sustainable energy and water security to countries & islands •Scalable -­‐ modular array design •Minimal -­‐ environmental impact, co-­‐exists with marine life. •Desalination -­‐ zero-­‐emission freshwater & co-­‐production possible 5.2.2) Why is the CETO the right option for Western Australia? Desalination plants are a reality for WA because of the shortage of water. With the Ceto system water can be pumped out of the sea with zero emissions to the desalination membranes and also use to drive a Pelton wheel connected to a generator to produce electricity.

Source: Western Australia Water Corporation (2008).

5.2.3) Looking Ahead When is the next milestone? •Construction and commissioning is targeted to be completed in 2013. What are the expected deliverables? •When the project is completed, it will provide up to 2MW of installed capacity delivering clean electricity up to the equivalent of I,000 households and contribute to domestic Australian greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. (Mirghani 2012) Known risks and issues •Bio fouling of moving parts. •Corrosion of steel parts.

6.0) Conclusion The wave technologies are still in its infant stage of development, most systems are very expensive and the energy output is moderate to the money spent for its development and installation. The best potential is the CETO 3 system, which develops a peak power of 200kw and produces a constant pressure of 77 bar, which is high enough to supply seawater to the desalination plant. (Ottaviano 2011)

References Burea of Resources and Energy Economics (2012). "Energy In Australia." from http://www.bree.gov.au/documents/publications/energy/energy-­‐in-­‐australia-­‐ 2012.pdf.

Aquaret (2008). "Case Study – European OWC pilot plant Pico/Azores." from http://www.wisions.net/files/tr_downloads/Aquaret_Pico_OWC.pdf.

Bedard, R. (2005). "Final Summary Report Project Definition Study Offshore Wave Power Feasibility Demonstration Project." from http://oceanenergy.epri.com/attachments/wave/reports/009_Final_Rep ort_RB_Rev_2_092205.pdf.

Belfast, T. Q. s. U. o. (2002). "ISLAY LIMPET WAVE POWER PLANT." from http://www.wavegen.co.uk/pdf/LIMPET%20publishable%20report.pdf.

Carcas, M. (2006). "The Pelamis Energy Convertor ". from http://hydropower.inel.gov/hydrokinetic_wave/pdfs/day1/09_heavesurge_wav e_devices.pdf.

CSIRO (2012). "Ocean renewable energy." from http://www.csiro.au/~/Media/BEA2D11E313C498BAD26624B0BE911F9.ashx.

MacKay, D. J. (2007). "Sustainable Energy – without the hot air." from http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/sustainable/book/tex/sewtha.pdf.

Mann, D. L. (2009). "The Carnegie Wave Energy CETO Wave Energy Project." from http://www.sut.org.au/perth/perth_events/SUT_Carnegie_Evening%20141009. pdf.

Mirghani, P. (2012). "WA to launch world-­‐first wave energy project." from http://www.watoday.com.au/wa-­‐news/wa-­‐to-­‐launch-­‐worldfirst-­‐wave-­‐energy-­‐ project-­‐20120501-­‐1xwk7.html.

Ottaviano, D. M. (2011). "Commercial Scale Results Independently Verified." from http://www.carnegiewave.com/files/asx-­‐ announcements/2011/110908_Verified%20CETO%203%20Results.pdf.

Parkinson, G. (2012). "Where can wave energy be cost competitive?". from http://reneweconomy.com.au/2012/where-­‐can-­‐wave-­‐energy-­‐be-­‐cost-­‐ competitive-­‐12918.

Pelamis (2012). "Manufacturing & Assembly." from http://www.pelamiswave.com/manufacturing-­‐assembly.

Scowcroft, H. (2012). "Diesel exhaust fumes ‘definitely’ cause cancer – should we be worried?". Retrieved 23/01/2013, from

http://scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org/2012/06/14/diesel-­‐fumes-­‐definitely-­‐ cause-­‐cancer-­‐should-­‐we-­‐be-­‐worried/.

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