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RESEARCH PROPOSAL

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Table of Contents

Working Title……………………………………………………………………………………..3 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………..3
Background of the Study………………………………………………………………...……3
Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………………………..3
Rationale for the Topic………………………………………………………………………..4 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………………..4 Research Objectives…………………………………………………………………………...5 Research Questions……………………………………………………………………………5
Literature Review…………………………………………………………………………………6 Cultural Tourism………………………………………………………………………………6 The Importance of Cultural Tourism………………………………………………………….7 Tourism Development………………………………………………………………………...7 Case Study: Natural History Museum………………………………………………………...8 Economic Impact……………………………………………………………………………...8 Employees and Services………………………………………………………………………9 Tourists’ Behavior…………………………………………………………………………...9 The NHM as Visitor Attraction……………………………………………………………….9
Research Methodology…………………………………………………………………………..10 Research Philosophy………………………………………………………………………….10 Research Approach and Design………………………………………………………………11
Data Collection…………………………………………………………………………….....11 Data Analysis Method………………………………………………………………………..12 Sampling Technique………………………………………………………………………….12
Ethical Consideration…………………………………………………………………………….13
Time Plan for the Research………………………………………………………………………13
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………….14
References……………………………………………………………………………………….14

Working Title
The role of museums in cultural tourism - a case study of the Natural History Museum

Introduction
Background of the Study
At present the museums have gained notice as a major component within urban opposition, due to its important role for raising local incomes and developing a culture for tourism. A Museum is beneficent from economic and social perspective for a country. They can be called hub of cultures they are no doubt properly planned. The more of museums the more a nation is successful. With the passage of time the need of establishing more museums has grown, Due to this realization, different countries have focused their ethnographic funds towards gaining a maximum number of museums. Museums contribute in the betterment of society from economic point of view, because a museum portrays a very lively cultural image of a city, not only just to local audience but it also becomes a centre of attraction globally. Museums earn their revenue from tourists or the adventurers who want to learn about multi cultures. Research conducted earlier have predicted that in 2006 international visitors to main UK galleries and museums spent £350 million in terms of their visit, while on the other hand UK visitor, were found to have spent £245 million in 2004, This review shows that the most of the visitors are passionate about museums and they don’t compromise on spending money to fulfill their passion.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of present study is to explore the effective role of museums in cultural tourism, whereas keeping in mind certain factors as the insights of intending tourists, in relevance with other issues regarding destination choice of visitors.

Rationale for the Topic
From natural history’s point of view, museums serve to preserve some of the reality. Natural History Museum ranked among top museums of the world. The administration aims at satisfying the visitors. The display of various insects, dinosaurs, stones and minerals presents natural history museum as a perfect show for general science education. Museum may be rooted in scientific branches of study, for example botany, zoology, entomology, mineralogy, paleontology and anthropology. These branches lead to the basic know how of central phenomena of biological science: ecology, evolution, behavior, climate change, agriculture, biogeography along with relevance to human sciences like philosophy. No doubt a museum plays a significant role in the development of cultural tourism.

Statement of the Problem

Cultural tourism is a place that invites people to visit galleries of museum that are full of interesting cultural show. Influx of tourists in great number can cause problems along with some ease. Cultural tourism helps the tourists to know the local culture and a sense to respect the local people and their culture. Moreover, tourism develops country’s economy. It launches greater chances for jobs to the local labors. Furthermore, tourism promotes a peace friendly environment. On the contrary sometimes problems of petty nature arise by tourists, in terms of management, overcrowded number of tourists, or lack of tolerance on personal level of tourist.

Research Objectives
Following Research objectives provide the basis for current study.

• To examine perceptions of NHM in cultural tourism;
• To identify the main barriers to visiting NHM;
• To explore the behavior of tourists visiting in NHM.

Research Questions
The research will seek to answer to the following questions:

• How can cultural tourism be defined in terms of the experience of tourists?
• How can NHM affect in the development of tourism?
• What is the economic impact of NHM?
• What are the critical factors for the success?

Literature Review
Cultural Tourism
The term “cultural tourism” is generally referred to a vast concept, but that needs to be focused. Academicians held cultural tourism responsible for development of market, but were not sure how to describe a market.
Some efforts made to define cultural tourism are numerous like one says that it absorbs the culture of visitors (Richards, 2001). Nevertheless, this interpretation is sometime deviating in terms of defining true purpose of museum.
Tourists have to face different cultures with a cultural tourism skill. They welcome the unacquainted culture. On the contrary, academics categorize cultural tourism is a discipline just limited to group that is studying some culture.”A distinct product grouping that is distinguished from tourism attractions or activities by depletion of a destination’s intangible and tangible cultural heritage (Leask and Yeoman, 1999).”
Aluza, O’Leary and Morrison (1998) identified heritage and culture travel by observing travelers coming from UK. The general perception that the culture tourism market is the combination of certain features was subjected to test by the finding five distinctive parts by conducting two phase combined bunch analysis. The names of these sections were given as: family/resort/sunbathing (31.2%), heritage/younger/backpacker (16.4%), heritage/middle-age/family clusters (23.9%), older/urban/heritage (15.7%), and visiting friends and relatives (12.8%). The finding disclosed that these sections have certain independent characteristics, and it was suggested that all the cultural travelers can have their own point of view through freedom of expression.
McKercher (2002) states that cultural tourism can be categorized into various subparts based on the intensity at which tourists are impressed by museum and their choice influence their purpose. Some school of thought recommends culture a major role to influence tourists, while other school of thought negates this concept.

The Importance of Cultural Tourism
Since a long time people have developed a taste for cultural tourism, changing life style has provided them with a chance to know more about others that’s why they go for overseas travel to quench their thrust to know multicultural aspects around the continents. Moreover this initiative on the part of common people has served to develop cultural tourism. This tendency is very profitable from cultural and economic point of view. The important features are as follows;
• It changes the general perception about an area – cultural tourism is measured as a “green industry” in 21st century, it is environment friendly.
• It gives an innovative idea– the trend of tourism in world and local markets become a token of a nation’s identity.
• It brings prosperity to local area- many such adventures within countries can instigate worldwide interest to attract visitors. Government has worked on betterment of such cultural places.
• It inculcates a passion of exploring – culture depicts a seducing offer to tourists from all the world and indirectly raises money to strengthen economy.
Tourism Development
At present time tourism market is known to be as the one of the largest industries over the world. According to the report of the WTO (World Tourism Organization), tourism is “a social and economic phenomenon.” Different modes of travel as rail, air, sea are there to facilitate tourists. The facts presented by WTO states that “from 1950-2005, the overseas tourism generated annual amount of 6.5%, increasing from 24 million to 805 million travelers. While on international level it generated a huge amount of 842 million in 2006, demonstrating a 4.6% year growth.” This data shows the importance of tourism in generating for country by portraying a positive image around the world that also serves to maintain peace.

Case study: Natural History Museum
The Natural History Museum is one of the top museums in London. The museum is made the center of study for branches like taxonomy, recognition and preservation. The monuments and
The basis for collected works is provided by field of botany, mineralogy, paleontology, entomology and zoology. The museum has successfully preserved sensitive heritage. The Natural History Museum is a place, where the variety of natural history of the world can be seen, from mammoth skeletons to microscopic slides. The trend of manufacturing high skyscrapers, cars, roads and other scientific inventions that have defiantly facilitated human being but at the same time it has deviated man from taking pleasure in nature, they just limit their interaction with nature to formal trips to zoo or any museum. The eye-catching flora in Africa has displayed some of the preserves taken from British museums. This is a step that ensures the growing demand of museums. Natural History Museum does not take an admission fee. The museum is looked after by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Economic Impact
The museums straight expenditure is £52 million. On this amount must be appended the totals spent by UK and international visitors to the NHM, calculated at £15 million for UK visitors and £39.75 million by overseas visitors. The total amount generated through visitors lies in £161.55 million and £189.54 million.
Employees and Services
The income of NHM is £52 million, out of it the 60 % is distributed among staff. There are more than 800 full time staff, 120 part-time workers and 100 contractual staff. NHM’s spends money on infrastructure and sometimes for maintenance.
Tourists’ Behavior
People are confused about how to set their priorities in their busy life. They want to get entertainment no matter if it comes from a city break holiday or any visit to a cool spot. Secondly, tourist tendencies and interest is crucial to decision makers of the tourist industry.

The NHM as Visitor Attraction
Almost 6.6 % of 22.8 million tourists from UK visit NHM. Among them 13.5% of tourists tend to visit NHM. The museum is playing the role of a bridge between UK and London tourism industry. The NHM is contributing to countries economy tremendously.
Research Methodology
Research Philosophy
Research philosophy makes a major part of research methodology, so it helps scholar to collect data in more précised form. “Research paradigm is gives importance to a set of shared values, assumptions, concepts and practices.”(Johnson, 2010). Research philosophy is a combination of various ideas that are linked with the purpose of researcher. It makes research more focused. Smith (1998) favored optimism that it is a way that gives a clear concept of quantitative approach to explore under study topic effectively. Sundars (2003) admits that positivism is generally used in biology and it is an objective test that looks into matter critically. It is agreed to be an approach that can gather the different philosophies of natural science at one point, for example, universal law, unchanging philosophy or fixed philosophies and the idea of everything that is a part of nature. In positivism paradigm the researcher emphasizes on the sensitive role of analyst that he or she is suppose to be objective and no prejudice should effect his findings while exploring the data and should set a valid result with the purpose to achieve research objectives and goals. “In a vacuum there is no reality, it is actually the different perspectives of a certain thing that can be real and unreal both, and different forms of reality are resultantly predictable”(Hughes, 1994).
In giving his point of view about the nature of interpretive philosophy, Forbes et al (1999) suggests that it can be changed with new and innovative ideas like “merited reality”; i.e. it is a recommendation that is result oriented and provides evidence as a proof of phenomena.
The characteristics of interpretive methods generally consider multiple approaches of qualitative method i.e. the participatory and interactive role. Parahoo (1997) rightly states in this regard, that this consideration leads to a major weakness and it is rooted in the intensive affiliation of the scientists with the research.

Research Approach and Design
Scientifics and researchers use several kinds of methods to get the answers. The major two approaches consist of quantitative and qualitative method.
Quantitative research considers facts, numbers or statistics. However, it is positivism ideal and comes up with objective findings of studies. It is in fact a deductive approach.
Deductive reasoning is generally defined as a ‘top down approach’, as it conducts the study from more common to more particular or from simple to complicate.
“Inductive reasoning works in the contradicting ways; it starts from more specified and exact actions and explanations and goes to common findings or theories”(Trochim, 2006).
Qualitative research is a basic tool to explore small samples to yield more valid results and findings. For the present study both quantitative and qualitative questionnaires are used. Quantitative and qualitative questionnaires are used to get best worthy, authentic and valid results. “Triangulation is a way used to find the rational of research judgments. Applying these two study methods will bring authenticity to the argument of researcher and will empower him indirectly.” (Trochim, 2006).The present research will conduct survey. Questionnaire method is a valid way to get more specific findings from data. According to Gable (1994) survey methods are different for case studies, due to study explores that case study is not all about qualitative method rather it can assimilate quantitative details in its framework. Sample for current research will be Natural History Museum at the case study level, along with analysis of cultural tourism industry.

Data Collection
Both primary and secondary data will be used for research. Primary data includes questioners. Questionnaire is a list of relevant questions to extract information from respondents. Questionnaire has three types; semi structured, structured and unstructured.
.“Secondary data’s comprises already existing research regarding to proposed topic it can be the form of surveys conducted by certain scholars, records, government, etc.” (Vickery, 2009).
Researcher will use relevant material from articles, texts, reviewed journals, academic thesis, websites (UNWTWO, WTTC, etc.). Questions will be formulated while keeping in mind the existing and reviewed literatures and will examine behavioral modules.

Data Analysis Method
It is meant to explore relevant data using analytical device. The data is thoroughly studied to get to meet findings of the study. Data is analyzed step by step.
The first step is to organize the data, gathering relevant data, scanning, and data from computer.
Second step is to describe the features of selected data from research questions point of view.
The third step is used to explore qualitative data. Here a general perception of data is given. It is helpful in formulating questions, hypothesis and models (Trochim, 2006).
For present study data will be taken from literature and relevant subjects, and then it will be analyzed using statistic methods.

Sampling Technique
Sampling is a method that is used by researcher to extract relevant information about population. Downsizing the total number of individuals in a research facilitate the researcher. A sample is the selection of relevant researchable material from a population. Theorists from UK and Natural History Museum’s managers are included in the current study to support the idea.

Ethical Consideration
Ethical issues are about the decisions that need to be in harmony with the social and moral values of a given person or group in mind. The decision revolves around escaping procedures or certain acts that seems to compromise the moral values of a relevant person. Study focuses on how to compose a data, manage and recount it. Questionnaires will be used as a tool to collect relevant data. The research will be conducted in a relaxed friendly environment. The privacy will be maintained at necessary points. One ethical issue at this stage could be how to mention the source.

Time Plan for the Research
TASKS WEEKS
Introduction 1 week
Literature review 2 weeks
Research methodology 3 weeks
Conducting survey with questionnaires 2 week
Findings and analyses 3 weeks
Conclusion and recommendation 1 week

Conclusion
In this research I explored the role of the museum in promoting cultural tourism: a case of Natural History museum. Museums are a key towards generation of revenue either in form of getting it from local visitors or global tourists. It ensures the strengthening of economy.
Natural history museum is contributing fully in economic and cultural prosperity. If history is traced back for a century, the natural history museum has proved as an effective and valid tool to attract worldwide tourists.

References
• Aluza, A., O’Leary, J.T & Morrison, A.M. (1998). Cultural and Heritage Tourism: Identifying Niches for International Travelers. Journal of Tourism Studies v9 n2.
• Clanton, R., & Vickery, S. K. (2009). Special Topic Forum on Using Archival and Secondary Data Sources in Supply Chain Management Research. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 45(2).
• Forbes, D.A. et al (1999). Warrantable evidence in nursing science. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 29,2.
• Gable, G. G. (1994). Integrating case study and survey research methods: an example in information. European Journal of Information Systems, 3(2).
• Hughes, J. (1994). The Philosophy of Social Research. Essex, Longman.
• Johnson, B. &Christensen, L. (2010) Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches. UK: SAGE.
• Kakabadse, N. K., Kakabadse, A., & Kouzmin, A. (2002). Ethical Considerations in Management Research: A 'Truth' Seeker's Guide. International Journal of Value - Based Management, 15(2).
• Leask, A. & Yeoman, I. (1999). Heritage Visitor Attractions: An Operations Management Perspective, London: Cassel.

• McKercher, B. (2002). Towards a Classification of Cultural Tourism; the International Journal of Tourism. Research v4 n1.
• McKercher, B. & Du Cros, H. (2003). Testing a Cultural Tourism Typology; the International Journal of Tourism. Research v5 n1.
• Parahoo, A.K, (1997). Nursing Research, Principles, Process and Issues. London: MacMillan.
• Pearce, P.L. (2005). Tourists Behavior: Themes and Conceptual Schemes. Cleve don: Channel view publication.
• Richards, G. (2001). Cultural Attractions and European Tourism. Wallington: CABI.
• Saunders, M. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students. South Africa: Pearson Education.
• Smith, M.J. (1998). Social Science in Question. London: Sage.
• Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Research Method Knowledge Base. Available from: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/index.php.
• Walliman, W. (2006). Social research methods. London.
• WTO (2010). UNWTO Tourism Highlights, available at: http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/highlights.htm
• http://spirittourism.com/culture/history/natural-history-museum-cultural-attractions-london/
• http://www.lth-hotels.com/natural_history_museums_london.html
• http://www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/?doi=rjasci.2010.236.241
• http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/thomson.html
• http://statisticsbyrachel.wordpress.com/2012/02/19/sampling-techniques/

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...is in Gulshan Model Town, Dhaka from where all reservation, marketing and accounts activities are operated. The methodology, scope of the report & the limitations are also described here. The second part is about overview of Hotel Sea Crown, which includes the historical background, mission & objectives of the hotel. It also plays a great role in Bangladesh. So it faces some threats. But it has a lot of opportunity here. All the departments run here under the law of Companies Act 1994. The third part is about the finding & Analysis of the study i.e. Marketing strategy, 4ps.STP,Management strategies, Cost strategy, planning &action plan of Hotel Sea Crown & the Problem and prospects of Marketing strategy of Hotel Sea Crown at Gulshan. For continuous smooth activities of the marketing department of the Hotel take some initiatives and strategies . The part four I have discussed about conclusion & recommendation & bibliography. Hotel Sea Crown Limited has by now earned the unique position of a leading Hotel at Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh. 1.1. Background of the study As a part of the Master of Business Administration, Manarat International University (MIU) placed me at Marketing division for internship, In the internship period Rokeya Sultana, Internship Supervisor of Faculty of Business Administration MIU, authorized me- to prepare the report as part of fulfillment of internship Program. My Three months at Hotel Sea Crown, Head office as an internee had been the most enjoyable...

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...REPORT OUTLINE FORM Use this template for your report outline. Please use point form. Include section numbering and headings and sub-headings. The outline should not exceed 3 pages. Writer’s name:Wan Khar Khei Chantal | Tutorial group:G12 | Proposed Title (Tentative):The Importance of Older Workers in the workforce today | Introduction | | Background Provide an overview of the issue, which logically leads into the topic | CSR continues to be an important aspect that companies are looking into as it is becoming increasingly important to be socially responsible. Companies are more willing to adopt CSR as well because they believe that it brings them benefits in the long run thus making their business operations more sustainable. | PPQ List the PPQ, which should be logical and internally consistent | Problem: why are companies not receptive towards hiring the elderly despite the campaigns that promote such CSR practicesPurpose: The purpose in this report is to investigate why Singapore businesses are not actively hiring the elderly.Question: How effective are the current campaigns to encourage companies to hire the elderly? What are the limitations of such methods?Are these policies specific to certain industries or companies only? | Method and limitations Describe the sample size and analysis procedure.State factors that might affect the generalizability of the data, and highlight why the study is still relevant despite these limits | A survey......

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...Report Exercise Educational Goals The purpose of this assignment it to help students learn how to use the report wizard to develop reports and to use the design window to refine the reports and make them more readable. In the process, this assignment should help students learn to establish additional groupings and subtotals in reports, and to control the sort order for the report and entries within groupings. All these issues are covered in the Reports Chapter 11. Assignment Implement a Sales Journal in Tom's Trailer Sales database. The Sales Journal should look like the example below. The report has the default page footer that the report wizard creates. I have added a Chart of Accounts table to the database for you to use to use to get the account names for the report. You also will need to use the "Is Not Null" function as a selection criteria so that your report only picks up orders that have been delivered. Since this is a sales journal, only sales that can be recognized under GAAP's revenue recognition criteria should be included. For Tom's, that means only order that have been delivered to the customer. The report should look like the example at the end of the assignment. This is a complex report. I recommend that you follow the following steps in developing it: 1) Start by identifying which tables contain the data you will need for the report. 2) Then, use the report wizard to tell Access™ the fields you need from each table. ......

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...Week 8 Assignment 5.1 Click the link above to submit your assignment. Assignment 5.1: Report - Draft Version Write a formal justification report to an organization making a recommendation to implement a particular product, service, or program. The organization may have a business, governmental, professional, or social focus. The report may focus on a “real” or “made-up” recommendation, but you should direct the report to an actual organization, even if you do not plan to actually submit the report. The audience within the organization will be whatever level is most appropriate to make a decision on the topic of your report. Write a minimum of 4-6 single-spaced report pages (not including the table of contents, transmittal form, executive summary, or title page). 1. Organize the reports by section headings. 2. The report should contain relevant and applicable graphics (at least one). 3. The findings should be based on research, including at least one (1) primary source and at least three (3) secondary sources. Sources should be credible and reliable (no Wikipedia). 4. The report should reflect a style and format appropriate for business, i.e., single spacing and bullet points are acceptable for the business report. 5. Headings, figures, and appendices should follow guidelines of APA style. All in-text citations and the references page should be cited according to APA style, 6th edition guidelines. Preliminary parts 1. Title page ...

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