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Int. J. Human-Computer Studies 63 (2005) 436–451 www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhcs Developing creativity, motivation, and self-actualization with learning systems
Winslow BurlesonÃ
MIT Media Lab, 20 Ames St. Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Available online 10 May 2005

Abstract
Developing learning experiences that facilitate self-actualization and creativity is among the most important goals of our society in preparation for the future. To facilitate deep understanding of a new concept, to facilitate learning, learners must have the opportunity to develop multiple and flexible perspectives. The process of becoming an expert involves failure, as well as the ability to understand failure and the motivation to move onward. Meta-cognitive awareness and personal strategies can play a role in developing an individual’s ability to persevere through failure, and combat other diluting influences. Awareness and reflective technologies can be instrumental in developing a meta-cognitive ability to make conscious and unconscious decisions about engagement that will ultimately enhance learning, expertise, creativity, and self-actualization. This paper will review diverse perspectives from psychology, engineering, education, and computer science to present opportunities to enhance creativity, motivation, and self-actualization in learning systems. r 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Creativity; Learning systems; Psychology; Failure; Motivation

Education has the dual power to cultivate and to stifle creativity. Recognition of its complex tasks in this domain is one of the most fruitful intellectual achievements of modern psychopedagogical research.
Edgar Faure (Learning to Be, Unesco, Paris 1972)
ÃFax: 617 258 0290.

E-mail address: win@media.mit.edu.
1071-5819/$ - see front matter r 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd....

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