Free Essay

Research and Design Methodology Essay

In: Social Issues

Submitted By nurseman87
Words 595
Pages 3
Research and Design Methodology Essay

In the subject of lifespan and development, there are several different theories and methods of research. Three designs for studying development are longitudinal, cross sectional and sequential designs. Each of them has strengths and limitations. Scientists interested in human growth and development require information about the way research participants change over time. They must extend correlational and experimental approaches to include measurements at different ages to answer questions about development. Longitudinal and cross sectional designs are special developmental research strategies. In each, age comparisons form the basis of the research plan. (Berk 34.) Longitudinal design is when participants are studied repeatedly, and changes are noted as they get older. This approach has two major strengths. The first one is since it follows the performance of a person over time; the scientist can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in development. The second is that the researchers are permitted to examine relationships between early and later events and behaviors. An example of this would be The Guidance Study; where it tracks to see if children with extreme personality styles retained the same dispositions as they became adults. (Berk 34.) There are also problems when conducting longitudinal research participants might move away or drop out of research. Also due to the repetition of the study; people may become aware of their own thoughts, feelings, or actions and revise them in ways that have little to do with age related change. The most common threat is cohort effects. This is because different decades have different actions and values; these groups that are influenced by particular cultural conditions. Now researchers are using a more conventional strategy for studying development. Cross sectional design can be described as groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time. It is an efficient strategy for describing age related trends. Participants are only measured once. Problems with cross sectional research are that is does not provide evidence about development at the level at which it actually occurs: the individual. (Berk 36.) Like longitudinal they are both affected by cohort effects. There are improvements to developmental design. Researchers have devised ways of building on the strengths and minimizing the weaknesses of longitudinal and cross sectional approaches. (Berk 36.) One of the modified designs that resulted is sequential design. In this study they conduct several similar cross sectional or longitudinal studies at varying times. This is proven to have two advantages. They can find out if cohort effects are operating by comparing participants of the same age who were born in different years. Also they can make longitudinal and cross sectional comparisons. If the outcomes are similar, then the finding are more secure. Several similar research methods are systematic observation which is observation of behaviors of children and adults can be made in different ways. One approach is to go into the field, or natural environment and record behavior of interest. A method called naturalistic observation. Another type is self reports which ask participants to provide info on their perceptions, thoughts, abilities, feelings, attitudes, beliefs, and past experiences ranging from unstructured to highly structured interviews, questionnaires and tests. Clinical method brings together a wide range of information on one person, including interviews, observations, and sometimes test scores. Ethnography is similar to the clinical method, research is descriptive, qualitative technique, but instead of aiming to understand a single individual, its directed towards understanding a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation.

Berk, Laura E. (2010). Development Through the Lifespan. 5the edition. Pearson Publishing

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Research and Design Methodology Essay

...M1A1 : Research and Design Methodology 2 In order to understand human development one must observe how people change over time at different ages. In the logitudinal design participants or groups are studied over and over again at differetn times and chages are noted as they age. The observation time can very depending on information being gathered. Sometimes lasting short periods of time or years. One benefit of the logitudinal approach is that it would observe each persons performances over the specified time span, allowing to identify any patters or problems in development. Another benefit is that it allows participants to be studied at different ages. Some problems with the longitudinal approach are cohort effects, participants moving or dropping out of the study and participants change to a population that is no longer part of the study, often happening from becoming familiar with test questions and stradigies. In the cross-sectional design people are studied at different ages at the same time. For example if all of the patients at an orthopedic office were interviewed about diet and exercise, all patients were between the ages of two and sixty-four. As a result the practice could then develop a proactive approach to patient education and preventing future injuries that might be prevelant in certain age-related trends. There are problems with this sort of study as well. In the example......

Words: 622 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Impact of Hrm on Organisational Performance

...Essay Title: ‘Assess the state of the evidence in favour of HRM’s impact on organisational performance. Do the supporters of HRM’s strategic contribution have enough of a case?’ Word Count: 3,105 Abstract The evidence in favor of HRM’s impact on organizational performance is growing, however some doubt has cast on these studies. Thus, this essay suggests that the evidence of HRM-performance linkage is weak because theoretical and methodological issues remain among most of these studies. So, this essay will mainly analyze theories concerning on HRM and firm performance relationships and methodological problems in empirical studies. As there are flaws in both theories and the process of studying the relationships, this essay concludes that the evidence in favor of HRM’s impact on organisatioanl performance is weak. It seems that it is better to pay more attention to the HRM’s theories and methodologies in order to further the understanding the correlation between HRM and firm performance. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 4 2. Evidence of previous studies 5 3. Theoretical evidence 8 3.1 Categorizing theories 9 3.1.1 Strategic theories 9 3.1.2 Descriptive theories 11 3.1.3 Normative theories 11 3.2 Conceptual theories 13 4. Methodological issue 15 4.1 Measurement of HRM 16 4.2 Measurement of performance 17 5. Conclusion 18 1. Introduction Human resource managers have been worrying about the inability to prove their......

Words: 3635 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Country of Origin

...Country-of-Origin: An Overvalued Phenomenon? Date: 18 September 2014 Course: Marketing Management Workgroup: 2 Amount of words: 3,487 Authors: Dirk van der Wardt - 10868496 1. Introduction ‘Made in China, something we are proud of’ This sentence is the slogan of MISTERCHI, a company that sells scooters and motors fabricated in China. Their statement is an example of what academics call country-of-origin (COO). Just like MISTERCHI, multiple companies mention COO in their communication (Magnusson, 2011). In doing so, attempting to create positive product associations and increase purchase intentions amongst customers (Bilkey & Nes, 1982). Though COO is widely used, scientists debate its effectiveness (Balabanis & Diamantopoulos, 2008). Before commencing this discussion, it is important to formulate an accurate understanding of this phenomenon. Jaffe & Nebenzahl defined COO as follows: ‘The country which a consumer associates with a certain product or brand as being its source, regardless of where the product is actually produced.’ (2006: 29). According to Herz and Diamantopoulos (2013) the association can relate to both the country of manufacturing or the geographical origin of the product. Dichter (1962) was the first to claim that the mention of COO by companies has ‘a tremendous influence on the acceptance and success of products’ (p.116). This was later proved by Schooler (1965), turning COO into a topic of......

Words: 3579 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Project Document

...SEN 943 Software Risk Management Final Project Research Paper Summer 2014 300 Points Research Paper Objective: To demonstrate the ability to analyze scholarly articles in the area of software RM related to CSLOs of the course. Task: Read, study and analyze 10 scholarly articles directly related to the field of risk management. The links to the 10 articles are provided on the course homepage. For each article provide: 1. A 300 or more word summary of the article (not a re-hash of the paper abstract or conclusion) 2. A 300 or more word analysis of the models, formulas, processes, or addition to the field of software RM developed by the article 3. A 300 or more word personal critique of the strengths and weaknesses of the article as related to the field of software RM Each article will have the following headings: Title Author Article Summary Article Analysis Article Critique *Place a page break between each article The research paper must have: 1. A title page 2. A table of contents 3. 10 articles, each separated by a page break 4. A Ranking/Comparative Essay The Ranking/Comparative Essay In 1200 or more words, rank the top 2 articles and the bottom 2 articles that comprise your 10 articles. Describe in a comparative manner why they rank the way they do and include any ways to improve the articles that rank at the bottom two. EMS Discussion Thread Feel free to ask questions about this assignment in the course discussion thread in the......

Words: 714 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Procurement

...TermPaperWarehouse.com - Free Term Papers, Essays and Research Documents The Research Paper Factory * Join * Search * Browse * Saved Papers ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form Bottom of Form * Home Page » * Business and Management Early Supplier Involvement In: Business and Management Early Supplier Involvement Q1 – What is the logic behind pursuing early supplier design involvement with suppliers?   1. Improvement in product quality   2. Stronger communication between firms   3. Decrease in process time and production cost   4. High utilization of sources   5. Decrease in cycle-time leading to shorter time-to-market   6. Improvement in manufacturability   7. Innovative products and ideas   8. Increase team work   9. Alignment of technology roadmaps/strategies   10. Cross-functional training Q2 – If a buying company has an objective of involving suppliers early during product development, what type of questions should the buying firm ask a supplier during evaluation and selection?   1. Is the supplier willing to have a long-term commitment?   2. Does the supplier’s roadmap & policies align with those of the buyers? Do they share buyer’s vision?   3. Is supplier flexible to vary production on a need-by basis and flexible to changing demands (quantities, timeframe)?   4. Is supplier willing to share technical expertise and process knowledge to improve Product Development efficiency?   5. Is the......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Hcs/465 Applying the Background and Methodology of the Research Process

...Applying the Background and Methodology of the Research Process HCS/465 December 22, 2013 Jonathan Hoffsuemmer Applying the Background and Methodology of the Research Process A serious problem seen by nurse practitioners that work in rural areas is teen pregnancy. A peer-reviewed research paper published by The Journal for Nurse Practitioners entitled “Who Will Listen? Rural Teen Pregnancy Reflections.” There are both medical and social concerns that occur with teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy statistic shows that teen mothers give birth to premature babies with low birth weight. The social aspect is teen mothers do not complete high school and lives in poverty. These situations rank high in abuse and neglect with teen parents. Definition of the Problem Rural areas show the highest rate of teen pregnancy compared to state rates, which produces a problem that researchers are questioning why this rate is higher in the rural areas. The Theory of Adolescent Sexual Decision Making (TASDM) is the basis this research was conducted to resolve. This theory has two main objectives that include the risk-promoting environments teens experience and exposure to risky situation that create the situations teens use to justify sexual behavior (Weiss, 2012). The problem with teen pregnancy produces premature birth and low birth weight in the babies. A medical problem with teen pregnancy is the medical expenses incurred with both teenager and infant. These......

Words: 1017 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Test

...Southern States University BU-502 Applied Business Research and Communications Skills Online Spring Quarter, 2016 Updated: April 4, 2016 CREDIT HOURS: 4.0 CONTACT HOURS: 40 (40 Theory, 0 Lab) (40 Online) Instructor: Dr. Peggy Bilbruck Email: pbilbruck@ssu.edu (inquiries will be responded within 24-36 hours). For any urgent technical problems with Moodle, contact the SSU-Moodle Administrator: ssumoodle@ssu.edu Office Hours: Wednesdays on Moodle from 11 – 12 pm ONLINE TIME ESTIMATE: This course requires four (4) hours of online activities every week on Moodle plus an additional 8 hours (minimum) of homework per week. COURSE DESCRIPTION This course provides an introduction to graduate business studies focusing on the applied business research and communication skills necessary to be successful in both an academic MBA program and the current economic environment and workplace. It covers information literacy, research and research methodologies, oral and written communication skills as well as critical thinking, problem solving and decision-making paradigms. As designed, the course will familiarize students with the tools necessary for the successful presentation of theories and concepts as they apply to real world managerial scenarios including business decision-making. Prerequisite: None Prerequisite(s): None Co-requisite(s): None What is an Online Course? This is an online course so we will not be......

Words: 3521 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Business Opportunities in Global Warming

...prepared by student groups, who will prepare, introduce the discussion by a presentation, lead the discussion, and finally summarize the outcomes. Besides this, the student group will research the topic in details, and using the outcomes of the discussion the group will write a research paper (essay) on the topic. The assignment consists of four major pillars: 1. The preparation and delivery of a presentation that introduces and prepares the discussion 2. Leading the discussion 3. An oral summary of the of the topic and the outcomes 4. An essay on the topic (not just the discussion!). Assignment Description Detailed Assignment Description Discussions and topics will be prepared and led by a small group. Discussions will be introduced by a 15-20 minutes long presentation. The aim of the presentations is to introduce the topic, to give necessary and useful information (e.g. facts, figures), to share an opinion, a point of view, or even to ask a question (or more). The presentation will be followed by a discussion. At the end of the discussion a member of the presenting group shall summarize the major outcomes and conclusions of the discussion. After the seminar, the group shall summarize conclusions of the discussion and will finalise the essay. The structure...

Words: 3674 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Examples Of Critical Appraisal

...INTRODUCTION The purpose of this essay is to conduct a comprehensive critical appraisal of a research paper titled ‘Chloramphenicol treatment for acute infective conjunctivitis in children in primary care’ that was carried out by Rose et al. (2005) in the United Kingdom (UK). The aim of evaluation is to critically concentrate on the strength and limitation of the study. Firstly, a clear definition of critical appraisal and its importance will be highlighted, going on further will be the critical, analysis, discussion and evaluation of the peer reviewed paper contents so as to ascertain the validity and reliability of the study. Therefore, a conclusion will be drawn to learning its significance in public health. BACKGROUND Critical Appraisal...

Words: 1192 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Leading Change Review

...Hélène Cherrier, Sally V. Russell, Kelly Fielding (abridged from a research paper originally published in Journal of Organizational Change Management in 2012). Two review questions are addressed: 1. What does the text suggests are the key factors promoting or inhibiting the effectiveness of top management to implement corporate environmentalism within their organization. 2. To what extent which the factors identified are applicable to management conflicts during the implementation of environmentally sustainable initiatives within organizations. Purpose and design The authors’ point of view is to examine the narratives of acceptance and resistance to the introduction of corporate environmentalism. The authors researched addressed the question of “how” members of a top management team support, accept, negotiate, disregard, or reject the implementation of corporate environmentalism within their organization. In this essay, the authors’ arguments are very much clear because it highlights factors implementation of corporate environmentalism within the organization. Corporate environmentalism within the organization was unfolding throughout the data collection process. Findings The authors claim, firstly, a qualitative approach was adopted to address the research aims. Continuously, select a case study methodology as an appropriate and relevant methodology as an appropriate and relevant methodology for the research. Thirdly, according to an in-depth thematic analysis of......

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Do You Believe That the Choice of Research Method Is Simply Based Upon the Type of Information You Wish to Collect, or Do Different Methods Ultimately Reflect Incompatible Ways of View Social Reality?

...Qualitative and Quantitative Research Introduction Researchers in social sciences conduct research to gain knowledge of society and its inhabitants and how they interact with each other. A researcher may see an area where a factory has closed with mass redundancies, or they wish to enquire why ethnic minorities are stopped and searched more often by the police. The researcher is seeking to broaden our knowledge or fill in gaps in our knowledge and explain the phenomena (Bryman, 2008). To conduct the research a question must be framed that needs answering, and a methodology for the research chosen. There are two methodologies that are used in social science research, quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative methodology is influenced by the positivist tradition, which seeks a single truth that can be discovered by scientific investigation (Gilbert, 2005). The second methodology is qualitative, which is influenced by the interpretivist position. This position holds that truth is not so easy to find and reality is subjective and cannot be found through scientific methods (Benton & Craib,2001). This essay will look at both methodologies and try to discover if the research method is influenced by the type of information one wishes to collect, or if a methodology has no bearing on social reality. It will also examine a research question chosen by the author and their preferred research methodology. Quantitive Research Quantitative research follow......

Words: 2007 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Social Work

...Since time immemorial, research has been part of human life. There have been several research methods that have been used in conducting different research projects. Due, to different aims and objectives various researchers pick on different research methods in doing research. This essay seeks to look at two major research methods namely quantitative research and qualitative research method. The purpose of this essay is to analyze four main differences between quantitative and qualitative research. Amongst the key points to be examined in this essay include the difference in the data format, difference in their analytical objectives and flexibility in their study design. To fully understand, the foregoing essay there is need to define the term Research. Leedy and Ormrod (2001), define research as the process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data in order to understand a phenomenon. Allaga and Gunderson (2000), defines Quantitative Research as explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analyzed using mathematically based (in particular statistics). Creswell (2002), posits that Quantitative research uses mathematical models as methodology of data analysis, he further asserts that if there are no numbers involved, then it’s not quantitative. Qualitative research is an unfolding model that occurs in the natural setting that enables the researcher to a level of detail from high involvement in the actual experiences, Creswell (2003). Bryman (2008)......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

History

...ACHG300 HISTORY OF GRAPHIC DESIGN 3 ASSIGNMENT 5 and 6 This module is presented on NQF Level 6 FACULTY OF CREATIVE ARTS AND COMMUNICATION Module leader: MIRANTHE VAN STADEN GARBETT miranthev@mgi.ac.za: Phone: (011) 690-1825 Office number: 4 Lecturer (Remote Campus): E-mail: Due Dates: Assignment 5: Week 13 and 20 Assignment 6: Week 27 Assessments: Assignment 5: 200 Marks ( 10% final mark) Minus 5% per day deducted for late submissions Phone: Assignment 6: 100% (30% final mark). No late submissions will be accepted 1) Learning Outcomes Through this assignment, the student should achieve the following outcomes: • • • • Research, structure and write a formal academic article. Formulate an appropriate research question Apply an appropriate methodology to a specific topic Research, acquire and present in digital format a specialised knowledge of an aspect or area of African discourse or aesthetics, whether historical or contemporary. • • • Apply knowledge of history and/or theory to the chosen topic and evaluate contemporary relevance Identify and evaluate a specific case study that illuminates an aspect of African discourse or African aesthetics. Be able to explain, interpret and apply key terminologies, concepts, principles and theories in the development of a logical argument • • Formulate findings and interpretations into a sound, logical argument Support opinions and statements using authoritative sources and the correct Harvard......

Words: 2263 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Research Methods and Academic Communications

...Engineering and Environment Business Information Management Jonathan Bartlett W15023629 IS0629 Research Methods and Academic Communications Tutor: Honglei Li Assignment 2 Submission Date: Monday 4th January 2016 Word Count: 2,496 Research is a method of achieving new knowledge to improve practice and learning through the acquisition of facts. It is a scientific process which aims to prove a theory (Business Dictionary, 2015). Within research there are different types; the main two being quantitative research and qualitative research. In basic terms qualitative is exploratory research and quantitative is a way to quantify an answer (Wyse, 2011). This essay will provide explanations of differences between the two methods. This will be done through a discussion of methodologies for both qualitative and quantitative research. The essay will discuss characteristics of both types of research including examples of types of methods and data collection, and analysis techniques used in each. An example of a research design project will be included to identify the benefits and limitations of one type; the author of this assignment has chosen to demonstrate a quantitative method of research. Qualitative research will be explored first. Bauman and Greenberg (1992) explain how qualitative research is used to find out what people think. It is an effective was to gather opinions and can be used to get people......

Words: 2851 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Swot and Pestel of Two Uk Companies

...Introduction Strategy and operation plans are both relevant business process for every company in the world. It would be necessary for managers of a company to study and analyze internal and external environment of a business and to make property decisions of business strategy and operation plans. Managers of a brand may require to review the performance of the company business times before, and use the resources existed to design a long term tactical plan which is appropriate. (Boddy, 2011) After the making of long-term strategy, the manager may also require to establish and short term operational plan, which is related to the business strategy. The procedures and process, which determined by the operational strategy, is in service of the future goal of the company. Further, the operational plans could have an influence on the development and expansion of the company. (Operational Planning, 2007) However, the business strategy and operational plans may demand update periodically in order to adapted in the protean business environment, and strategy processes may become valuable assets to keep the data up to date. The process is the operation that collects and analyzes data from both inner and outer of the business. (George and Hill, 2012) Two of the most worthy tools for the strategy process are SWOT and PESTEL analyses. The PESTEL analyze has a trend of data from external environment, and the SWOT analyze is tend to analysis internal elements. (Boddy, 2011) The...

Words: 471 - Pages: 2