Premium Essay

Research Element #2

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Graduate16
Words 1462
Pages 6
(1) A few ethical violations can be found in this experiment. First, the subjects are ages 13-15. This age group/population is considered to be special because juveniles may experience violations of privacy, which is something that’s a great concern. Because researchers in this project informed the classmates of the subjects and because the subjects are followed for a year, everyone throughout the school has probably been made aware of the participation. Informing the classmates of the subjects’ participation is also a violation of confidentiality because the identities of the subjects have been revealed. Analysis and Reporting may also show ethic violations, because this also requires the identification of subjects to remain a secret. The researchers also violated ethics by gaining consent from the underage subjects instead of their parents. This is considered to be a special problem. Parents only receive a survey that assess changes in their child, and may not fully be aware of the project that they’re children are participating in. This could prove to be a legal issue in the event that harm is done to the child and the parent sues.
In order to eliminate the violations, a few changes can be made. Parents should be given a form to read and sign. In most cases, parents are better at comprehending information than children. By giving consent parents can ensure that the project is safe, which decreases legal liability. To protect subjects, researchers should not disclose the identity of subjects. Instead, researchers should inform the entire school that a project is being done and they should follow the entire school, catching more footage of the subjects. This will help to conceal the identities of the subjects because no one will know who is actually a participant. Maintaining confidentiality helps to maintain the privacy of the juveniles and assist with analysis…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Health Research in Region 2

...HEALTH RESEARCH AGENDA SETTING IN REGION 2 Center for Health Development for Cagayan Valley (CHD-CV) Department of Science and Technology (DOST) National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) FOREWORD The current thrust of the Department Of Health conceptualized by no less than the Hon. Secretary Himself, Dr. Francisco T. Duque, III, coined as FOURmulaONE aims to “undertake critical reforms with SPEED, PRECISION and EFFECTIVE COORDINATION directed at improving the efficiency, effectiveness and equity of the Philippine Health System in a manner that is felt and appreciated by the Filipinos, especially the poor”. Now, more than ever, the health of the Filipino people should not be the sole responsibility of DOH through CHD-CV (as initial chair of the Regional R&D Coordinating Council of the consortium) rather the unified efforts of allied agencies/institutions, NGOs and most importantly, the individual himself. Unfortunately, many areas in the country, Region 02 included, have little or no access to information that affect the environment and people’s health. As a consequence, people live their lives without the benefit of some precautions that they may observe in order to safeguard their well-being. It is in this light that through the stewardship of PCHRD, through its Executive Director Jaime C. Montoya and DOST Regional office through Dir. Rustico B. Santos, DOHCHD-CV through Dir. Purita S. Danga and her Asst. Dir.,Dr. Tita N. Callueng; NEDA. Dir Milagros......

Words: 4984 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Unit 2 Research Asignment 2

...Unit 3 Research Assignment I’d say that the SQL Server database-naming convention makes the most sense to me. The database name accurately reflects the database content and all database names must be prefixed with the originating components acronym. The file names match the database name and the table names should accurately reflect the table’s content and function. Each column name must be unique within its table. Guidelines and best practices should be followed as a general rule, but it is understood that exception situations may exist. Developers must be prepared to provide a justification for any exceptions. There are no right and wrong answers for naming conventions as far as I am concerned. It’s all down to factors such as existing naming conventions in your applications and personal preference. I think the most important rule to adhere to is to be consistent. People may argue about whether to have underscores in object names or whether you should have proper case but it doesn't really matter as long as everything adheres to the same set of rules. If you have an existing set of objects then I'd suggest trying to match what is already in place. Of course, it’s also good to ensure names are logical! Also called an entity-relationship (ER) diagram, a graphical representation of entities and their relationships to each other, typically used in computing in regard to the organization of data within databases or information systems. An entity is a piece of data-an......

Words: 474 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Marketing Research Application #2

...Maria Tropiano Saturday, June 8, 2013 Marketing Research Application #2 1. Market Entry Strategy: which global market entry strategy will be most effective and why? The and the websites outline several different global market strategies. These strategies include: exporting, licensing, franchising, foreign direct investment, strategic alliances, and joint ventures. Exporting is “the marketing and direct sale of domestically-produced goods in another country” ( 1), and is used more often by small companies, licensing “is best used by those companies that have a component of intellectual property,” ( 1), franchising requires lower startup costs for the franchisor but limits the amount of money that can be made, foreign direct investment “is the direct investment of facilities in the target country” ( 3), strategic alliances “are simply a business-to-business collaboration” (globethoughts 3), and joint ventures are the “formation of a third independent company owned but not necessarily managed by the partners” ( 2). After reading and analyzing information on these global marketing strategies, the most appropriate and effective strategy for Temple University’s expansion abroad would be the strategic alliance strategy. The strategic alliance strategy would allow each campus of Temple University to collaborate toward common goals “while remaining apart, distinct,” and independent as......

Words: 2045 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Unit 2 Research Assignment

...Research Assignment Java is a general-purpose, concurrent, class-based, object-oriented computer programming language that is specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers "write once, run anywhere" (WORA), meaning that code that runs on one platform does not need to be recompiled to run on another. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode (class file) that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture. Strengths:WORA, popularity Weaknesses: Slower than natively compiled languages Sample syntax: class HelloWorldApp { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Hello World!"); } } C++ is a programming language that is general purpose, statically typed, free form, multi-paradigm and compiled. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises both high-level and low-level language features. Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs, C++ was originally named C with Classes, adding object oriented features, such as classes, and other enhancements to the C programming language. The language was renamed C++ in 1983, as a pun involving the increment operator. Strengths:Speed Weaknesses: Older and considered clumsy if compared to Java Sample syntax: #include using namespace std; void main(){ cout << "Hello World!"; } C# is a multi-paradigm programming language......

Words: 477 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Human Element “Ethics” in Business Research Management

...The Human Element “Ethics” in Business Research Management Kanak Tara*, Archana Yadav** and Ritesh Kumar*** *JRF, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad **M. Ed., Xt. Xavier College, Patna; ***Scientist, Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad ABSTRACT India, like some of the other developed and developing countries in the world, is greatly facing problem of ethics in business research and its management. The large amount of new wealth creates incentive to cut corners to get rich. The pressure to succeed at all costs has created a ‘cheating culture’ that threatens to undermine academia as well as the social and economic fabric of society. However, good business ethics help a society as a whole, and some say that good ethics can be a source of competitive advantage for an organization. Steps can be taken to improve ethics in business research and its management at the societal level, at the individual level, and more importantly at the organizational and the governmental level. In addition to ethical leadership, we believe that one key to improving ethics at the organizational level is human resource management. Improvement can be made in the areas of recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, performance management, compensation and benefits. Personnel policies can help ensure ethical conduct within the organization. This paper outlines and discusses the ethics in general as well as in Business research. INTRODUCTION Today’s challenge to business......

Words: 3058 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Business Research Week 2

...overseas study subjects gave informed consent (Ready, 2001). Pfizer shot back by stating all studies were “designed and conducted in accordance with good medical practice and ethical norms and denies the families were unaware that their children were part of the study” (Ready, 2001). Pfizer fessed up to some “protocol deviations” and “record keeping errors”, but most importantly did not “compromise patient care or the scientific conclusions of the trial” (Ready, 2001). Trovan was approved in 1997, but not for children. In 1998 sales were $160 million, but in 1999 the product was taken off the market in Europe for causing liver problems. The unethical research behavior established is the failure to get participants informed consent. Securing this form of consent is a matter of fully disclosing the procedures of the research designed before requesting permission to proceed with the study. If children are involved then the researcher needs to get the parents’ consent or the legal guardian of the child. Parents are often interviewed during the selection process to ensure that if their child is chosen, he or she is mature enough to handle the activities planned and has the verbal and physical capabilities necessary (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). If the parents of those children had known some of the side effects would cause death, it is doubtful that anyone would have signed their children up for the trial, which is why it is possible the consent never existed. The injured......

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Elements of an Essay/Research Paper

...Elements of an Essay/Research Paper Writing Process The series of steps that most writers follow in producing a piece of writing. The five major stages in the writing process are finding a topic and generating ideas (discovering), focusing on a main or controlling idea and mapping out an approach (organizing), preparing a rough draft (drafting), reworking and improving the draft (revising), and proofreading and correcting errors. Discovering – The first stage in the writing process. It may include finding a topic, exploring the topic, determining purpose and audience, probing ideas, doing reading and research, planing and organizing material. Discovery usually involves writing and is aided considerably by putting preliminary thought and plans in writing. Organizing – The sequence in which the information or ideas in an essay are presented. Drafting – The stage in the writing process during which the writer puts ideas into complete sentences, connects them, and organizes them into a meaningful sequence. Revising – The stage in the writing process during which the author makes changes in focus, organization, development, style, and mechanics to make the writing more effective. Editing – The last stage in the writing process during which the writer focuses on the details of mechanics and correctness. Discovering Audience – The readers for whom a piece of writing is intended. Many essays are aimed at a general audience, but a writer can focus on a specific group of......

Words: 6328 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Unit 2 Research Assignment

...Unit 2 Research Assignment 1 Chris Stephens ITT Technical Institute PT1420 Introduction to Programming Mr. Chamberlin April 1, 2014 Researching Variable Naming Rules The variable naming rules for Visual Basic, Python, and Java have many different facets to them. These are the most common and most used programming languages in use today. Over the years these languages have become more user-friendly and easier to comprehend to write programs. Visual Basic is most used in introductory program writing and common for students’ first learning of programming. Some of the naming rules for Visual Basic are: the first character of the name must be a letter, you can’t use a space, period, exclamation point, or these special characters - &, @, $, or # in the name, the name cant’ exceed 255 characters in length, and Visual Basic isn't case-sensitive, but it preserves the capitalization in the statement where the name is declared. (Microsoft, 2014) Python provides a special process called the PEP process, short for Python Enhancement Process for changes proposed to Python. (University, 2014) Some of the naming rules for Python are as follows : indentation should be done using four spaces per indentation level, lines should be less than 80 characters as compared to Visual Basic and its use of a maximum of 255 characters, and lines that get too long should be aligned in a “reasonable” fashion, for example aligned with an open delimiter and at a......

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Chapter 2 Research

...CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter discusses the related literatures and studies which has direct bearing in this study. This contributes a lot to the proponent’s research and established a good starting foundation for the proponents. Review of Related Literatures and Studies Computerized sales and inventory systems help manage products and ensure that transactions are completed correctly. These tools track products and provide ongoing inventory controls that reduce shrinkage. Use of these resources makes retail activities much easier and efficient. Using computerized sales and inventory systems allows for much greater accuracy in stocking and product management. They encourage ease of interaction between employees and shoppers as transactions are processed and items move from the business to the consumer. Computerized sales help provide better insight into which products are most popular. It also allows for enhanced marketing, stocking and oversight of critical sales objectives. Computerized sales and inventory systems save time for businesses by speeding up transactions while raising accuracy. This allows for confidence in accounting and accountability among employees as it is easy to verify how much money is in a till and what time transactions took place. They also allow for consistent experiences in terms of customer service. People know there is always a uniform interaction at the register that requires tendering payment, taking a receipt and......

Words: 1374 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Research Critique, Part 2

...Research Critique, Part 2 Introduction to Nursing of Nursing Nursing 433v October 26, 2013 Research Critique, Part 2 Introduction Improving patient satisfaction has been the forefront of nursing for the past decade. Many studies have been executed to assess practice and procedures that will improve patient satisfaction and patient safety. Nursing leadership and bedside nursing staff play a pivotal role in transforming bedside nursing. A critical appraisal was conducted in Australia by Gardner, Woollett, Daly, & Richardson, (2009) on measuring the effect of patient comfort rounds on practice environment and patient satisfaction: a pilot study. This research aimed to test the effect of a model of practice that enhanced the role of the assistant-in-nursing (AIN) on a skill mixed unit (Gardner et al, 2009). Gardner et al, 2009 adopted a quasi-experimental pilot study using a non-randomized parallel group trial design. The purpose of this paper is to identify if hourly rounding will upturn patient safety and satisfaction during their hospitalization. Protection of Human Participants. The authors of this study did not disclose any risk related to the study, however, one main benefit is this is a pilot study assessing techniques and tools for a larger study in the future. The piolet was regulated over an eight week span within a matched surgical unit including an experimental and control group. The intervention unit includes a sample of 61 consenting patients and 23...

Words: 959 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Unit 2 Research Assignment

...Unit 2 Assignment: Research 1. What are the variable naming rules of Visual Basic, Python, and Java? * Visual Basic requires you to use a letter as your first character. You are unable to use spaces, periods, exclamation marks, and other special characters within the name, consisting of: @, &, $, #. The name also can’t exceed 255 characters. You can’t repeat the same names within the same level of scope. There’s also a few other minor rules to follow as well. * Python allows you to use either a letter or underscore character as the first character in a line. You can use an unlimited amount of letter, numbers, or underscore characters following that. Python is also case sensitive and therefore makes upper and lower case characters important. Any digit number will work including and between the numbers 0 through 9. * Java can use Unicode letters, digits, and two special characters such as an underscore and dollar sign. Java is also case sensitive. A variable’s name can be any legal identifier. The length of a variable name can also be any number. The beginning variable can consist of either letters or underscore characters. White space isn’t permitted, special characters aren’t allowed, and digits cannot be used at the start. Subsequent characters are able to be letters, digits, dollar signs, or underscore characters. Finally, variable names must not be a keyword or reserved word. 2. List three similarities and differences between the three......

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Pt1420 Unit 2 Research

...Kelli Okuly PT1420 Unit 2 Research Assignment 12-5-2014 Variable naming conventions vary from program to program. In Visual Basic the variable must begin with a letter and you cannot use a space, period (.), or the characters !, @, &, $, # in the name. Visual Basic variable names must be under 255 characters long. You shouldn't use any names that are the same as the functions, statements, and methods in Visual Basic. You end up shadowing the same keywords in the language. To use a basic language function, statement, or method that conflicts with an assigned name, you must explicitly identify it. Precede the fundamental function, statement, or method name with the name of the associated type library. For example, if you have a variable called “Left”, you can only use the “Left” function using “VBA.Left”. In Python, variables must begin with a letter or underscore (_). Other characters can be letters, numbers, or the underscore. Python variables are case sensitive and can be any length, within reason. There are several keywords in Python that are reserved for other functions and cannot be used as variables. For example; print, def, from, not, and return. Variables in Java are referred to as Identifiers. In Java the variable must begin with a letter, an underscore, or a dollar sign ($) although a letter is typically what is used. The other characters may be letters or numbers, no spaces or special characters are allowed. Java identifiers can be any length......

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Unit 2 Homework and Research

...Unit 2 Homework and Research Marsha Moore Intro to Programming Short Answer Questions 1-4 1. Learn what the customer wants. Determine the steps that must be taken to perform the task, and create an algorithm or step-by-step directions to solve the problem. 2. A pseudocode is a fake code used as a model for programs. 3. Receive input; some process is performed on input; output is produced. 4. “User friendly”: programs that are easy to use. Algorithm Workbench Review Questions 1. Declare height Display “Enter your height” Input height 2. Declare color Display “Enter your favorite color” Input color Program Exercise 1 Console.Write (“Enter your name: “) name = Console.ReadLine () Console.Write (“Enter your address, city, state, and zip: “) AddressCityStateZip = Console.ReadLine () Console.Write (“Enter your telephone number: “) TelephoneNum = Console.ReadLine () Console.Write (“Enter your college major: “) Major = Console.ReadLine () Program Exercise 2 Dim Product As String = “NO VALUE” Dim prodPrice As Double = 0 Dim Subtotal As Double = 0 Dim salesTax As Double = 0 Dim TotalPrice As Double = 0 Console.Write (“Enter product: “) Product = Console.ReadLine () Console.Write (“Enter product price: “) prodPrice = Console.ReadLine () Subtotal = prodPrice + prodPrice + prodPrice + prodPrice + prodPrice salesTax = Subtotal * 0.06 TotalPrice = Subtotal + salesTax Visual Basic ( * Unique within the......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Research Critique Part 2

...Research Critique, Part 2 INTRODUCTION Approximately 20 million low birth weight (LBW) infants (infants weighing < 2,500 gm) are born each year (Samra, Taweel, & Cadwell, 2013). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), LBW infants are "more likely to die early, and those who survive may suffer illness, stunted growth or even problems into adult life" (WHO, 2015). Nyqvist et al. (2010) states kangaroo mother care (KMC) started in Colombia in the 1970s (as cited in Samra, et al., 2013, p. 194). "The hallmark of KMC is the kangaroo position: the infant is cared for skin-to-skin (ventral surface of the mother to ventral surface of the baby) vertically between the mother's breasts and under her clothes, 24 hr per day, with the father/substitute(s) participating as relief KMC providers" (Samra et al., 2013, p. 194). Care of the LBW infants has an increased cost since most end up in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The effect of intermittent (KMC) on the weight gain of LBW infants was the main point of this study (Samra, et al, 2013). Because of the increased cost associated with taking care of the LBW infant, if studies can show that intermittent KMC could decrease the length of time the infant stays in the NICU, then this practice would be beneficial to both the family and the health care facility. Topics to be discussed in this paper include 1) protection of human participants, 2) data collection, 3) data management and analysis, and 4)......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Developing Research 2

...NUR: 553 Developing Research 2 To show an in-depth understanding of the research process and its components this assignment will use a study conducted by Wills et al. (2005) to critique. Within the assignment there will be a description of the qualitative methodology used, followed by a discussion of the strengths and weakness and its appropriateness and relevance of the design for the study. It will then go on to critique the title of the study, the abstract, the literature review, the method and design and the data collection section of the study. To conclude this assignment there will a brief summary. A qualitative research approach seeks to understand humans by exploring their experiences, attitudes and behaviour (Dawson, 2009). It relies on methods that allow the researcher into the personal, intimate and private world of the participants (Polgar and Thomas, 2008). Qualitative research designs allow for in-depth assessments and the opportunity to put participant’s responses in context (Parahoo, 2006). Data collection methods include in-depth interviews, observations, recordings and other documentation (Parahoo, 2006). In qualitative research the hypotheses are generated during data collection and analysis, and measurement tends to be subjective (Parahoo, 2006). The flexibility in the nature of qualitative exploration also applies to the size of the samples and the sampling techniques (Parahoo, 2006). According to Polit (2010) qualitative research is based on the......

Words: 1777 - Pages: 8