Free Essay

Research Findings, Analysis and Design Opportunities(Short Paper)

In: Other Topics

Submitted By mannuamrit
Words 3305
Pages 14
Keyur Sorathia
Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Minal Jain
Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Mannu Amrit
Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Assam, having highest maternal deaths in India demands attention to investigate the problems and provide appropriate solutions. We present a qualitative user study conducted with ASHAs (Accredited Social Health Activist) and ANMs (Auxiliary Nurse Midwife) in Amingaon, Kamrup District, Assam. The study aimed at investigating existing problems faced by ASHA members and ANMs', their work environment, their role in safe and healthy motherhood, relationship with pregnant women (PW) and family members, technology literacy and opportunities for Information Communication Technology (ICT) interventions to empower maternal health scenario. Two sub-centers (SC), one anganwadi center, one primary health center (PHC) and one community health center (CHC) were visited and observed. 6 one-to-one on-field interviews were conducted with ASHA members and ANMs. This paper presents research insights, findings and analysis of conducted on-field user research. It identifies problem & information gaps and proposes opportunities for technology and design interventions.

They are mostly ignorant of any government schemes or health care measures during pregnancy. We intend to identify the opportunities for design interventions in the entire system with an aim to improve maternal and child health and ensure a safe and healthy motherhood.

2. BACKGROUND 2.1 About NRHM, PHC, Sub Centre
As stated in the NRHM (2005-2012) Mission document, the National Rural Health Mission (2005-12) seeks to provide effective healthcare to rural population throughout the country with special focus on 18 states, which have weak public health indicators and/or weak infrastructure. Its major aims include reduction in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), universal access to public health services such as women’s health, child health, water, sanitation & hygiene, immunization and nutrition, prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, including locally endemic diseases, access to integrated comprehensive primary health care, population stabilization, gender and demographic balance, revitalization of local health traditions and promotion of healthy lifestyles. PHC is the first contact point between village community and the Medical Officer. [1] It acts as a referral unit for 5-6 sub-centers. The essential functions of the PHC include medical care, MCH including family planning, safe water supply and basic sanitation, prevention and control of locally endemic diseases, collection and reporting of vital statistics, education about health, training of health guides, health workers, local dais and health assistants and basic laboratory services. The Sub-Centre is the most peripheral outpost of the existing health delivery system in rural areas and first contact point between the Primary Health Care system and the community [1].

Maternal Health, ASHA, ANM, Pregnant Women, Assam

Tucked away in the northeastern region of India, the state of Assam presents various challenging problems in the field of health. The reason behind most of them is the lack of knowledge or awareness amongst the general public and lack of proper infrastructure and manpower. In the present context, Assam records one of the highest maternal mortality rates in India. Before the inception of the National Rural Health Mission in 2006, the mother’s and infant’s health was in a grim state. With NRHM’s inception and the Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) program, the efficacy of the intended health schemes has improved. ASHA members are shouldered with the responsibility of taking care of the pregnant women all through their pregnancy and childcare period. Despite the efforts, the maternal mortality rate is high and very less women are able to enjoy a happy and healthy motherhood.
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.

healthcare. She is responsible for maintaining records like the village record register, sub center OPD register, UIP master register, family planning register, eligible couple register, MCH master register, stock ledger (medicine/ kits/instruments/equipment/ furniture) register, death register, register for recording minutes of S/C Management Committee meeting and accounts register for keeping records of Untied and Maintenance fund. [4]

2.3 Government Schemes 2.3.1 Mamoni Scheme
Mamoni a scheme launched under ‘Assam Bikash Yojana’ for all pregnant women. During the First Registration, the pregnant women are given Mamoni, a book on antenatal, natal and postnatal care. During her 2nd ANC and 3rd, the pregnant women is given an account payee cheque of Rs. 1000/- in two equal installments as a nutritional support. [5]

Figure1: Moriyapati Health Sub Center A, Amingaon, Kamrup, Assam They are established on the basis of one sub-center for every 5000 population. Sub-Centers provide services in relation to maternal and child health, family welfare, nutrition, immunization, diarrhea control and control of communicable diseases programs.

2.3.2 Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a safe motherhood intervention under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) being implemented with the objective of reducing maternal and neo-natal mortality by promoting institutional delivery among the poor pregnant women. JSY integrates cash assistance with delivery and post-delivery care. According to the scheme, in rural areas, all mothers irrespective of age, birth order, or income group (BPL & APL) will get cash assistance of Rs. 1400/- in one go at the time of delivery. [6]

2.2 About ASHA, ANM
According to the NRHM, an Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) is responsible for a population of 1000. She is the first port of call for any health related demands the population, especially women and children, who find it difficult to access health services. She should have a formal education up to class eight. The ASHAs receive performance-based incentives for promoting universal immunization, referral and escort services for Reproductive & Child Health (RCH) and other healthcare programs, and construction of household toilets. They counsel women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, immunization, contraception and prevention of common infections including Reproductive Tract Infection/Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTIs/STIs) and care of the young child. ASHAs mobilize the community and facilitate them in accessing health and health related services available at the Anganwadi/sub-center/primary health centers. The guidelines already issued on ASHA envisage a total period of 23 days training in five episodes. After a period of 6 months of her functioning in the village it is proposed that she be sensitized on HIV / AIDS issues including STI, RTI, prevention and referrals and also trained on new born care. [2] ASHA is an honorary volunteer and does not receive any salary or honorarium. However ASHA could be compensated for her time in the situations of her training both in terms of TA and DA, for participating in the monthly/bi-monthly training and under different national programmes for undertaking specific health or other social sector programmes. [3] The Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM) is responsible for the sub center. She holds weekly/fortnightly meeting with ASHA, and provides on-job training by discussing the activities undertaken during the week/fortnight and provides guidance in case ASHA encounters any problem. She ensures that during the training ASHA gets the compensation for performance and also TA/DA for attending the training schedule. She motivates the pregnant women for coming to the Sub-Centre for initial check-ups and taking full course of Iron and Folic Acid (IFA). She gives them advice on

We started the project with extensive literature research to understand the complete system of healthcare distribution at all the levels of the hierarchy. Roles, incentives, environment of all the people involved were studied. Categories of people who needed to be interviewed were identified and questionnaires were prepared. We then carried the research forward with visits to the Sub Center at Amingaon. In the initial visits, we carried out fly-on-the-wall observations of the sub centre operations. This was followed by detailed discussions and interviews with the ANM and the ASHA members. Their work dynamics and ecosystem were studied and understood. A few pregnant women visiting the sub-center were also interviewed. The interviews of ASHA and ANM focused on the following: General Demographics - their age, residence, working since how many years, family background. Motivation - motivation behind joining the job. Training - when the first training was given, for how long, what was taught, methods of teaching, reference material. Record Maintenance - what records need to be maintained, how are they maintained, how effectively are they maintained. Work Routine - what work has to be done in the entire day, what are the different things taken care of, what is the work environment, how exhausting it is. Monetary Benefits - how much money is given for the work, how is it disbursed, what procedure is followed. Mobile Phone usage - how much technological exposure is there, what features are used in a mobile phone, how efficiently it is used.

In the later stage the Community Health Centre where the ASHAs are imparted training was visited. The block program manager was interviewed to know more about the training sessions.

3.1 Sub centers and CHCs
Moriyapati Health Sub Center A, Amingaon, Kamrup was visited frequently for observations. It has a population of 10 thousand under its purview. It comprises of a small room and a narrow waiting area. Sub-center B which has a population of 5 thousand is situated in the adjoining room. Sub center A has two Auxiliary Nurse Midwives and a multipurpose worker. It is equipped with basic kits for check-ups and tests. Walls are covered by NRHM boards and posters talking about different schemes and tips.

educated till 5th standard and had taken care of 40 pregnant women till date. She was an ASHA since 6 years and had a population of 1560 under her and 18 pregnant women currently. She was proficient in assamese, bengali and hindi and was given the best ASHA award by the state government. Each one of them was given a mobile phone by the government but its usage was limited to calling.

4. FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS TO DESIGN 4.1 Improper and inconsistent training
Trainings were held at Bishnuram Medhi Community Health Centre, Hajo which was 1.5 hours away from the sub-centre. Every ASHA, after her joining is supposed to be given a training of 21 days where she is taught about the different aspects of pregnancy and healthcare. It also comprised of lessons in vaccination, cure, prevention and symptoms of different diseases. As gathered from the contextual interviews, training for ASHA members were not held regularly and were not very effective. As described by a few ASHA members, the training was held after a year or more of their becoming the ASHA. Before the training, they worked purely on referrals from senior ASHAs or ANMs. Thus, in this case the training was not of any use to them. As described by one of the clerks working at the CHC, the training was held once in 12 or 18 months. The training room was equipped with a white board. The block program manager mentioned that the trainings comprised of teaching with the white board, dramatization and evaluation after every 3-4 hours. However, very less ASHA members agreed to have taken any notes during the class or referred to them later on. Many of them took trainings for granted and relied on practical knowledge or peers for any information. Systems that can impart training to the ASHA as and when required can be installed at places that are in their easy reach like the sub-centre.

The Bishnuram Medhi Community Health Centre, Hajo is situated at a distance of 23.8 kms from the Moriyapati Health Sub Center A. It is where the ASHA members are given training. There is a small room for this purpose. The doctors train certain resource people who in turn impart the training.

3.2 ASHA and ANM profiles

4.2 Physically exhausting work
Figure 2: Interviewing ANM at the Moriyapati Health Sub Center A, Amingaon, Kamrup Two ANMs (ages 36 and 50) were interviewed. Both of them are 10th grade pass and are proficient in assamese with knowledge of english and hindi. Both of them possess phones but their usage is limited to calling and a little messaging. They have been working since 2-3 years at the sub center. They give nutritional health tips to the pregnant women and are responsible for basic check-ups and tests. They receive training time to time and maintain records of all the people in the purview of the sub center. Four ASHA members were interviewed. The first one was qualified till 10th grade and was an ASHA since two years. She had taken care of 40 pregnant women till date and had a population of 1500 under her and was proficient in assamese, hindi and bengali. The second one was also an ASHA since 2 years and had a population of 520 under her with 6 pregnant women currently. The third one was educated till 4th grade and knew assamese and a little hindi. She had a population of 550 under her with 6 pregnant women currently. She was an ASHA since 6 years. The fourth one was also ASHA members have to go door-to-door for reminding their patients about their impending check-ups and immunization. They also have to take care of their medicines and general health for which a number of visits have to be paid. Also, the ASHA accompanies the pregnant woman for all check-ups and tests to the hospital and the sub-centre. There is a long waiting time at these places which add up to the misery. Interventions can happen at this place to effectively utilize the waiting period in imparting knowledge and empowering the pregnant women, making them less dependent on ASHA. Also, systems that can eliminate the need for ASHA to visit each and every household personally to remind can be designed.

4.3 Cumbersome and redundant record maintenance
The ANMs keep a register to maintain the records of the pregnant women. 2 copies are made (1 submitted to the PHC).The register has details like date of registration,, name of pregnant women, age, sex, L.M.P (Last Menstruation Period), E.D.D (Expected Delivery Date), name of husband, address, 1st ANC (Antenatal Check-up), 2nd ANC, 1st TT, 2nd TT, 3rd TT, TT

Booster, ASHA in-charge. They are also required to submit a monthly report of the sub centre (printed 9 page form), report of the mamoni receivers and the immunization report to the PHC. And few weekly reports like those for Syndromic Surveillance about fever, jaundice, stool etc., Immunization report are also submitted. They maintain a hangar with month-wise sorted health cards. They also have a community self-monitoring tool that gives them a quick glance of the details of the pregnant women. Some ASHA members also maintain the record of all the pregnant women for their convenience. Others convey all the details verbally to the ANM.

Many pregnant women, at the time of delivery, go to their maternal homes and get delivered there. This is another cause for maternal deaths. The government has launched the JSY scheme specifically to encourage institutional deliveries. There is a need to motivate pregnant women to go for it.

4.6 Less usage of technology
Government has provided mobile phones to each ASHA member for her day to day job. However, the research shows that they are not much aware of its features and only know how to make calls. Many of them do not address to missed calls. Even the pregnant women are not technologically aware. They only use phones to make or receive calls. This shows that a very simple solution probably using voce based input/output would work.

4.7 Lack of information amongst pregnant women and hence high dependence on ASHA
Pregnant women, as gathered from the research, are highly dependent on the ASHA members for their day-to-day activities. They have no knowledge of proper diet, exercises, healthcare and pregnancy. They also follow the ASHA blindly with regard to the medical check-ups and tests. ASHA is their first port of contact for any information. This dependence can prove dangerous for the pregnant women. There is thus a need to impart education to the pregnant women and make them independent. Figure 3: Records maintained by ASHA Due to improper or no records with the ASHA, chances of missing out the check-ups of the pregnant women increases. Also, due to the same record being kept and maintained separately by ASHA, ANM and PHC, the redundancy increases. There is a need to have a record maintenance system that can be accessible at all levels.

The research has been carried forward and we are currently in the process of conducting discussions and interviews with pregnant women to try to understand factors such as family dynamics, awareness of government schemes, diet and exercises, problems faced, dependency on ASHA etc. We’re also trying to understand the working dynamics of the Tolaram Bafna district civil hospital through fly on the wall observation and discussions with the gynaecologist on duty. After completing this study and research, further use cases would be prepared and brainstormed upon before finalizing upon a solution. We would then proceed with prototyping and evaluation of the finalized idea.

4.4 Long and cumbersome process of money redemption
Money redemption for ASHA members is a tedious task. To claim her money she has to submit a form along with the photocopy of the medical card to the ANM to get her signature and seal. The doctor’s signature is also required. It is then submitted to the PHC where the amount is transferred to her account. The amount of money given leaves no motivation amongst the ASHA members. She gets a meager amount of 400 after the institutional delivery, 200 after the first injection and 250 after the measles vaccine. ASHA members are often discouraged by their family members for the work due to the low income it offers. For the pregnant women, none of the interviewed ones had ever got any money under the mamoni scheme. Many were aware of the scheme but very complacent. Only the amount of 1400 that is paid directly from the hospital under the JSY scheme at the time of delivery was given. Apart from this, no other monetary benefit reached them. Belonging to economically weak sections of the society, these people hence could not take care of the health of the mother before and after pregnancy, thereby leading to maternal deaths.

[1] Indranee Dutta and Shailly Bawari, Health and Health Care in Assam, a status report, Centre for inquiry into health and allied schemes 2007 [2] About ASHA [online]. Available from [Accessed 12th August 2012] [3] Compensation to ASHA [online]. Available from es.pdf [Accessed 12th August 2012] [4] Auxiliary Nurse Mid-wife [online]. Available from [Accessed 12th August 2012] [5] State Funds [online] Available from [Accessed 18th August 2012] [6] Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) [online]. Available from [Accessed 12th August 2012]

4.5 Need for motivation amongst the pregnant women for institutional delivery

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Psychology Research Methods G544

...booklet is designed to accompany the OCR Advanced GCE specification in Psychology for teaching from September 2008. Contents Contents 2 Introduction 3 Scheme of Work - Psychology : H568 : G544 5 Lesson Plans - Psychology : H568 : G544 27 Other forms of Support 35 Introduction Background A new structure of assessment for A Level has been introduced, for first teaching from September 2008. Some of the changes include: • The introduction of stretch and challenge (including the new A* grade at A2) – to ensure that every young person has the opportunity to reach their full potential • The reduction or removal of coursework components for many qualifications – to lessen the volume of marking for teachers • A reduction in the number of units for many qualifications – to lessen the amount of assessment for learners • Amendments to the content of specifications – to ensure that content is up-to-date and relevant. OCR has produced an overview document, which summarises the changes to Psychology. This can be found at, along with the new specification. In order to help you plan effectively for the implementation of the new specification we have produced this Scheme of Work and Sample Lesson Plans for Psychology. These Support Materials......

Words: 6449 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Best Snacks Problem Solution creativity and innovation. Jones (2004) states, “Each design challenge has implications for how an organization as a whole and the people in the organization behave and perform.” (p. 115). This means that each area influences the direction of the organization and some of the difficulties that stifle a creative environment that lends itself to an innovative organization. Further, successfully overcoming challenges associated with a void in creativity consists of implementing a plan that address concerns highlighted by employees in the recent organizational survey. Creating a plan may source at the leadership level but the input sources from the employees because this is the identified area where creativity does not exist in the desired way. Leadership teams must recognize that the survey indicates employees do not feel they have the freedom to provide creative input therefore; leadership team members become part of the problem. Mat and Razak (2011) state, “Identification of success or failure of innovation can be done through implementation phase” (p. 217). As a result, the problem itself lies within the leadership team members rather than the employees of Best Snacks. Based on this analysis of the Best Snacks survey results and the desired results of the organizational direction, the basis of investigation for the problems with creativity begin with the leadership team members. This requires an analysis of development skills of leadership team members and......

Words: 3155 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Online Sonsumer Behavior

...friends and were trying to invest in this market. This study was undertaken to find out the awareness level of various capital market instruments and also to find out their risk preference in various segments. Need for the study:  To educate investors who are risk averse for trade in derivatives  Awareness about the various uses of derivatives can help investors to reduce the risk and minimize the losses REVIEW OF LITERATURE “Investment property portfolio management and financial derivatives” by Patrick McAllister, John R. Mansfield. His study on Derivatives has been an expanding and controversial feature of the financial markets since the late 1980s. They are used by a wide range of manufacturers and investors to manage risk. This paper analyses the role and potential of financial derivatives investment property portfolio management. The limitations and problems of direct investment in commercial property are briefly discussed and the main principles and types of derivatives are analysed and explained. The potential of financial derivatives to mitigate many of the problems associated with direct property investment is examined. “Derivatives, risk and regulation: chaos or...

Words: 2141 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Windshield Survey

...Quantitative Research Article Critique Frances Vitek Winston-Salem State University NUR 3303 Nursing Research Introduction Nurse residency programs are important in the desire for nursing recruitment and retention. New graduate hires face many stressful challenges transitioning from student to professional RN in the workforce. Loss of a new graduate nurse leads to a great financial loss and ultimately increase in the shortage that in turn can lead to patient safety issues. The leaders of the nurse residency programs need to be vested and continue to follow and mentor these new professionals well into their second or third year of hire. The purpose if this paper is to critique the research article “Are rural and urban newly licensed nurses different? A longitudinal study of a nurse residency programme” by Marilyn Meyer Bratt, Marianne Baernholdt, and Jessica Pruszynski. My examination focuses on specific aspects of the article in terms of process and validity of research methods and results. According to Burns and Grove (2012) the purpose of reviewing literature provides us with evidence in theory and science about a specific problem, alloying is to decipher information about what is known to us and not. The key concept covered in Bratt, Baernholdt and Pruszynski’s article is to determine if there is a difference among rural and urban nurse residency programs that lead to a higher retention rate? The key points of this review is to assess the two different...

Words: 2299 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Evidence Based Practice Task 2 (Wgu)

...Applied Nursing Research The nursing topic of interest is bedside handover, which is the concept of conducting shift handover at the patient’s bed instead of doing it at the front desk. Part A The article being analysed is: Tobiano, G., Chaboyer, W. & Murray, A. (2012). Family Members’ Perceptions of the Nursing Bedside Handover. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22, 192-200. The analysis of the primary research report is done in the form of a graph (figure 1). Each of the four analysis areas is rated within a scale of 1-10; 1 denotes extremely weak while 10 denotes very strong. Table 1 then gives justifications for the rating by explaining why each area of analysis was rated that way in the analysis chart. [pic] Figure 1 Table 1 |A1 Article: Tobiano, G., Chaboyer, W. & Murray, A. (2012). Family Members’ Perceptions of the Nursing Bedside Handover. Journal | |of Clinical Nursing, 22, 192-200. | |A2 Background or introduction |The researchers provided an in depth introduction of the research topic outlining | | |important issues, previous research on the topic and their findings. The introduction | | |and background sections lead to the identification of the research gap,......

Words: 3773 - Pages: 16

Free Essay


...& SCIENCES (UITS) Term paper on Service Marketing in “BANGLALINK” Course Title: Service Marketing Course code: MGT441 Submitted To: Nazia Nabi Lecturer of school of Business Faculty Member of (UITS ) Date of Submission: August 08, 2010 Letter of Transmittal August 08, 2010 Mrs Nazia Nabi Senior Lecturer School of Business University of Information Technology and science Subject: Request for Approving the Term Paper Dear Sir, With due respect, we would like to inform you that it is a great pleasure for me to submit my term paper titled “BANGLALINK™. We have prepared this report as a requirement of Service Marketing course. With the help of your guidance, we have completed our term paper and we are grateful to you for giving me such an opportunity. We have tried our level best to fulfill the requirements of the term paper. Therefore, we hope that you would kind enough to accept my term paper and oblige thereby. We believe that our term paper will be able to satisfy your expectation and your requirements. Sincerely, Sharif Md Rabiul AkbarID: 09510379 Clement Samir GomesID: 09510296 MD. Saiful IslamID: 09510274 MD. Masud Rana`ID: 09510297 …………………………… Acknowledgement   Many people have contributed in a variety of ways in the preparation of this term paper. Without the help of them, it was impossible to finish our term paper. At first, all praise to almighty Allah. We are thankful to our almighty Allah who gives us strength to complete this term paper. Then, we would......

Words: 2128 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Economic Performance on Procurement Process

...ON PROCUREMENT PROCSEE A CASE STUDY OF YALA SUB DISTRICT HOSPITAL PRESENTED BY POLYCENA MUKAMI MIRITI A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELORS IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT OF MOI UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS 2013 DECLARATION I POLYCENA MUKAMI MIRITI hereby declare that this research proposal is my original work and not a duplicate of similar published work of any scholar for academic purpose and has not been submitted to any other institution of higher learning for the award of certificate, diploma or degree in special needs education I further declare that all materials cited in this paper which are no my own have been duly acknowledged. SIGNATURE DATE SUPERVIRSOR’S NAME:…………………………………………….. SIGNATURE……………………….. DATE:……………………….. DEDICATION I dedicate this research proposal ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT For decades procurement performance attracts great attention from practitioners due to poor performance resulting from non adherence to proper process and procedures The purpose of the study is to examine economic positive and negative factors that effect of procurement process at Yala Sub District Hospital. The objective of study is to identify of effect of economic factors on the procurement procedure at the hospital.The study involve use of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study will involve 10 staffs in management and 18 staff in non –management totaling 23 staffs of......

Words: 1585 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

5 Assigment

...Robert C. Paramo Argosy University Dr. Lee Heinz August 20, 2010 Abstract My research topic on how implementing a differentiation and cost leadership strategy in parallel will facilitate mortgage companies to design a competitive advantage making industry conditions irrelevant within San Bernardino County is a quantitative analysis requiring a comprehensible methodology approach. In this paper I will discuss my research topic and provide sample research questions and hypotheses. Within the body of the analysis I will include a literature review and a draft methodology outlining the participants involved in my research, describe the purpose of sampling and the techniques I will use. Finally, I will illustrate the significance of my study and the anticipated findings as result of my research endeavor. Assignment 7.1 This detailed analysis will provide both depth and breadth vis-à-vis my research topic utilizing various research techniques and approaches. My research problem focuses on how implementing a differentiation and cost leadership strategy in parallel will facilitate mortgage companies to design a competitive advantage making industry conditions irrelevant within San Bernardino County. My research topic is designed to uncover the current strategies real estate companies are using to remain profitable and increase market share within San Bernardino County. This research problem will indentify generic strategies and uncover how focusing on both......

Words: 2149 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Mutual Fund

...[pic] A RESEARCH PAPER On Opportunities in indian market of mutual funds investment PIONEER (Since 1996) Submitted to Submitted By Prof. Dr. V K Jain Ravendra Kushwaha Prof. Nidhi Kothari MBA 3rd sem Roll. No. 09010118 DECLERATION I hereby declare that this Research Paper entitled “OPPORTUNITIES IN INDIAN MARKET OF MUTUAL FUNDS INVESTMENT” submitted for the extra co curriculum activities fulfillment of the requirement of Master of Business Administration (MBA) of PIONEER INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES INDORE is based on secondary data found by me in various Companies fact sheets, books, magazines and websites & Collected by me in under guidance of Prof. Nidhi Kothari. DATE: Ravendra Kushwaha ...

Words: 4306 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Urban Youth Self Employment System

... HIT 400 CAPESTONE DESIGN URBAN YOUTH SELF-EMPLOYMENT SYSTEM NAME: MOREBLESSING KUMBIRAI REG NUMBER: H1110225H DEPARTMENT: E-COMMERCE SCHOOL: BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCE Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction The project entitled “Urban Youth Self-Employment System” is a web application and can be accessed through internet. This project provides a proper solution to the government scheme ZIMASSET and it can be employed under the Ministry of Youth, Indigenization and Economic Empowerment. The main idea of this application is to provide gainful employment to the urban unemployed or underemployed poor, through encouraging the setting up of self employment ventures or procession of wage employment to promote the achievement of ZIM ASSET. This chapter begins with the background of the study, followed by the statement of the problem, aims of the study, research objectives, assumptions of the study, limitations of the study and lastly delimitations. 1.2 Background of the study At Present, the existing system is a great head-off to the administrator. He should manually manage the officer details and all the corrective actions regarding to the details of the customer/youths that have applied for financial assistance and project approval. And this has been taken through the paper document and that was a time...

Words: 7803 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

How to Do Case Study

...and 3. anything required after the class discussion has taken place. For maximum effectiveness, it is essential that you do all three components. Here are the subcomponents, in order. We will discuss them in more detail shortly. 1. Before the class discussion: 1. Read the reading assignments (if any) 2. Use the Short Cycle Process to familiarize yourself with the case. 3. Use the Long Cycle Process to analyze the case 4. Usually there will be group meetings to discuss your ideas. 5. Write up the case (if required) 2. In the class discussion: 6. Someone will start the discussion, usually at the prompting of the Instructor. 7. Listen carefully and take notes. Pay close attention to assumptions. Insist that they are clearly stated. 8. Take part in the discussion. Your contribution is important, and is likely a part of your evaluation for the course. 3. After the class discussion: 9. Review ASAP after the class. Note what the key concept was and how the case fits into the course. Six steps in case study report Step 1. Determine and Define the Research Questions The researcher establishes the focus of study by forming questions about the situation or problem to be studied and determining a purpose for the study. Case study...

Words: 1420 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Strategic Management: a Short Term Insurance Stratagem

...DEPARTMENT OF INSURANCE & ACTUARIAL SCIENCE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: AN INDISPENSABLE APPARATUS TO CREATE SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN THE VOLATILE ZIMBABWEAN SHORT-TERM INSURANCE MARKET? By HENSLEY MADAMOMBE N010 7541D SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE B.COM (HONOURS) DEGREE IN RISK MANAGEMENT AND INSURANCE SUPERVISOR: MR A. NYANHETE MAY 2014 Dedication To my family You have been my source of inspiration and hard work. You sacrificed everything that you had for the sake of my education. From you, I have learnt that: ‘it is only through a disciplined mind that success can only be achieved’. I will always love and cherish you. And, to the late Mr Paul Malaba (Former Chairman of the Insurance and Actuarial Science Department at NUST) You have gone too soon dear Sir, but your immense contributions to the academic fraternity will forever be cherished. You were an inspiration and a father-figure to all of us. The Q.A.B courses at NUST will never be the same without you. i Acknowledgements First and foremost, I would like to give honor, praise and glory to the almighty lord for his unending mercy, protection and unconditional love: “I will praise thee, O Lord my God, with all my heart; and I will glorify thy name for evermore” (Psalms 86:12, King James Version). I would also like to thank my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Madamombe, for their parental advice, financial support, guidance and endless love. Dear father and mother: ‘you are my fountain of...

Words: 27207 - Pages: 109

Free Essay


... Essay Writing Guide Essay Writing Help Essay Writing Tips Example Essays Example of Research Papers General Writing Help Lab Reports Main category Plagiarism Research Paper Help Sample Book Reviews Sample Essays Sample Research Papers Term Paper Help Recent Posts Research Paper on Poor Organizational Communication Article Review Essay College Admission Essay Example University Application Essay Research Paper on Crowd Management Plan Archives October 2011 September 2011 August 2011 July 2011 June 2011 May 2011 April 2011 March 2011 February 2011 January 2011 December 2010 November 2010 October 2010 September 2010 August 2010 July 2010 June 2010 May 2010 April 2010 March 2010 February 2010 January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 October 2008 September 2008 August 2008 July 2008 June 2008 May 2008 April 2008 March 2008 February 2008 January 2008 December 2007 Our services: Custom Paper Writing:...

Words: 18283 - Pages: 74

Free Essay

Ethnographic Writing

...Communicating Design Research Knowledge: A Role for Ethnographic Writing Lois Frankel Concordia University & School of Industrial Design, Carleton University, Canada Abstract: The recent use of ethnographic field research methods in design research practice reflects the growing interest of designers in the expressive Design researchers have not, however, exploited ethnographers to report their findings, but instead and cultural im pact of the artifacts they create. the "thick description" methods used by prefer to apply the results of design-driven ethnographic research directly to the development of new product concepts. This paper proposes that ethnographic representation methods , including innovative visual representations, offer untapped potential for design research reporting, not just field of historical design. Te in term s of facilitating com munications during the mpts by designers to make sense of the broader the potential of ethnographic design process, but also as a record of ongoing atte representation methods for design. Keywords: Ethnography in design, Ethnographic writing, Ethnographic representation st projects by design students show 1. Introduction Ethnography is often viewed as a specialized area within reveal and preserve cultural knowledge, using methods such the larger activity of cultural anthropology, seeking to as interviewing or cultural submersion to discover important values. Since design is also a......

Words: 4965 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Kaplan Ab209 All Discussions

...Learning Activity you have reviewed the legal forms of business entity. Depending on how your business is set up as a legal business entity affects the financial and long term success of your business. Describe three types of business entities, and describe at least three stakeholders for each one. What are the stakeholders’ interests in each of these business entities? Do any of these stakeholder interests conflict with each other? If so, how? Unit 2 This week you reviewed the employment process in your Learning Activity. Now you will get an opportunity to discuss some of the issues that affect small businesses in this arena. What do you think are the most serious weaknesses in the interviewing process as conducted at many small businesses? How could these be remedied? Are on-line testing and games to screen potential candidates fair in your estimation? Why or why not? Unit 3 This Discussion provides you with an opportunity to apply and discuss the employment process concepts presented in your Reading and Learning Activity. You practiced with the hiring process concepts in the Learning Activity this week. Learning how to apply this process should better prepare you for your current or future management position. Most managers must participate in or are responsible for the hiring process at some point in their jobs. If you run a small business you may have to do all the hiring yourself, at least initially. Read the scenario below and then respond to......

Words: 1363 - Pages: 6