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Research Method

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Measurement and Survey Research

Measurement and Survey Research
Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Measurement and Survey Research

Fundamental ideas construct validity (the degree inference can made from study to theory) Reliability (the quality of measurement) random and systematic error, Reliability and validity related

Scales of measurements
Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Arithmetic strength of scales of measurements
Levels Nominal Ordinal Interval Arithmetic Counting Counting Ranking Counting Ranking Addition/Subtraction Counting Ranking Addition/Subtraction Multiplication/Division Features Categories Categories Ranks Categories Ranks Has equal units Categories Ranks Has equal units Has absolute zero Examples Religion Economic class IQ score

Ratio

Weight

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Information strength of Scales of measurements

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Types of Survey research

Types Questionnaire mail surveys (cheap but low response), group administrated (can explain questions), household drop-off then mail back or pick up (has advantages better response)

Interviews or a combination personal telephone (can probe ask follow-up, easier for respondent but time consuming, telephone get info rapidly but must be kept short)

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

How to select the best survey method
Population Issues can you enumerate or estimate the population? Is the pop literate? Are their language issues? Will the pop cooperate? Are there geographic restrictions?

Sampling Issues what data is available for your sample-Tel#, address etc? Can respondents be found? Who is the respondent? Can all members of population in your sampling frame be samples? Are response rates likely to be a problem?
Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

How to select the best survey method (cont.)

Question Issues what type of question can be asked? Will screening questions (qualified)) be needed? Will lengthy questions be asked (needing background)? Will long response scales be used (phone may be no good)?

Content issues
Will they know about the issue? Need to consult their records?

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

How to select the best survey method (cont.)

Bias issues
Will they tell the truth? Will interviewer distortion be controlled? Can false respondents be avoided?

Admin issues costs, facilities for conducting the survey, time-line, personnel

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

How do you construct the questionnaire

writing the survey question content and purpose, response format to be used, wording the question, how best to place them in the survey? Advantages and disadvantages of the survey method

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Different types of questions
Dichotomous-yes/no, true/false, agree/disagree Answer in nominal scale, select 1-2-3 Rank preferences: Interval scale-strong agree, agree, neutral, disagree, disagree Cumulative scale-sequence like do you like this country, then this city, etc Filter question-have you ever smoked, then 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 times Try to avoid more than three levels don’t confuse If two levels use graphic to jump Special features
Scaling: used to measure unmeasurable thing-used in psychology assigning numbers to objects such as statements, attitude etc putting on interval scale-a number line used to test a hypothesisSyed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Question content

is the question useful? Are several needed? Do they have the needed info? Does the question need to be more specific? Is question sufficiently general? Is question biased or loaded (what benefits to a tax cut)? Will respondents answer truthfully e.g. your age-use response brackets-

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Question wording

will it be misunderstood? Assumptions the question makes? Is the time frame specified? How personal is the wording (too private)? Is the wording too direct?

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Question placement

which should be introduced early and which later? Opening questions (easily to answer)? Sensitive questions (need to tell if uncomfortable don’t have to answer)? Ask one topic at a time. You are imposing on their time, attention, trust and personal lives - do unto others as you would have them do you. Interviews: Administering a personal interview

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Interviewer tasks

Locates and enlists cooperation of respondents Motivates respondents to do a good job Clarifies any confusion/concerns Observe quality of responses Conducts a good interview

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Interviewer training

at least rehearse Describe the entire study Sponsor of the research Teach survey research Explain sampling logic Walk through the interview Explain respondent selection procedure reading maps, identify households & respondents rehearse interview explain supervision, scheduling.

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

The Interviewers Kit

look professionalcarry documents with logo of sponsor, copies of instrument, official ID,

a cover letter from Sponsor, a phone # to verify interviewer source.

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

The Interview

3 steps the opening (gains entry, establishes rapport and tone-explains study-keep short) the middle game (the heart of the process, questions-keep to questions-don’t finish sentences of interrupt-probe silently, ask to elaborate, clarify, repeat his answer, record responses immediately which shows interest) the end game (wrap up) thank him, send results, don’t be brusk or hasty, write notes)

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Qualitative research
Tools for qualitative research in-depth interviews Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) Rural Rapid Appraisal (RRA) Focus group Discussion (FGD) direct observations written documents case studies

Qualitative research uses different validity criteria credibility, transferability, dependability, Confirmability).
Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Research Design-the glue that holds it all together

the structure of research Design elements-observations or measures Treatments or programs Groups Assignment to group Time

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Research Design (cont.)

Classifying different designs
Randomized experiment-strongest interval validity-causal assessment-difficult-need two similar groups Non-experimental-the weakest in terms of labeling cause effect-low internal validity

Minimizing threats to validity-if there are plausible alternative explanations for the outcomes other than what is theorized or tested this is a threat to the validity of the study. To minimize these threats can argue the threat is not reasonable, by measurement or observation, by control groups, by using statistical analysis (two-way analysis of variance).

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

The Nature of Good research design theory grounded-where specific theorized effects can be hypothesized situational-should reflect the settings of the investigation feasible-can be implemented redundant-have some flexibility built in-duplication efficient-not over doing it 4 basic elements that can be expanded to improve validity time (usually a time lapse between treatment and result) program or treatment observation or measurement groups or individuals

Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Measurement and Survey Research

Analysis Steps
Data preparation cleaning and organizing the data for analysis-checking using data base need to set up a procedure for keeping track of the data till ready for analysis set up a data base-Microsoft Database or standard statistical programs SPSS, SAS, MINITAB etc

Analysis running simple descriptive analysis to get reports on data status. Check the data for accuracy. identify missing values for many variable you may want to collapse them into categories.
Syed S. Hossain Institute of Statistical Research and Training University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

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