Premium Essay

Research Methods for Health Science

In: Other Topics

Submitted By jamila01
Words 567
Pages 3
RUNNING HEAD: Descriptive Research Questions

Shekubah Kamara
15 February 2013
RES 500 Research Methods for the Health Science
Module 1

Trident University

Newton, Bower, and Williams (2004) outline the process of “devising and revising” a research question, be it descriptive, relational, or comparative. After reading their paper, write a three-page paper that addresses the following:
How do descriptive research questions differ from questions of relationship? From questions of comparison?
When pursuing a descriptive research questions, what is being measure is aimed to describe the variables you are measuring. When the use of the word describe is used, simply means that these research questions are focused to quantify variables. To recognize a descriptive of to use these question you will often use questions that start with words such as "How much?", "How often?", "What percentage?", and "What proportion?” but also sometimes questions starting "What is?" and "What are?". Descriptive research questions focus on only one variable and one group, but they can include multiple variables and groups. In comparison to questions of relationship or comparison it is also common when using descriptive research questions to measure percentages and proportions. However, if you are using an experimental or quasi-experimental research design, or a more involved relationship-based research design, you are more likely to use just one or two descriptive research questions as a means to providing background to the topic you are studying, helping to give additional context for comparative research questions and/or relationship-based research questions that follow.
There is a distinct difference between descriptive and relationship research questions. According to Newton, Bower, and William (2004), the descriptive research describes data and characteristics of information...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Biomedical Scientists

...Social Science & Medicine 66 (2008) 2520e2531 Biomedical scientists’ perception of the social sciences in health research* Mathieu Albert a,*, Suzanne Laberge b, Brian D. Hodges a, Glenn Regehr a, Lorelei Lingard a a b University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada ´ ´ ´ Available online 11 March 2008 Abstract The growing interest in interdisciplinary research within the Canadian health sciences sector has been manifested by initiatives aimed at increasing the involvement of the social sciences in this sector. Drawing on Bourdieu’s concept of field and Knorr-Cetina’s concept of epistemic culture, this study explores the extent to which it is possible for the social sciences to integrate into, and thrive in, a field in which the experimental paradigm occupies a hegemonic position. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore biomedical scientists’ receptiveness toward the social sciences in general and to qualitative research in particular. We found that these respondents exhibited a predominantly negative posture toward the social sciences; however, we also found considerable variation in their judgments and explanations. Eight biomedical scientists tended to be receptive to the social sciences, 7 ambivalent, and 16 unreceptive. The main rationale expressed by receptive respondents is that the legitimacy of a method depends on its capacity to......

Words: 8237 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Phc Competencies

...PUBLIC HEALTH COMPETENCIES A. BIOSTATISTICS Biostatistics is the development and application of statistical reasoning and methods in addressing, analyzing and solving problems in public health; health care; and biomedical, clinical and populationbased research. Competencies: Upon graduation a student with an MPH should be able to… A. 1. Describe the roles biostatistics serves in the discipline of public health. A. 2. Describe basic concepts of probability, random variation and commonly used statistical probability distributions. A. 3. Describe preferred methodological alternatives to commonly used statistical methods when assumptions are not met. A. 4. Distinguish among the different measurement scales and the implications for selection of statistical methods to be used based on these distinctions. A. 5. Apply descriptive techniques commonly used to summarize public health data. A. 6. Apply common statistical methods for inference. A. 7. Apply descriptive and inferential methodologies according to the type of study design for answering a particular research question. A. 8. Apply basic informatics techniques with vital statistics and public health records in the description of public health characteristics and in public health research and evaluation. A. 9. Interpret results of statistical analyses found in public health studies. A. 10. Develop written and oral presentations based on statistical analyses for both public health professionals and educated lay audiences. B.......

Words: 4588 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay


...Page 1 PSYCHOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE • What is ‘psychology’ and why is it so important in the context of health and social care? • What do we mean by ‘health’ and why is psychology central to the effective delivery of health and social care? • What are the main approaches to psychological thinking and research? • Who are psychologists and what do they contribute to the promotion of health and well-being? Introduction This chapter emphasizes the importance of psychology in the context of health and social care. For many years, psychology and the other social sciences were viewed by the medical profession as ‘soft sciences’, interesting but unimportant. With the advent of research into the links between physical and mental states in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries it is now possible to demonstrate that psychology can make a fundamental difference to physical as well as mental health. In this chapter, we explore the nature of psychology and its relevance to health and social care. We outline the different schools of thought and methods of inquiry in psychology. We seek to distinguish between psychology as an academic discipline and popular notions of psychology, and identify professionals whose practice is mainly concerned with the application of psychology. In order to show how psychology can be applied to health and social care, we introduce a family scenario whose characters appear in examples throughout the book. What is......

Words: 6889 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Understanding Business Research

...Understanding Business Research Cherise Tholmer RES/351 June 20, 2015 Dr. Linda Wright Understanding Business Research Business research is “a systematic inquiry that provides information to guide managerial decisions” (Cooper & Schindler, 2014, p. 4). When making business decisions, it is imperative that the researcher is clear on the terms that are being used. There are different methods that are applied to conduct the research that vary from topic to topic. Many researchers sometimes use the wrong research method to when conducting business research because they do not understand what method and variables to use. This paper will explore two different articles, one using quantitative research methods and one using qualitative research methods, evaluate their strengths and weaknesses and how they can be used more effectively when combined. Quantitative research “attempts precise measurement of something”(Cooper & Schindler, 2014, p. 146) that in business research “methodologies usually measure consumer behavior, knowledge, opinions or attitudes” ” (Cooper & Schindler, 2014, p. 146). Article one titled Assessing the Effectiveness of Mental Health Courts: A Quantitative Review is a study where meta-analytic techniques are used to answer the main objective which is “to provide a clearer picture as to whether mental health courts are an empirically efficacious intervention for a significant health and criminological problem” (Sarteschi, Vaughn, & Kim, 2011,......

Words: 979 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...10 Qualitative Research Methods in Psychology Deborah Biggerstaff Warwick Medical School University of Warwick, Coventry UK 1. Introduction In the scientific community, and particularly in psychology and health, there has been an active and ongoing debate on the relative merits of adopting either quantitative or qualitative methods, especially when researching into human behaviour (Bowling, 2009; Oakley, 2000; Smith, 1995a, 1995b; Smith, 1998). In part, this debate formed a component of the development in the 1970s of our thinking about science. Andrew Pickering has described this movement as the “sociology of scientific knowledge” (SSK), where our scientific understanding, developing scientific ‘products’ and ‘know-how’, became identified as forming components in a wider engagement with society’s environmental and social context (Pickering, 1992, pp. 1). Since that time, the debate has continued so that today there is an increasing acceptance of the use of qualitative methods in the social sciences (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000; Morse, 1994; Punch, 2011; Robson, 2011) and health sciences (Bowling, 2009; Greenhalgh & Hurwitz, 1998; Murphy & Dingwall, 1998). The utility of qualitative methods has also been recognised in psychology. As Nollaig Frost (2011) observes, authors such as Carla Willig and Wendy Stainton Rogers consider qualitative psychology is much more accepted today and that it has moved from “the margins to the mainstream in psychology in the UK.” (Willig & Stainton...

Words: 16075 - Pages: 65

Free Essay

The Efficacy of Laboratory Facilities

...Lea Assistant Secretary: Sarayno, Andrea Member 1: Prado, Jini Jane Member 2: Ortega, Krissa Claire Proposed title: The Efficacy of Laboratory Equipment and Facilities towards The Performance of Health Sciences Students of Notre Dame of Dadiangas University Variables: Independent Variable: Laboratory Equipment and Facilities Dependent Variable: Performance of Health Sciences Students I. Proposed Title with discussion of the two variables Proposed title: The Efficacy of Laboratory Equipment and Facilities towards The Performance of Health Sciences Students of Notre Dame of Dadiangas University Discussion of Variables (Independent and Dependent) This research study was designed to investigate the effectives of laboratory equipment and facilities towards the performance of Health Sciences students. The variables under consideration are the laboratory equipment and facilities as our Independent variable and the student’s performance as our dependent variable. A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Labs used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. Despite the great differences among laboratories, some features are common. Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a......

Words: 2084 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Research Methods

...Evidence Based Practice. Research Methods. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), the skill of using correct research methods, the importance of making informative decisions based on the best EBP within the health care industry as well as an example of EBP in regards to infection control and hand washing procedures will be key issues discussed throughout this essay. The health profession is continually developing and adapting in its implementation to health care techniques and skills due to changing world health conditions. It is therefore imperative that research be constantly conducted to analyse new research relating to health care to ensure health care practitioners are using techniques derived from the most current evidence (Aveyard & Sharpe, 2009). Evidence Based Practice can be defined as, “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the health care of patients” (Sackett, Richardson, Rosenberg, & Haynes, as cited in Craig & Smyth 2007). The basis of EBP is that decisions are made by assessing not only the information at hand, but also integrating clinical experience, the most current evidence available, critical thinking and keeping in mind the patient’s best interest and preferences (Aveyard & Sharpe, 2009). Evidence based practice was developed because of the commitment of health care practitioners to social research and science (Mullen, as cited in......

Words: 1421 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...(1962) -he was interested in two things. He redefined the word “paradigm” to use in science -These paradigms I take to be universally recognized scientific achievements that for a time provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners. -Provide models (in law, theory, instrumentation, application) from which spring particular coherent traditions of scientific research. -Ex. Copernician revolution, Newtonian dynamic (new version of the world-the change of paradigm ) -Ex. Theory of light -today (in the 1960): light is photon. Ie. Quantum-mechanical entities( Planck Einstein) -In the 19th century, light was transverse wave motion (young and Fresnel ) -during the 18th century, light was material corpuscles (Newton) -in each case, research proceed accordingly -Understanding assumptions -Ontological: what reality is -Epistemological: how to access to knowledge, how knowledge is defined -Define valid knowledge at a time- it is always link on social conventions. Knowledge is never pure knowledge. It is link to the time of what is the social context. -upon which, research problems and analysis are designed (the questions that we asked are always link to the two term) -accepted view of science, of scientific knowledge at a time and scientific methods -Competing paradigms -competing visions at any time -winner: never......

Words: 3428 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...Fundamentals of Research Methodology Sharon Skinner March 12, 2012 PSYCH/540 Research Methodology Dr. Maribeth Clarke Fundamentals of Research Methodology The Science of Psychology Although the study of human minds are reveals signals of the order and control for one’s wealthy and diverse accountability. Psychology have differ contemporary concepts with differ significant. Psychology has been described in numerous ways over a short time. One main definition currently used is: Psychology is the method of science that study a person mind for one’s beliefs, thinking, and emotions with this information problem-solving can be knowledgeable. Psychology the science is applied to every areas of an individual life. The practice of psychology is in the areas of one’s life. In details, psychologist will study an individual emotion, how, what, why can one’s do it. The area under discussion material does not identify a discipline as scientific; moderately, the techniques used to study the area under discussion material define a discipline. In psychology, a value is on the dependable and compelling purpose of investigational and connecting events in the compiling of behavioral facts. So, of course, individuals can be deliberate methodically researched. Starting a century ago psychological research has made available an important tool of technical and matter-of-fact understanding about one’s type. From constructing a method of research whereas still unfinished......

Words: 1518 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Translation Research

...Translational Research Gretna Green Introduction: Translational research is a way of thinking about and conducting scientific research to make the results of research applicable to the population under study and is practiced in the natural and biological, behavioral, and social sciences. The focus of translational research is on removing barriers to multi-disciplinary collaboration, translational research has the potential to drive the advancement of applied science. Translational research includes two areas of translation. One is the process of applying discoveries generated during research in the laboratory, and in preclinical studies, to the development of trials and studies in humans. The second area of translation concerns research is aimed at enhancing the adoption of best practices in the community. Lerman (2003) asserted that translational research often begins when findings from the laboratory are replicated with and extended to clinical populations and problems. Translational research is broader than the traditional term applied research. Applied research is any research that may possibly be useful for enhancing health or well-being. However, through translational research, the same studies (research) would include some action steps in addition to what is normally done in applied research. In translational research the researchers would partner with the community and ask for ideas about how their findings might apply there. Together, they would come up with...

Words: 1409 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Elements of Clinical Psychology Paper

...from a psychoanalytical approach to thinking and behavior (uncovering unconscious thoughts and feelings). In this way, each perspective and form of treatment has its own benefits. Clinical psychology, on the other hand, can use all perspectives and approaches (Plante, 2010). This is true because clinical psychology is an art- using all researches, methods, and approaches to define the problems a person can have. In addition to defining the problem, clinical psychology can offer different forms of treatment. For example, one person’s depression can be best treated with medication, and another person can benefit from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Also, people with multiple problems can benefit from the treatment of a clinical psychologist. This is true because the clinical psychologist can offer different forms of treatments for the many problems one person can face. This paper will discuss the field of clinical psychology, the history, research methods, and the differences in different fields of psychology. Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology is a science (Plante, 2010). This is true because it uses scientific methods to uncover and validate information. This information includes what kind of behavior and personality people have, and what causes a person to develop (emotions, thinking, and behavior). Clinical psychologists can practice in his or her field in a variety of ways (Irving B. Weiner, n.d.). Some...

Words: 1753 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Scientific Method

...Asif Chowdhury SC300: Big Ideas in Science Professor: Judy Ikawa Unit 9 11/22/2011 Many of us use the scientific method unconsciously on a daily basis, for work, tasks such as cooking and budgeting. The same elements present in traditional scientific inquiry are present in these everyday examples. Understanding how to apply the scientific method to these seemingly non-scientific problems can be valuable in furthering one's career and in making health-related decision. The scientific method is a process to ask question and answer scientific problem solving by making observation and doing experiments. We can follow the below steps to solve our problem scientifically: Observation This is the first part of scientific method is discovered upon direct observation of what is around us. As a scientist we have to look critically and attempt to avoid all kind if sources and bias in this observation. Ask question The second step in the scientific method is formulated by questions. Ask as many questions as we need to answer. Science can answer many questions, but there are some which cannot be answered by science. Hypothesis The next part of our scientific method is to form a hypothesis. This is simply an educated guess as to the answer for the question. Prediction The prediction is an official way to put a hypothesis to a test. If the test works most likely we are on a right track to solve our problem. If we have carefully designed our hypothesis to be sure......

Words: 1530 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

History of Psychology

...UNIT 1: THE DEFINITION AND HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY QUESTION #1.1: What is the definition of psychology? Psychology is best defined as the "scientific study of behavior in humans and animals." Behavior is what people and animals do: e.g., what a person says about last night's dream, and how long it takes a rat to run a maze. You might think that psychology was the "study of the mind" due to the fact that the prefix psyche is Greek for mind, soul, spirit, and the suffix ology refers to the study of something. Almost a hundred years ago, John Watson decided that psychology should be a science: not just a vague and introspective reflection on our own thoughts and feelings. Watson urged that psychology be defined as the scientific study of behavior. Since about 1920, most university psychologists have accepted Watson's definition. So, think of psychologists as scientists who study behavior. Introspection was the first technique for studying the mind There are some terms related to psychology that are frequently confused with it. Psychiatry is a branch of medicine specializing with mental disorders. Psychiatrists are medical doctors, and have been through medical school, an internship, residency training, and board certification as specialized physicians. The letters M.D. usually appear at the end of the name. The letters at the end of the name of a psychologist may be 1 Ph.D., Ed.D., or Psy.D., and so it may be appropriate to address a psychologist......

Words: 4382 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay


...UNIVERSITY OF OSLO RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR THE MASTERS OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATICS DEGREE BY COURSE WORK AND DISSERTATION 1.0. NAME OF CANDIDATE: LUNGO, JUMA H. Reg.No: 17117431320 B.Sc. (Comp.) (Hons.) (DAR) 2. NAME OF SUPERVISOR: 3. DEPARTMENT AND FACULTY: DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATICS – FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE. 4. PROPOSED DEGREE: M. Sc. (INFORMATIC SCIENCE) 5. TITLE: Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design: a case of District Health Information System, Mozambique. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i INTRODUCTION 1 RELEVANT FINDINGS (LITERATURE REVIEW) 2 OBJECT-ORIENTED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 2 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND WHY THIS PROBLEM AREA 5 THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS 5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 6 TARGET GROUP 7 PERSONAL MOTIVATION 7 METHODOLOGY 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY: 13 ABSTRACT Many organisations are relying on software systems. Thus these organisations spend a lot of money on software systems and, to get a return on that investment, the software must be usable for a number of years. For many organisations, introducing new software implementation from scratch is a risk. This is because their requirements are not well defined or they don’t have enough expertise to understand and identifies software that can fit their problems. So, many organisations adopt software. That means they take analogy software (software developed for......

Words: 3840 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Personal Statement Example - Not Written by Me

...The classroom and the 400-meter oval track, although very different venues, have taught me complementary and interwoven lessons. Concepts in physiology, biochemistry, and nutrition can be applied to elements of running, such as developing more effective training methods and learning how to optimize substrate utilization in order to achieve peak physical performance. The methodology developed through research has enhanced my development as an athlete. For instance, I can investigate a training method and evaluate its effectiveness in increasing my physical performance to better individualize my preparation. On the other hand, running has taught me lessons in teamwork and cooperation that improve my ability to interact in academic and professional settings. Running also teaches lessons in self-discipline, perseverance, and endurance which contribute to my success as a scientist. I have applied these character traits fostered from running to becoming a better scientist. In turn, to me running has evolved into a science. The application of science to health is medicine and is a natural evolution of my interests that I would love to pursue. As in science, I had to learn the basics of running. My initial awkward form disappeared through a few years of training and dedication, and I evolved into an athlete. I was fortunate to compete against the best athletes both at national competitions and at the World Championships in Belfast, Ireland. These competitions inspired and......

Words: 839 - Pages: 4