Premium Essay

Research Reliability

In: Other Topics

Submitted By keetykat8177
Words 852
Pages 4
Research Reliability Essay
Applied Nursing Research

Research Reliability Essay When conducting a research report, the researcher must provide quality and trustworthy data that is objective, precise, accurate, reliable, and valid (Norwood, 2010). These traits are important when conducting a qualitative or a quantitative research study. Despite researcher’s eagerness to prove the validity and reliability of research data, there are situations that interfere with the accuracy of the study producing measurement errors, such as contaminants and biases. The first study I chose is a qualitative study by researchers Shaw, Robertson, Pransky, and McClellan (2003). The purpose of the study was to analyze the employee’s perspective on the roles of supervisors to prevent workplace disability after injuries. As part of needs assessment for a supervisory training program, 30 employees from four companies were interviewed about the role of supervisors to prevent workplace disability after injuries. From interview notes, 305 employee statements were extracted for analysis. An affinity mapping process with an expert panel produced 11 common themes: accommodation, communicating with workers, responsiveness, concern for welfare, empathy/support, validation, fairness/respect, follow-up, shared decision-making, coordinating with medical providers, and obtaining coworker support of accommodation (Shaw, Robertson, Pransky, McClellan, 2003). In qualitative reports, the researcher needs to address the quality criteria of confirmability, dependability, and credibility of the study. The researcher shows confirmability by providing open- ended questioning and free discourse to reduce subject response bias and an expert panel process was used for the theme extraction to reduce experimenter biases in analysis of interview notes and conclusions (Shaw, Robertson, Pransky, McClellan,...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

How Triangulation Ensures Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

...How triangulation Ensures Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research 1.0 Introduction Triangulation has been defined as the use of more than one approach to the investigation of a research question in order to augment confidence in the findings (Bryman, 2004). For Yeasmin & Rahman, (2012) triangulation is a process of verification that increases validity by incorporating several viewpoints and methods. When applied in the social sciences, it refers to the combination of two or more theories, data sources, methods or investigators in one study of a single phenomenon to converge on a single construct, and can be employed in both quantitative (validation) and qualitative (inquiry) studies. This paper provides a historical background and the development of triangulation as a concept and its application. The paper also presents an overview of various concepts linked to triangulation as applied in social research Finally the paper discusses the benefits and challenges of triangulation offering some relevant examples that guide in understanding the concept. 2.0 Background of Triangulation Originally triangulation was a method used to determine the location of a fixed point based on the laws of trigonometry. The laws state that if one side and two angles of a triangle are known, the other two sides and angle of that triangle can be calculated. Triangulation though not defined was used in the early civilizations of the ancient Egypt and......

Words: 2593 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Discuss Potential Challenges to Validity and Reliability of Your Research Question, Data, and Analysis.

...Discuss potential challenges to validity and reliability of your research question, data, and analysis. Validity and reliability are the backbone of what is accepted as scientific proof by researchers. Potential challenges to reliability of a research question, data, and analyses are any significant results must be repeatable. Anyone who wanted to perform the same experiment applying the same conditions should arrive at the same result. If this is successful this reinforces the results and makes a larger population accept hypothesis. Potential challenges to validity of a research question, data, and analysis is making sure whether research actually measures what it claims to measure. If someone else who looked at the research and questions if the research really measures what it supposed to, the research results are in danger of being null and void and research findings wouldn't carry weight. Potential challenges to validity and reliability of data and analysis is making sure data is reliable in the first place before any test is applied. Any misconstrue data or oversight from beginning will leave false data entered in the statistical hypothesis test that would not produce accurate results. Challenges to validity of data, and analyses are meeting requirements of the scientific research method. Following all requirements and proper procedures when gather information, chosen right population and sample sizes, and any other requirements when using method. Accurate......

Words: 261 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Types of Reliability and Validity

...Reliability In the field of Human Services, especially in the creation of programs, projects and approach strategies, it is important to measure the reliability of approaches and results. The following approaches are more often than not used to test reliability and are therefore the embodiment 'types' of how reliable an approach or strategy tested with them is: 1. Test-retest reliability - The test-retest method estimates the reliability of the test and the results gathered from it by administering the test to the same group of people at least twice over a set period. The results are then correlated and with a high reliability mark, the tests are seen as reliable. 2. Alternate Forms - Two groups are given the test and their scores are correlated. They do not necessarily have to come from the same population (i.e. test in India & test in Bangladesh) as long as there is a certain relationship. The score correlation becomes the reliability guide. 3. Split Half reliability - In terms of tests, half the items relate to the other half and it is the correlation between them in the test results that matter (i.e. half of the test or interview is about health and welfare issues and the other is about the economic state of the interviewee). 4. Inter-rater Reliability - As in contests where there are multiple judges, tests, contests, experiments and research are tested and marked by a set of qualified people. Their average assessment is then seen as......

Words: 801 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Hrm Marketing

... Example: A company's performance measure for managers is deficient because it does not measure such aspects of managerial performance as developing others or social responsibility. 3. A contaminated measure evaluates irrelevant aspects of performance or aspects that are not job related. Example: A company's performance measure would be contaminated if it evaluated its managerial employees based on how physically attractive they were. C. Reliability refers to the consistency of the performance measure. 1. Interrater reliability is the consistency among the individuals who evaluate the employee's performance. Example: Professor Wagner's teaching evaluations have interrater reliability since both her students and her peers who visited her classes rated her above average. 2. With some measures, the extent to which all the items rated are internally consistent is important (internal consistency reliability)....

Words: 1717 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...Discuss issues of reliability and validity associated with the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia. Classification systems are essential in diagnosing schizophrenia, with two of the most important classification systems being the 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (DSM) and the 'International Classification System for Diseases' (ICD). However for these systems to work effectively, they must be both valid and reliable. Reliability in the context of classification systems means that each time a classification system is used (to diagnose a particular cluster of symptoms) then it should produce the same outcome each time. For DSM and ICD to be classed as reliable, those using it must be able to agree when a patient should or should not be given a particular diagnosis, which is also known as 'inter-rater reliability'. Recent research by Whaley have found have found inter-rater reliability correlations as low as +0.11, this may be to so with cultural differences in classification. Copeland gave 134 US and 194 British psychiatrists a description of a patient, 69% of US psychiatrists diagnosed the patient as suffering from schizophrenia, but only 2% of British psychiatrists gave the same diagnosis. Therefore showing there are cultural differences in diagnosing schizophrenia, thus making the classification systems lacking in reliability. Another reliability issue concerned with the classification of schizophrenia is whether the psychiatrists are......

Words: 885 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Psychometric Properties of Psychological Assessment Measures

... 6 5. Pre-testing the experimental version of the measure 6 4. Item analysis phase 7 1. Item difficulty (p) 7 2. Discrimination power 7 3. Preliminary investigation into item bias 8 5. Revising and standardizing the final version of the measure 8 6. Technical evaluation and establishing norms 8 1. Issues related to the reliability of a psychological measure 8 1. Definition 8 2. Measurement error 8 3. The reliability coefficient 9 4. Standard error of measurement 9 5. Types of reliability 10 Reliability measures of stability 10 - Test-retest reliability - Alternate-form reliability Reliability measures of internal consistency 11 - Split-half reliability - Kuder-Richardson and coefficient Alpha reliability - Inter-scorer reliability 2.6.2. Issues...

Words: 6499 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Psychological Testing

...permit specialists to comprehend a person’s individuality whereas comparison that individual with others, for means that of analysis and self-understanding. In spite of the fact that tests are can be wasteful and even destructive for a few people, with the correct unwavering reliability and validity they can be solid and tenable, helping psychologists and researchers to achieve a superior comprehension of human instinct The Definition of “Test” Hogan (2007) explains that tests are outlined as a consequence of the mixture of six common parts, which the author extracted from the reason of various authors within the field. These parts are procedure , information, behavior, sample of behavior, systematic (or standardized) procedure, and quantification (or measurement). By combining these six parts, the author will finally outline take a look at as a “standardized method or device that yields data a few samples of behavior or psychological feature processes in an exceedingly quantified manner” (Hogan, 2007, p. 41). Primary Users of Tests Within the study of tests there are four teams of the first users of tests. In keeping with these teams embrace clinical, academic, personnel, and research. The first group happens in an exceedingly clinical setting, and tests are employed in a context like faculty science, serving to students, or psychology, serving to patients to search out the particular nature of their issues, or maybe simply on a counsel atmosphere (Hogan,...

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Selecting the Best Person for the Job

...Person for the Job Having the right people on staff is crucial to the success of an organization. Various selection devices help employers predict which applicants will be successful if hired. These devices aim to be not only valid, but also reliable. Validity is proof that the relationship between the selection device and some relevant job criterion exists. Reliability is an indicator that the device measures the same thing consistently. For example, it would be appropriate to give a keyboarding test to a candidate applying for a job as an administrative assistant. However, it would not be valid to give a keyboarding test to a candidate for a job as a physical education teacher. If a keyboarding test is given to the same individual on two separate occasions, the results should be similar. To be effective predictors, a selection device must possess an acceptable level of consistency. Application forms For most employers, the application form is the first step in the selection process. Application forms provide a record of salient information about applicants for positions, and also furnish data for personnel research. Interviewers may use responses from the application for follow-up questions during an interview. These forms range from requests for basic information, such as names, addresses, and telephone numbers, to comprehensive personal history profiles detailing applicants' education, job experience skills, and accomplishments. According to the Uniform......

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...and complex. There are nine basic steps which need to be followed: 1.THE PLANNING PHASE This is where the aim of the measure needs to be decided on and stated. The characteristic or construct to be measured, what the measure will be used for, and the target group (population) for the measure will also need to be defined. Once this has been clarified, one can decide how the test scores will affect decisions (or what decisions can be made based on test scores). An important stage in planning is whether the performance is compared to a criterion or a group norm. In order to define the content of a measure, one needs to have a defined purpose of a measure. The construct needs to be operationally defined, by undertaking a literature review (research process) of the main theoretical viewpoints of the construct. The purpose of the measure is clearly vital, as it serves the basis for constructing the measure. In this phase, 'keying' is used ? where information is gathered about the 'aspects of the construct on which these groups usually differ'. (An Introduction to Psychological Assessment. Foxcroft and Roodt. P72). e.g. Items are needed to discriminate between individuals, so as to allow the assessor to view the various 'risk' groups. The format and number of each type of item is the next step in the planning phase. The format of the test will vary according to the construct being measured. There are open-ended items (no limits placed on the test-taker), forced-choice items (like......

Words: 2475 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

6. Do You Think Companies Can Really Do Without Detailed Job Descriptions? Why or Why Not? obtain the new skills and competencies they needed to accomplish their broader responsibilities. They created skills matrix which listed basic skills needed for that job, minimum level of each skill required for that job or job family. Emphasis is no longer on specific job duties, but on specifying and developing new skills and gave employees constant reminder of what skills they must improve. 1. What is the difference between reliability and validity? In what respects are they similar? Reliability describes the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the identical or alternate forms of the same test. If a person scores 90 on an intelligence test when retested the result should be the same. Validity indicates whether a test is measuring what it is supposed to be measuring. With employee selection tests, validity often refers to evidence that the test is job related. Reliability and validity are used in statistics and research design. At best, we have a measure that has both high validity and high reliability. It yields consistent results in repeated application and it accurately reflects what we hope to...

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Iq Responses

...IQ The paper is an abridgement of the Beck Depression Inventory, which is used to test individuals for depression. BDI was meant a model for CDI, but CDI proves unreliable. The BDI is used all over the world because the reliability of the constant results. In China, there has been a new version of Beck Depression Inventory. The test was done on second graders and adjustments were made to correlate with the students cognitive processing. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a test with two versions produced in 1961 and 1978. The studies were performed on psychiatric patients. The (1961) total of 598 inpatients and outpatients underwent testing in 1961 resulting with the alpha coefficient 0.88, in 1978 the alpha coefficient for 248 outpatients was 0.86 (Sloan, Marx, Bradley, Strauss, Lang, & Cuthbert, (2002). The testing results are consistent between 17 year intervals. The consistency in both versions of BDI prove equivalent. Shek (1990), introduces valuable information on studies of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory. The results present a discovery of high coefficients of congruence and therefor suggest the Chinese version of BDI (C-BDI) carries satisfactory psychometric properties and support to the validity in Chinese version of BDI. Therefore, support given to Becks view of depression being complex, which is proven by factor analytic data. Children’s depressive inventory (CDI) is a screening used in elementary schools to test for depressive......

Words: 424 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Children's Reliablity in Court whether eyewitness reports provided by children during a court case are reliable. Children's memory capacity, their susceptibility to suggestion, and the delay between a crime and providing an eyewitness statement are some factors that can influence the reliability of these reports. Eyewitness reports provided by children can be reliable if given within a reasonable time frame, and that the presented questions are not suggestive. Also, that the eyewitness reports are provided by older children (9 to 12 years old), their reports tend to be more reliable than those of younger children (5 to 8 years old). Taking these factors into account in future court cases with children as eyewitnesses will ensure the best possible reliability in children's statements. The number of children as eyewitnesses is ever-growing and therefore child eyewitnesses are more involved in the field of legal testimony (Flin, Boon, Knox, & Bull, 1992). Due to this greater involvement, it is frequently questioned whether children are able to serve as credible eyewitnesses during a court case, especially in cases where the sole eyewitnesses to an offense are children (Flin et al., 1992). There can be several factors that might influence the reliability of children's eyewitness reports. Firstly, children of all ages have the capability to give accurate reports when they are asked to freely recall a particular event. However, the younger the children are, the less detail they will eventually report.......

Words: 2175 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...Determining sources to be reliable and relevant and whether or not there is an author bias is based on factors, such as, source accurate, information to validate, and Author bias. The reliability of the source can strengthen your essay or weaken the essay with inaccurate information. Reliable and Relevant Using sources to conduct research on a particular topic it is important that the source be accurate. The information the source is providing will be accurate supported by documentation and evidence as to the validity of the information provided. The information in the source will support the topic, have links, references. The source will have the information you need for your research and best found in school, government or military sites or search engines. These sites support the information obtained, the information is accurate and no information can be added or make changed by just anyone. There are some sources that pass the test of being accurate, but the author is bias to the topic, which gives information that is based solely on the Author’s view of the topic. The source that is considered to by Author bias is usually not supported by references, links or accurate information, and anyone can input data and change information provided in the source. Strengthen or Weaken the Essay When obtaining information from sources it can strengthen the essay by providing accurate, consistent and validation to the essay. The source’s are most likely to......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

How Do You Evaluate Sources of Valitdity

...How do you evaluate sources of validity? We, as University of Phoenix students have different options to do research for our papers. The most reliable information source will be the University Library. Other sources available would be the Internet, media (journals, news papers) and encyclopedias, almanacs and dictionaries. Conducting research on the Internet for our courses is going to make evaluating the sources for validity necessary. Unlike the university library collection – “evaluated and selected for usefulness and reliability by educated librarians” – websites and Internet resources are not necessarily evaluated by anyone. That’s why we have to use our critical thinking in evaluating those sources. Using the academic or governmental directories is in our advantage because we know that somebody screened them and listed only those that were reliable and updated. An easy to use tool for evaluating the Internet sources was offered by Robert Harris, professor and author of WebQuester: A guide book to the web. It’s called CARS test for information quality (Credibility, Accuracy, Reasonableness and Support). What we have to question using this test would be anonymous materials, negative evaluations of the materials, little or no evidence of quality control and bad grammar or misspelled words. You have to ask yourself who the author is and whether or not he is a recognized expert. Some signals of lack of accuracy would be lack of date, (you have to know how recent the......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Research Methodology

...------------------------------------------------- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter outlines and defines the research methods involved in the study. The chapter considers the design of the study, sampling design, questionnaire design, reliability check and pilot testing, hypothesis to be tested and finally, data collection and data analysis tools and techniques are mentioned. Design of the Study The research study will utilize exploratory research at the beginning and further in order to test the Hypothesis, it will follow descriptive research design. A pilot study will be conducted among some buyer. Based on the pilot study, necessary changes related to the questionnaire will be taken into consideration. Finally, the main study will be conducted among the buyers in the City. The second aim of this study was to understand the effect of the identified antecedents on the actual impulse purchase behavior of apparel buyers; multiple regression analysis has been conducted for the same. Then the demographic difference in the actual purchase behavior of apparel buyers has been studied with the help of ANOVA. Sampling Design People carrying shopping bags in the malls of Jaipur city, Rajasthan will be considered as sample for this study. Mall intercept method will be used for this purpose. Sample size has been decided on the basis of 5:1 ratio (5 samples for every item of the questionnaire), as per the basic assumption of multivariate......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2