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Research Study About Tawa-Tawa

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Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
Alternative medicine was not new for every Filipinos because of the high cost of medicine that holes their pockets. Most Filipinos do not consult a physician for their medical discomforts, and even if Filipinos seek the help of healthcare provider they usually do not comply in their dosage regimens.
Self-medication was the best option for most Filipinos especially those that were in the middle and lower class of society. Instead of consulting a physician, and instead of buying medicines prescribed by physicians, they seek alternative medicine to relieve medical discomforts.
Alternative medicine started from our ancestors, and it was passed from generation to generation. Alternative medicine was definitely low cost because plants that have medicinal value can be accessed everywhere. But how certain are we that these alternative medicines were really safe if we do not know their effectivity limits or right doses? All herbal plants have its own limitation, a limitation which can measure the effectiveness and the toxicity of a certain herbal plant. Herbal plants like synthetic drugs depend on the dosing, gender, age and the condition of the patient to enact its action to the body.
Most of the alternative and traditional herbal medicines used in many cultures were crude drugs. This means that even though they undergo extraction, there was high certainty that both therapeutic constituent and toxic constituents were present. Just like what Philippus Aureolus also known as Paracelsus once said “All things are poisons, for there is nothing without poisonous qualities. It is only the dose which makes a thing poison.”[1]
Based on what Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus said, the researchers have the fervour to discern the toxicity profile of the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Tawa-tawa). This plant was currently being used by folks as supportive treatment for pathologic conditions characterized by low platelet count such as dengue. Determination of both the toxicity profile of the plant were made by qualitative and quantitative evaluations of altered organ functions in rabbit treated with the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Tawa-tawa). This study purposively back-up the continued therapeutic application of the plant.
Background of the study
Euphorbia was the largest genus of the family Euphorbiaceae with about 1600 species. [2] Tawa-tawa or gatas-gatas comes from Euphorbia hirta Linn. There were other names associated to Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) which includes snake weed, australian asthma weed and botobotones. [3] Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) was widely distributed in our country. It was commonly found everywhere in backyards, open grass fields and in waste places. Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) has many medicinal properties that includes anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, antidote, antifertility, antifungal, antimalarial, anti-spasmodic, anthelmintic, antidysenteric, diuretic, expectorant, pectoral, hemostatic, sedative, soporific. [4] Above all this medicinal uses, the researchers focuses on the significant toxicity of Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) because now a days it was widely used by many Filipinos as an alternative medicine. Recently there were reports that Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) was helpful in increasing the platelet counts of dengue patients. This report becomes an interest to many groups of researchers to prove if Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) can really be helpful in increasing platelet counts. Because of the said report, many people especially in rural areas used this plant for the relief of their discomforts. Researchers come up to a decision that benefits people in a way that Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Tawa-tawa) was good source of low cost but surely safe and effective herbal medicine. It was then the researchers aim to study its toxicity effect and to establish facts regarding its safe use. The entire plant was used by many Filipinos in preparing their alternative medicine except it roots. Likewise, the researchers use the entire plant except its roots to determine if there was a significant toxic effect of the plant in Rabbit.

Conceptual Framework/Theoretical Framework:
Conceptual framework or theoretical framework was used by the researchers to extant the study in a more systematic and summarize way in which it was easy to understand.
Figure 1
Paradigm of the study
PROCESS
* Preparation of the Euphorbia hirta Linn. extract.

* Toxicity tests

* Acute toxicity test in Rabbit * Chronic toxicity test in Rabbit

PROCESS * Preparation of the Euphorbia hirta Linn. extract.

* Toxicity tests

* Acute toxicity test in Rabbit * Chronic toxicity test in Rabbit

OUTPUT * The plant extract has no acute toxic effect to the test animal and 0% mortality rate. * Treatment with Euphorbia hirta extract preserves and will not alter the function of the vital organs
OUTPUT
* The plant extract has no acute toxic effect to the test animal and 0% mortality rate. * Treatment with Euphorbia hirta extract preserves and will not alter the function of the vital organs
INPUT
* Collection of the plant sample * Identification of the plant sample * Selection of Rabbits as test animals
INPUT
* Collection of the plant sample * Identification of the plant sample * Selection of Rabbits as test animals

FEEDBACK

Objectives The study aims to determine if there was significant toxicity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Tawa-tawa). Specifically, at the end of the study this research will be able:
1. To discern if aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Tawa-tawa) will give acute toxic effects in rabbits.
2. To determine if there are significant alterations in the important organ functions in Rabbits treated with the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Tawa-tawa) and the negative control (distilled water).
Statement of the problem The study aims to determine the toxic dose of Euphorbia hirta Linn. aqueous extract and the dose that is safe for human consumption. Specifically, this research aims to seek answers for the following questions:
1. Is there any acute toxicity induced by Euphorbia hirta Linn. aqueous extract(Tawa-tawa) in rabbits?
2. Is there a significant alteration of the important organ functions in Rabbits treated with the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Tawa-tawa) and the negative control (distilled water)?

Hypotheses
Ho: There is no significant difference in the effects of Aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn. and distilled water in the important organ functions of rabbits
Ha: There is significant difference in the effects of Aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn. and distilled water in the important organ functions of rabbits
Setting of the study:
In the determination of the toxicity effect on the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Tawa-tawa). The researchers will conduct series of proceedings in the attainment of the stated objectives. Specifically, the researchers will conduct the procedures in the following settings:
The collection of the Tawa-tawa plant will be done in Sinamar Norte, San Mateo, Isabela around 7 to 9 in the morning and will be send into the National Museum in Manila for the identification of the family and specie of the plant. The researchers will buy the test animal Rabbit from the License veterinary shop.
The extraction, acute and chronic toxicity test in Rabbit is conducted and performed in Chemistry Laboratory 5th floor Miraculous Medal Building and Biology Laboratory University of La Salette, Dubinan East, Santiago City.
The researchers congregated the data and information about Tawa-tawa at the University of La Salette undergraduate and graduate library. Additional sources of journals and previous researches are to be accessed in the internet laboratory.
Scope and Delimitations
Above all the mentioned therapeutic effects of Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) the researchers aimed to concentrate on the discernment of its toxic effect to establish its safe use. The study will deal only with the process of collection, preparation of the aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) and the screening of its toxicity potential. Rabbit will be used as the test animals in the evaluation of the extract’s ability to induce toxicity. The researcher will not determine the active constituents responsible for its toxicity effect due to unavailability of equipment and reagents needed to conduct the test. Phytochemical screening will not be covered. Instead, the researchers will make use of available literature containing information on the components of the plant of interest.
Significance of the study As Martin Luther King, Jr. says “Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity”, [5] being ignorant in the toxicity effects of an alternative medicine will be more expensive and may endanger the life of people using it.
This study will divulge knowledge and awareness about the toxicity as well as the safety profile of the plant Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) to the society most especially for those person who are so dependent with this plant. The researchers aspire to back-up the therapeutic application of this plant.
For the society: This study intends to inculcate and instil in the minds of the people that all crude drugs contain both therapeutic and toxic constituent. It is mandatory that we consult our physician before taking any medicine either natural or synthetic.
For the upcoming researchers: This study will deliver knowledge and data on the parameters use to evaluate if they wish to conduct toxicological studies on different herbal plants. It will serve as a basis as well as a source of related literature about Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Tawa-tawa) and its properties.
All in all, the researchers aims to participate in determining the toxicity effect of Euphorbia hirta Linn (Tawa-tawa) to avoid any harmful effects that will endanger the lives of people using it.

Definition of terms
The terms are defined according to their function or usage in the study.
Acute. It is a term used for having a short and relatively severe course [6]
Antidysenteric. It is an act of preventing, alleviating, or curing dysentery [7]
Aqueous extract. It is an extract which uses water as solvent. [8]
Chronic. It refers to the persisting illness over a long period of time [9]
Crude drugs. It is naturally occurring drug with pharmacologically active ingredients in an unrefined state, requiring no additional processing for use. [10]
Divulge. A word denotes to make known or to tell something. [11]
Effectivity. It refers to the ability to produce a specific result or to exert a specific measurable influence. [12]
Extract. A preparation containing the pharmacologically active principles of a drug, made by evaporating a solution of the drug in water, alcohol or ether. [13]
Extraction. A process of obtaining something from a mixture or compound by chemical, physical or mechanical means. [14]
Fervour. It is a term for deep or excited interest in or enthusiasm for something. [15]
Pectoral. This term is also known as thoracic. [16]
Phytochemical screening. A process of tracing the plant constituent. [17]
Soporific. A term for causing or inducing profound sleep. [18]
Synthetic drugs. These are substances that are produced entirely from chemical reactions in a laboratory. [19]
Toxicity. It refers to the quality of being poisonous, especially the degree of virulence of a toxic microbe or of a poison. [20]

Citations:
1. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/p/paracelsus300348.html
2. http://www.stuartxchange.com/GatasGatas.html
3. http://arianrey.hubpages.com/hub/Back-to-Herbal-Medicine-Tawa-tawa-Wild-Herb-as-Cure-for-Dengue
4. http://www.stuartxchange.com/GatasGatas.html
5. http://thinkexist.com/quotations/ignorance/
6. Dorland’s Illustrated Medical dictionary 30th edition Saunders (Extension library).
7. Dorland’s Illustrated Medical dictionary 30th edition Saunders (Extension library).
8. Determination of Diuretic property of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Amaranth roots (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.) Family Amaranthaceae March 2010
9. Dorland’s Illustrated Medical dictionary 30th edition Saunders (Extension library).
10. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-crude-drug.htm
11. Websters third new international dictionary of the English Language unabridged , A Merriam Webster inc., Philip Babcock Gove, Ph.D
12. Dorland’s Illustrated Medical dictionary 30th edition Saunders (Extension library).
13. Determination of Diuretic property of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Amaranth roots (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.) Family Amaranthaceae March 2010
14. Determination of Diuretic property of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Amaranth roots (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.) Family Amaranthaceae March 2010
15. Websters third new international dictionary of the English Language unabridged , A Merriam Webster inc., Philip Babcock Gove, Ph.D
16 Dorland’s Illustrated Medical dictionary 30th edition Saunders (Extension library).
17. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_phytochemical_screening-Marian m. elevera (n_n)v
18. Dorland’s Illustrated Medical dictionary 30th edition Saunders (Extension library).
19. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_phytochemical_screening-Marian m. elevera (n_n)v
20. Dorland’s Illustrated Medical dictionary 30th edition Saunders (Extension library).
21. http://www.apaic.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=91&Itemid=63
22. Dorland’s Illustrated Medical dictionary 30th edition Saunders (Extension library).

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...Unlucky Cupid ➶ Prologue ★★★ She is smart, HE's intelligent. She's gorgeous, HE's sizzling hot. She's popular, HE has huge resemblance to a world-wide known teen-age superstar. She's snob but somehow nice, while HE is the gentleman every girl will die for. Will rivalry cross their fate? Or Love will play their lives? He was always mistaken for the popular singer, whom She really hates. Will Her high school life end up just like those typical one's? Or will He make the best or even worst out of it? ➶ Chapter 1: Interference /KATHERINE'S PERSPECTIVE First day of school, sigh. Simula na naman ito ng hectic schedule, little time, less fun, and whatsoever bothersome school works. Pero first day of school sometimes is not that bad, kasi usually pupunta ka lang sa unahan at magpapakilala. Orientations, introductions, chit-chats - yeah, that's pretty much it. Kaya on second thought, I'm going to enjoy this first day lalo na dahil makikita ko na ang aking mga hmm, how should I describe my friends? Loud speaker-like? Loquacious? Nah, pero siguro ganyan nga sila - love ko naman. Ew, korni ko.I guess back na kami sa routine namin. Si Lindsay, medyo brat, madaldal (as I've said), okay naman pag dating sa academics, mabait, at sabihin na nating medyo war-freak. Di sya close sa parents nya gawa ng wala lagi sa bahay nila. So ayun, siguro yun ang dahilan kung bakit parang naging "Play Girl" itong si Lindsay, in other way. Hindi naman talaga. Pero all in all she's one of a......

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The Effects of Jejemon Phenomenon in Language Proficiency

...CHAPTER I BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The chapter I of this research paper tackles about the introduction of the jejemon language that covers the definition of the different basic terms related to jejemon and historical background of the jejemon language, the significance of the study that states why and to whom this study is beneficial, the statement of purpose that identifies the objectives of this research study, the statement of the problem that consists of the problems that this study is covering to answer and the scope and limitation that enumerates the extent of this research study. A. Introduction Language is very important in our life. It is used to express our thoughts and ideas to communicate with others. In this modern era, language changes constantly. The language that we use today is getting wider and wider. Nowadays, we use technology like cellphones and computers to convey our messages and through these, people are learning on how to cope up and change the way they convey their thoughts and ideas in different forms. Indeed, English proficiency is one of the important things that we need to practice. The proper usage of both Filipino and English language is one of the important aspects of Philippine education. Correct grammar, syntax and pronunciation are the main concerns of improving our language proficiency to maintain an effective communication locally and internationally, but due to the continuous development of language, the emergence of Jejemon...

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