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Research

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researchResearch is the investigation into and the study of new materials in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. It is swork undertaken on a systematis basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge. Research is a key aspect of journalism and as researchers we employ various sourdes and methods of research. Throughout this essay I will explore and examine the different sources available to journalists, the different types of interviews and I will describe the need for appropriate referencing of all source of material.

Sources available.
We live in an age overflowing with source materials, and these sources are easily accessible to us. The two main types of sources are primary and secondary sources. A pimary source is information that is gathered from an original source. These include; intervies, questionairres, surveys, observation, histoical documents and experiments to name but a few. A secondary source is information that has already been gathered by other people and/or organisations. A secondary source interpets and analyzes primary sources. (Locke, 2013) There are both online and offline secondary sources.

Primary
Surveys and questionnaires
A very important aspect of research work is using surveys. Surveys are a primary source.There are two main types of surveys, a questionnarrie and an interview. Surveys and questionnaires are usually composed of one or more questions that are directed to a certain target audience. Questionnaires have advantages overy some other types of survey in that they are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys. As a primary source questionnaires and surveys create new knowledge, collects new data and establishes new facts (Allsop, 2006). Surveys can be useful when the researcher wants to collect data on a phenomenom that cannot be directly observed. Surveys can use qualitive or quanititive methods. Quantitative research can be directly analysed, it is used to measure the incidence of various views and opinions in a chosen sample. Qualitive is used to uncover trends in thought and opinion. It is also used to provide insight into the setting of a problem.

Historical Documents
Historical documents are another primary source of research. Historical research is the type of research that examines past events or combinations of events to arrive at an account of what happened in the past. Historical documents serve as an original source of information about a certain topic (Locke 2013). The use of historical documents can help researchers with both quanititive and quualitive information if they are seeking to find out the context of a situation or look at how things have or have not changed. These documents contain important information about a person, place or event. Historical documents are most commonly found in the archive section of the library.

Secondary
Online sources
Secondary sources can provide you with background information and offer analyses on the particular event. The most commonly used type of secondary sources are those that are found on the internet, online sources. The internet began with the develpoment of computers in the 1950's. In 1982 the intenet prorocol suite was standardized and consequently, the concept of a worldwide network of interconnected networks, known as the internet, was introduced. The internet is an easily accessible source of information. There is a wide array of information that is available through the use of the internet. There are also many advantages to using the internet as a source. The content that is published on the internet is immediately available to a global audience, reaching over 190 countries, making the world wide web a very cost effective way of publishing ones work. You don't need to wait until resources become available, as the internet is available on a 24/7 basis making it the most efficient business machine to date (Bernstein 1996). As a relatively inexpensive source many business' and companies can post their information via the internet and can be accessed by milions of users. Unfortunately, as to all good things, there are disadvantages to the internet as well. A lot of information that is published on the internet can be factually incorrect, and extensive research is needed to ensure that the facts that one is researching are in fact ligit. The more recemt occurrence of social networking has created an online frenzt of people having the ability to directly interact with different individuals via the internet. These sites, including facebook and twitter, whilst largely popular they offer little privacy, thus leading to an array of online stalking and paedophilia.

Offline
There are many offline secondary sources. These include newspapers, magazines and books. These secondary sources discuss information that was originally presented elsewhere. The history of the book is the history of how people have shaped the intellect tool of writing. Libraries are where a vast array of books can be found. It is easy to become a member of your local library and librariesare run by people called librarians. Linraries are organised in the Dewey Decimal Classification system. This system makes it easeier to access books based on a subject. The location of each book is known making it easier to return and organise. (Locke 2013)

Interviews
Interviews are used for reseachers and are a primary source of research.Interviews are one of the most commonly used forms of reseach. They are straight-forward an can be tailored to the individual respondent (Locke 2013). There are many different types of interviews including, face to face interviews, telephone interviews, email iterviews, vox pops, press conferences and general group interviews. Face to face interview is probably the most popular, and certainly the oldest form of survey data collection. These types of interviews are often used to solicit information on projects that are often thought to be very sensitive. The main advantage of a face to face interview is the presence of the interviewer, which makes it easier for the respondent to clarify answers or to ask for clarification of a question (Lavrakas 2008). Face to face interviews offer the interviewee the ability to establish a relationship with the interviewer, thereby making them more at ease and giving them the ability to express more in their answers. The interviewer can also see the type of body language used by the respondent, enhancing their findings. Telephone interviews are a more impersonal form of interviewing. They are time and cost effective, yet you cannot see the respondent to gauge their response.

Referencing
Throughout this essay I have been using the Harvard Style of referencing. There is a vital need for referencing throuhgout academic essays and reports. The most common use of inappropriate use of referencing would be plagarism. Plagarism is using someone elses work in your own essay. You have the ability to reference other peoples research when it is refrased and appropriately referenced, how ever the ignorance of this results in plagarism. It is considered academic dishonesty and is a breach of journalistic ethics. Many academic institutes use a form of software technology to detect plagarism. It can result in expulsion from your academic institution. Plagarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagarism and research is often unclear.

Allsop, L. (2006) Creating effective questions and surveys and analysing the data. London: Abhaniv

Bernstein, T, et al. (1996) Internet security for business. Indianapolis: Wiley computer publishing.

Lavrakas, P (2008) Face to face interviewing: Sage Research Methods. Available at :http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412963947 (Accessed 15 February 1013)

Locke, S. (2013) Class notes: Research Skills in Jounalism.

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