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# Research

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electrical circuit. These relationships are determined by some basic laws which are known as Kirchhoff laws or more specifically Kirchhoff Current and Voltage laws. These laws are very helpful in determining the equivalent electrical resistance or impedance of a complex network and the currents flowing in the various branches of the network. These laws are first derived by Guatov Robert Kirchhoff and hence these laws are also referred as Kirchhoff Laws. We saw in the Resistors tutorial that a single equivalent resistance, ( RT ) can be found when two or more resistors are connected together in either series, parallel or combinations of both, and that these circuits obey Ohm’s Law. Sometimes in complex circuits such as bridge or T networks, we cannot simply use Ohm’s Law alone to find the voltages or currents circulating within the circuit. For these types of calculations we need certain rules which allow us to obtain the circuit equations and for this we can use Kirchhoff’s Circuit Law. These two rules are commonly known as: Kirchhoff’s Circuit Laws with one of Kirchhoff’s laws dealing with the current flowing around a closed circuit, Kirchhoff’s Current Law, (KCL) while the other law deals with the voltage sources present in a closed circuit, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, (KVL). Kirchhoff’s Current Law is the 3 currents entering the node, I1, I2, I3 are all positive in value and the 2 currents leaving the node, I4 and I5 are negative in value. The term Node in an electrical circuit generally refers to a connection or junction of two or more current carrying paths or elements such as cables and components. Also for current to flow either in or out of a node a closed circuit path must exist. We can use Kirchhoff’s current law when analyzing parallel circuits. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law is states that “in any closed loop network, the total voltage around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops within the same loop” which is also equal to zero. In other words the algebraic sum of all voltages within the loop must be equal to zero. This idea by Kirchhoff is known as the Conservation of Energy.

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