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CHAPTER

Designing Organizations for Quality n 1950 Deming drew the following picture on a blackboard for a handful of Japanese executives:

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thew. Edwards Deming Institute' Reprinted from ottt of the crhisbyw.EdwardsDemingby pemission of MIT md @ 1986 by The w center for Advanced Educationa] sewices, Cambndge, MA 02139. copyright ruimr,"a ry Institute. Edwrds Deming

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Many people see this as simply a diagram of a typical production system that L linked to custom"rs ard suppliirs. Visionaries in the practice of TQ
Many organizations implementing total quality El9 f-olnd,it necessary tdl*ryotl{iB + thg sg!4firrer of their organizaticins,-This chapter discusses in 6rganizaUon design necessary to achieve total quality. The tha ct "ngis chapter will . desdibe the firncflond structure,,the most common strucfure used at the plant or business unit leve! , , . show how many aspects of the functional structure stand in the way of quality and what clr,anges are necessary to create organization structures that support TQ; . provide several examples of how firms are making substantial changes in their organizations in order to implement TQ; and . compare organizational design from a TQ point of view to more csnventional PersPectives.

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Part ll; Total

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In the functional structure shown in Figure 5,1, the organizatin into functions such as operationr ur,a *'uioienance, each of crhi by a manager. The title of such *uoug"", i, often ,;airectofd r1tr* and "vice piesiderrt,, in largJr oned.In such nication occurs vertically up or doivn the chain ;i";-;;rrdF-unctional struc.tures provide organizations with a allow people to specialize i-, tf," of the work 11a-1a ^rpu"t Thelalso *utu it to evaiuate p"opt" fl-:.b-::::l*:d. responsibilities..;For "*y but clear of_ these reusons-furictional s .rul common in both manufacfuring and seryice organizations at ness unit levels.

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The Functianal Structwre Senars.to_{ Ernnln ,,, ,/ EmnlovepAf*n, Few employees in the functional'o.gu.riru}ffi; ;;;H tomers or even a crear idea of how their work combr"u, JthL others to satisfy customers- Itre **rlr

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of the organization into functions is usually unrelated to the to deliver a product to the customer. This structtue is iikely to s* plex, wastefrrl processes, as people do things in one area that mustbe or undone in another. For example, some organizations maintain a group of engirtees sole responsibitty is to redesign products so that they can be effectively. The engineers who design the products in the first plae only about product performance, not manufacturability. (For anoths ple of problems in coordinating design and manu-facturing, see tfu "Barriers, What Barriers?" at the end of this chapter.) Worse yet, if or tion tries to improve its part, it may well make things worse (more time and effort, more cost) for another part of the process. In this ment, continuous process improvement doesn't stand a chance.

Richard Palermo, a vice president for quality and transition

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explains the problems with functional structures in terms of "Pals:rrot which states: 'If a problem has been bothering your company and ycr tomers for years and won't yieid, that problem is the result of a dispute, where nobody has total control of the whole process." The Palermo's law? '?eople who work in different functions hate each oid

Functional Organizations Often Haae a Separate Funetiotfr Quality, Called Quality Control or Quality Assurance
This may send a message to the rest of the organization that there is a dedicated to qualify, so it's not their responsibility. Furthermore, it feedback loop that informs employees that their work needs to be The QC department is generally responsible for collecting and mai quality statistics, which may not seem as valid to the departnents doing the work.s

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This arrangement obviously stands in the way of continuous improvement. Organizations pursuing TQ often retain their quality ance deparhrents, but these units act more as coaches or facilitatm employees, rather than as the group with primary responsibility for In summary, the functional organization compromises total qualityin eral ways: It distances people from customers and insulates them from c' tomer expectations. It promotes complex and wasteful processes and inl* process improvement. It separates the quality function from the rest d l:. organization, providing people with an excuse for not worrying about Er{r, The next section discusses some remedies for the quality problems caused\r the functional structure.

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development, information management, performance meas,,€mq, haining, to name just a few. Individuals o, gro.rpr, known as process (n are,accountable for process performancu uia nirr" the authority to mr and improve their process' Process owners may range from higi-leve utives who manage cross-functional processes to workers *no ,uo,."E ery on tfrg shop floor. Assigning proces" owners ensures that somemft responsible to manage the pioceislnd optimize its effectiveness. Processes that drive the creation of products and services, ar" c.iu.lr customer satisfaction, a.nd have a rarge impact on the strategic goars drr organization are generally considered core processes of a buslness. srypd processes are critical to the operation of a business, but generally do n*afl value directly to the produci or service. AT&T Consuirer coirmuniau services,-for example, defines its core processes as the nefwork servici; process that addresses engineering, provisioning, and maintenance of fu AT&T worldwide Intefligent Network; the customer servicing process ttil guides customers to CCS for operator can comlietion, sah -emproyees inquiries and assistance, billing inquiries, arid account ioquiies or billi46 adjusfments; and the a;cou1t mir,agementand biling pro.i", that managc the systems and interfaces for oveigS million costoirer accounts. suppd processes include information and software services, human rurour"ojf,# lic relations, law, regulatory finance, marketing, and network securitya process such as order entrythat might be consiJered a core process for-rn company (e.g., a direct mail distributor) might be considere'd as a suppffi Process for another (e,g., a custom manufactluer). In generat, processEs are driven by external customer needs while support processes"or" are drivenb5r internal customer needs. Aprocess focus is noiyust for large .o*pur,i"" re AT&T (see the box on Gold Star Chit). A process focus, as opposed to the functional structure, is shown in Er ure 5'2' Ne1ly every major activity within a business involves some forqrof cross-functional cooperario.". A process perspective rinks all parts of an organizatiorr together and increai"" understanding oi the entire system, rather than focusing on onry "*pioyeJ a smali part. In additionlit herps mar agers to recognize that problems arise from processes, not people. ny aigp ing the structure of an organization with the actual *o.t p.o.i*es that ., organization performs,.customers may be served more effectively. management involves the design of processe" to a"rrutop and deliver products and services that meet the needs of customers, daily contrd so that they,perform as required, and their continual improvement. Deming and Juran observed that the overwhelming majority of quarity problems are associated with processes; few are caused by the workers^theoirllrur. Rathec fyg:*:"tis responsible-acruary, it shares responsibility with the workr?lce--to deslgn and continubusly improve the processes with which indi. viduals work.

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...Contents TITLE 2 INTRODUCTION 3 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 3 AIM 4 OBJECTIVES 4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4 LITERATURE REVIEW 5 METHODOLOGY AND DATACOLLECTION 5 POPULATION AND SAMPLING 6 DATA ANALYSIS METHODS 6 PARTICIPANTS IN THE STUDY 7 STUDY PERIOD (GANTT CHART) 8 STUDY RESOURCES 9 REFERENCES 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 APPENDICES: 10 * The Impact of Motivation through Incentives for a better Performance - Adaaran Select Meedhupparu Ahmed Anwar Athifa Ibrahim (Academic Supervisor) Applied Research Project to the Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Studies The Maldives National University * * Introduction As it is clear, staff motivation is important in all the sectors especially in the tourism sector where we require highly skilled employees to get the best of their output to reach the organizational goals. Therefore, organizations spend a lot on their staff motivation in terms of different incentive approaches, such as financial benefits, training and development, appreciations, rewards and promotions. As mentioned in the title, the outline of the findings will be focused on the motivation of the staffs on improving their performances by the different incentive packages that they get at the resort. This study will be executed at Adaaran Meedhupparu by giving questionnaire to the staff working in different departments to fill up and return to the scholar to examine the current situation of staff satisfaction on motivation to......

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...A RESEARCH PROJECT PRESENTED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF KABIANGA ABOUT ; SUPERVISOR; PHILIP ZEAL CHEBUNET DATE;……………………….. MEMBERS; NAME; REG. NO. PHONE; SIGN 1. KIBET CORNELIUS KIPTOO CPR/033/13 0724612633 …………….. 2. AGUNDA ALICE CPR/036/14 0719281475 ……………… 3. OLOO NBELINDA ONYANGO CPR/032/14 0714056988 ……………… 4. WANGILA JOYCE N. CPR/015/14 0704464395 ……………….. 5. ALEX KIPLAGAT CPR/026/14 0710397622 ……………….. 6. KIMUTAI SHEILLAH CPR/025/14 0703117280 ……………….. 7. ONKOBA K. PHOEBE CPR/27/14 0702573832 ………………… 8. KELVIN NZIVO CPR/007/14 0710293935 ………………… 9. WAFULA HARRIET CPR/38/13 0721180983 …………………. 10. APARENMG GODFREY CPR/016/14 0727814068 …………………. 11. SIMION KARIUKI CPR/022/14 0701917384 ………………… DECLARATION We declare that this research is our original work and has not been presented to any another university for an award of degree or diploma. Therefore, no part of this research maybe reproduced without the......

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...Research Methodology & Fundamentals of MR. 100 Marks Course Content 1. Relevance & Scope of Research in Management. 2. Steps Involved in the Research Process 3. Identification of Research Problem. 4. Defining MR problems 5. Research Design 6. Data – Collection Methodology, Primary Data – Collection Methods / Measurement Techniques – Characteristics of Measurement Techniques – Reliability, Validity etc. – Secondary Data Collection Methods – Library Research, References – Bibliography, Abstracts, etc. 7. Primary and Secondary data sources and data collection instruments including in-depth interviews, projective techniques and focus groups 8. Data management plan – Sampling & measurement 9. Data analysis – Tabulation, SPSS applications data base, testing for association 10. Analysis Techniques – Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis Techniques – Techniques of Testing Hypothesis – Chi-square, T-test, Correlation & Regression Analysis, Analysis of Variance, etc. – Making Choice of an Appropriate Analysis Technique. 11. Research Report Writing. 12. .Computer Aided Research Methodology – use of SPSS packages Reference Text 1. Business Research Methods – Cooper Schindler 2. Research Methodology Methods & Techniques – C.R.Kothari 3. D. K. Bhattacharya: Research Methodology (Excel) 4. P. C. Tripathy: A text book of Research Methodology......

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...Research Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods (Babbie, 1998). Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed; deductive methods verify the hypothesized principles through observations. The purposes are different: one is to develop explanations, and the other is to test the validity of the explanations. One thing that we have to pay attention to research is that the heart of the research is not on statistics, but the thinking behind the research. How we really want to find out, how we build arguments about ideas and concepts, and what evidence that we can support to persuade people to accept our arguments. Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) proposed four types of knowledge that research contributed to education as follows: 1. Description: Results of research can describe natural or social phenomenon, such as its form, structure, activity, change over time, relationship to other phenomena. The descriptive function of research relies on instrumentation for measurement and observations. The descriptive research results in our understanding of what happened. It sometimes produces statistical information about aspects of education. 2. Prediction: Prediction research is intended to predict a phenomenon that will occur at time Y from information at an earlier time X. In......

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...STEP 1etasblish the need for research We have to consider if it is a real need for doing a research? Research takes time and costs money. If the information is already available, decisions must be made now, we cant afford research and costs outweigh the value of the research, then the research is not needed. Step 2 define the problem or topic State your topic as a question. This is the most important step. Identify the main concepts or keywords in your question. Problem maybe either specific or general. Step 3 establish research objective Research objectives, when achieved, provide the Information necessary to solve the problem identified in Step 2. Research objectives state what the researchers must do. Crystallize the research problems and translate them into research objective. At this point, we will pin down the research question. Step 4 determine research design The research design is a plan or framework for conducting the study and collecting data. It is defined as the specific methods and procedures you use to acquire the information you need. based on the research objectives, we will determine the most appropriate research design: qualitative and/ or quantitative. • Exploratory Research: collecting information in an unstructured and informal manner. • Descriptive Research refers to a set of methods and procedures describing marketing variables. • Causal Research (experiments): allows isolation of causes......

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...Research Article Research is important to every business because of the information it provides. There is a basic process to researching information and that process begins by deciding what information needs to be researched. The next step is to develop a hypothesis, which describes what the research paper is about and what the researcher’s opinion is regarding the topic. The research article chosen for this paper is titled, “The Anchor Contraction Effect in International Marketing Research.” The hypothesis for this paper is, “This raises the issue of whether providing responses on rating scales in a person’s native versus second language exerts a systematic influence on the responses obtained.” Simply explained, the hypothesis of this paper is to determine whether research questions should be in a person’s native language rather than expecting them to respond to questions in a language in which they might not be fluent. The hypothesis of this paper was accepted based on the research data gathered by the research team. This hypothesis was supported by nine studies using a variety of research methods. The research methods provided data that demonstrated the level of inaccuracy based on questions being asked in a language that was not the respondent’s native language. The research data provided insight into the probability of more accurate results when the respondent was asked questions in a manner that related well with their culture. There are several......

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