Free Essay

Research

In: Business and Management

Submitted By jannat123
Words 704
Pages 3
Name: Yasir Iqbal
Registration no: CIIT/SP15-EMBA-289/CVC
Email ID: sp15emba289@vcomsats.edu.pk

MGT-491
QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH FOR MANAGEMENT

Submitted to: Prof. OSMAN BIN SAIF

Research:
The word research is composed of two syllables, re and search. “Re” is a prefix meaning again, a new or over again. “Search” is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try, or to probe.
Together they form a noun describing a careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles.
Research is basically based on primary and secondary sources. In primary source we collected original data via research "instruments" (surveys, interviews, questionnaires, "focus groups," etc.) to produce new knowledge on a particular topic.
In addition to primary sources and original instruments another source is secondary data. The secondary sources are used to provide an overview of existing published knowledge on a topic and possible current debates about the topic. It also defines how the new knowledge described in a paper differs from what is already known.
Definition:
“The process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis” (Sekran, 2006)
“Systematic inquiry that provides information to guide decision” (Cooper & Schindler, 2001)
“Studious study of a subject that is intended to discover new facts or test new ideas, the activity of finding information about something that one is interested in or need to know about”
Research is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to answer questions.
Research Process:
The research process is the step-by-step procedure of developing one's research and research paper. Writing a research paper frequently requires continuous, and sometimes extensive, re-evaluation and revision of both one's topic and the way it is presented.
The research process involves identifying, locating, assessing, analyzing, and then developing and expressing your ideas.
The research process includes following steps. * Formulating a Research problem * Conceptualizing a research design * Constructing an instrument for data collection * Selecting a sample * Writing a research proposal * Collecting data * Processing data * Writing a research report

Formulating a Research problem:
In the research process formulating a research problem is the most important and the first step. It tells about what you aim to research. This step identifies your destination. The more specific and clear you are is better in every step that follows in the research process-
Conceptualizing a research design:
An enormously important feature of research is the use of suitable methods. The main function of a research design is to explain how you will find answers to your research questions and how you design our research. Select the design that suited your study and have a strong reason for selecting a particular design.
Constructing an Instrument for Data Collection:
This is the first practical step for carrying out a study. For primary data it depends upon our choice, either choose an existing instrument or develop a new one. For secondary data one may develop a form to extract data. Like, Interviews, Questionnaire etc
Selecting a sample:
The precision of your findings is depends upon the sample you select. There are three categories of sampling design, * Random / Probability sampling design * Non random / Probability sampling design * Mixed sampling design
Writing a Research Proposal:
A research proposal’s main function is to detail the operational plan for obtaining answers to your questions. A research proposal should contain the following points.
Statement of objective, List of hypothesis, Study design, Research instrument, Sampling design, Data processing procedures, Outline of proposed chapters for report, Research problems and limitation, Time frame
Collecting Data:
At this step the data of research is collected. The data is collected through, * Interviews * Questionnaires * Focused group discussions
Processing data:
The way one’s analyze information and collected data largely depends upon two things,
Type of information and the way you want to communicate your findings to your readers
Writing a Report
At this step the writer of the paper informs the reader’s .What you have done? What you have discovered? What conclusions you have drawn from your findings?
Conclusion:
These are the steps for research. If the writer is clear about the whole process the research report or results will be clear and correct.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Research

...Module 1 The Research Process * Is a scholarly activity aimed at finding new truths about a specific discipline basically designed to find solution to a problem. * Done in various fields of studies. * May be done in natural sciences like Biology, Chemistry and Physics. And in the field of social sciences such as Sociology, Psychology, Education, Anthropology, Industry and the like. Definitions of Research * a systematic patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles (Webster’s New World Dictionary, 1994) * a systematic investigation in order to establish facts and new conclusions (Oxford, 1996) Definitions of Research * a systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events (Best & Kahn, 1998) * purposive, systematic and scientific process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, organizing, presenting and interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for prediction, for invention, for the discovery of truth, or for the expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and improvement of the quality of life (Calderon, 2000) * a process of systematically examining and explaining the observables. It seeks to generate answers to questions but it also generates further questions for study....

Words: 7848 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Research

...RESEARCH PAPER * Presents the results of the investigation on a selected topic * An individual investigation carried out on a topic of specific interest, unless specifically assigned by a teacher Parts of Research Paper 1. Title Page * Cover page * Indicates the title of the research, name of the author, institutional information and a few other relevant information 2. Introduction * Introducing to the reader the “problem” by providing a brief background of the research 3. Related Literature - Provide brief summaries or descriptions of the workers of other aurthors 4. Methodology * Provides the methods that you will be using in your research Typical Methodology * Laboratory expariments * Statistical or mathematical calculations/computations * Comparison of existing literature 5. Data Analysis * Analyzing data that were obtained from the methodological operation that have chosen 6. Results - Presentation of the actual results of the analysis that you have made based on your chosen methodology 7. Discussion * Discussing more of the results of your research, its implication on other fields as well as the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of the research 8. Conclusion - Provides the conclusion of the research paper 9. Page Reference - Lists of all the academic materials you have used as sources of information in your research paper Research Paper Title ......

Words: 650 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research

...The key characteristics and differences of research methodologies The methodologies used in research include qualitative, quantitative, mixed, and action research. First, mixed methodology entails the combination of the compilation and analysis of both qualitative and qualitative statistics. Second, action research is an informal methodology that obliges all the partakers to be mutual researchers. Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies are the prevailing methods in research at present (Austin, 1978). Qualitative research methodology obtains an approach to evaluating information that looks at connotation rather than numbers. The statistics, therefore, normally consist of non-numerical data such as words or metaphors. Qualitative research is unbolt and receptive to its subject. There are various key characteristics of this research method. First, the perspective of investigation is not artificial; they are natural. Nonentity is undermined or taken for granted. Second, actions can be understood effectively only if they are spotted in context. Consequently, a qualitative researcher submerges in the setting. Under this method, interviews and observations are the most suitable strategies to be used. Quantitative research methods advance research in a different way and scrutinize the data based on figures and statistics, the consequential data is principally statistical (Trochim & Donnelly, 2006). It entails those methodologies, which include surveys, interviews, and...

Words: 454 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Research

...Market Research Proposal ‐ PepsiCo  Is PepsiCo Healthy?  Team 5:  Ilaria Caputo    Aneesha Duga    Marga Galmes    Daria Ilgen       Jean‐Loup Senski    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The proposed research aims to measure the PepsiCo brand’s consumer perception as “healthy” within the North American market and to analyze the results in order to gather data to generate recommendations on the strategic marketing of the company. The research will survey a sample of 1,000 people in the US different by age, income, location and personal preferences for drinks. The population will be selected randomly by a computer by using the grocery store loyalty programs members as reference. The extent of the research is wide enough to ensure that the survey will give us a framework of the feelings towards the healthy feature of the PepsiCo brands. A questionnaire will be administered to the selected sample over the Internet and the results will be collected and analyzed by a computer. The criteria under which each question of the questionnaire has been conceived cover the main concerns for the company. For example, does the consumer perceive PepsiCo as provider of healthy drinks or not?. The research also highlights the main possible outcomes of the survey. For each type of result, the research has already identified a strategic direction the company should take. The research is extensive enough to provide a comprehensive understanding of the brand perception. The accuracy of the research is......

Words: 3821 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Research

...to develop effective marketing strategies and tactics and that the first step is to incorporate marketing research. Through the course of this paper the importance of marketing research will be addressed. An analysis of the importance of competitive intelligence and marketing strategy and tactics for Kudler Fine Foods will also be discussed. Importance of Marketing Research Marketing research is defining a marketing problem then systematically collecting and analyzing information and finally recommending actions (Day, 2005). Marketing research is essential to the success of any business whose main objective is, like Kudler's Fine Foods, to offer products or services that are well targeted (Day, 2005). When making business decisions based on market research, risk can be minimized and the business process is likely to thrive (Day, 2005). Market research helps organizations like Kudler‘s Fine Foods communicate better with current customers by gathering valuable information about products and service from them. Regular customers can provide the organization with valuable information about the shopping experience as well as what would make that shopping experience better (Day, 2005). If Kudler's Fine Foods asks the customers opinion, it shows them that not only do they care about their opinion and helps to increase the level of customer service they provide. Market research is a good way for Kudler's Fine Foods to identify opportunities and minimize risk. Before offering a......

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research

...ALABAMA STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION SYLLABUS FOR RESEARCH METHODS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSE NUMBER: PED 506 CATALOG DESCRIPTION: Consistent with the College of Education Conceptual Framework, Part IV: Outcomes Context, this course is designed to provide graduate candidates with a knowledge base for scientific investigation. The course includes an overview of the methods and tools of research. Emphasis is on the planning and development of a research proposal. The research proposal will be appropriate for future use in the implementation of the thesis required in selected advanced level graduate programs. TEXTBOOK: Thomas, J. and Nelson, J. (2001). Research Methods in Physical Activity, 4th ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books. CREDIT HOURS: 03 INSTRUCTOR: Pat Floyd TELEPHONE: 334-229-4522 OFFICE: JRA 243 OFFICE HOURS: TBA ATTENDANCE POLICY: See University Policy Prepared by: Dr. Pat Floyd, Ph.D. Date: 9/05 Approved by: ___________________________ Date: ____________ Department Chair Approved by: ___________________________ Date: ____________ Dean NOTE: Any candidate requiring alternative formats for testing and/or handouts for this course, or other types of accommodations due to a disabling condition, should advise the instructor within the first week of classes. PURPOSE Consistent with the College of Education Conceptual Framework, Part IV: Outcomes Context...

Words: 1649 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Research

...How To Formulate Research Problem? Posted in Research Methodology | Email This Post Email This Post Formulating the research problem and hypothesis acts as a major step or phase in the research methodology. In research, the foremost step that comes into play is that of defining the research problem and it becomes almost a necessity to have the basic knowledge and understanding of most of its elements as this would help a lot in making a correct decision. The research problem can be said to be complete only if it is able to specify about the unit of analysis, time and space boundaries, features that are under study, specific environmental conditions that are present in addition to prerequisite of the research process. Research Process Research process is very commonly referred to as the planning process. One important point to be kept in mind here is to understand that the main aim of the research process is that of improving the knowledge of the human beings. The research process consists of the following stages – 1. The Primary stage :– This stage includes – a. Observation – The first step in the research process is that of the observation, research work starts with the observation which can be either unaided visual observation or guided and controlled observation.It can be said that an observation leads to research, the results obtained from research result in final observations which can play a crucial part in carrying out further research. Deliberate and guided...

Words: 1487 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Research

...ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research paper is made possible through the help and support from everyone including: Faculty members, mentor, friends, and in essence, all sentient beings. Especially, please allow me to dedicate my acknowledgment of gratitude toward the following significant advisors and contributors: First and foremost, I would like to thank Prof. Mukesh Sehrawat for his most support and encouragement. He kindly suggested to make my research paper and offered invaluable detailed advices on grammar, Perfect content and the theme of the paper. Second, I would like to thank DR. Rajiv bhardwaj which has given a golden opportunity to do a specific topic research on it. He has given a right way to survive and sustain our life as all the other professors who have taught me about research and he studied about how to make report in systematically way. Finally, I sincerely thank to my personal friend who provide the advice and support to make this report. The product of this research paper would not be possible without all of them. So I have learnt many things and terminology of research on a particular topic and also learn how to compare two products taking a specific aspect. CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………Page no- 4 2. LITRETATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………Page no - 5 3. REASEARCH METHODLOGY………………………………………………………………page no -5 a. RESEARCH PROBLEM b. RESEARCH......

Words: 1312 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Research

...RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH...

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Premium Essay

Research

...activities for the quarter 4 which include weekly class discussion, class participation, midterm and final exam * Learned about what Research is and what Research is not. * Eight characteristics of research. * Sub problem – that is a question or problem that must be address before the main problem is resolved. * Hypothesis- that is a reasonable quests that needs to be proving. * I learned about assumption –that is a statement that is presume to be fact. * Learned about theory * Learned about methodology- that is a process a researchers use to collect data and information is research work. * Learned about internet – A researchers use internet to access information online. * Learned about two types of research report which is Juried or refereed – a reviewed report * Nonjuried or nonrefereed – none reviewed report. E.g. Journal report. * Learned about checklist evaluating research- that a report juried that is judge. * Learned that a research that is not screen or viewed by expert is not valid * Guidelines in reviewing research by going to library to sort for information needed for case study. * I learned as a researcher, you must read more than articles. * I learned about research paper / APA Style – that first thing is to choose the research topic. * Learned about what research paper entails, like cover page, table of content, abstract, introduction, summary, conclusion and references. * I learned about......

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Research

...and Public Relations Herzing University Pamela Zipfel March 15, 2015 Research Program Research Program In developing a research program for a new book store for Herzing University, I would first start6 with a research plan. This would prompt me to use a marketing research plan, consumer research, advertising research and strategic research. “Market research complies information about a product.” (Hall, Prentice 2009) Consumer research is used to see what consumers are in the market for. Advertising research focuses on getting your product out there, example would be social media. Strategic research is the final plan and becomes the base of your research it allows the company to compile information from the social media and what influences consumers to purchase a product. (Hall, Prentice 2009) During the exploratory research process I would start with the literature research process, because it is the cheapest. I would use the census bureau, newspaper, and magazines to collect whether there is a need for a bookstore and what sort of books people would want to read. I would then decide if I need Qualitative or Quantitative research. Quantitative research will give numerical data. Qualitative Research gives a more details, such as consumer behavior. It observes what consumers are interested in and explores the nature of the consumer’s insight on a product. I would choose Qualitative research because it would give me more of an overview on what consumers are......

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Research

...Proposal on Research Research is a complicated process in order to find the right resources on a specific topic with the proper literature writing. Researching is to provide necessary information to individuals on a specific topic. Thus, this research can be used to write a paper or papers on a particular topic for intended audiences with the sources you used on your points and assertions. One job the writer needs to make sure he has done is to include a position he is on and that he has compressed or summarized all the research on various sources by focusing on the main key points. The writer also has the responsibility to provide a motivating, stimulating, or activating thesis statement. The writer’s purpose of writing a research paper is to provide specific details on all the sources that have been collected for the writing topic. He also needs to compress all the collected resources into highlighted key ideas from the passages. Also, he needs present a research paper that is consisting of three formats: a summary, a paraphrase, or a quotation. In a summary, you provide important key main points from the source’s idea and write to support the source’s idea. Paraphrase is when a person takes someone’s idea and put it into the writer’s own words. Lastly, quoting is to directly quote from an original source. Even though the writer provides information from various sources that is included to the written paper, the writer must put the researched information into their own...

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research

...qualitative research. A qualitative research design could be primarily used to solve customer satisfaction problems. It is a more straight forward, structured way to seek information from your customers. Through surveys and questionnaires that can be conducted in a number of ways information can be gathered from large groups of participants. Usually they involve closed ended questions, that can effectively organized. The organization of this data is then discussed in the form of numbers and statistics. Using this information the business owner is made aware of a customer’s interest, knowledge, and changes on a product or service. Based on this they can make more informed decisions on the quality of service to their customers. Although a quantative research design can be used primarily it would benefit to use a qualitive research design as well. Part of satisfying your customer is knowing your brand not only objectively but also subjectively. Through quantative research you can monitor your success based on clear cut facts. It does not go into depth as to why your brand is doing well and a qualitive research design can give you insight to customer’s opinions. A qualitive research design is more open to personal feedback. It explores a customer’s thoughts and having access to these thoughts can help in discovering new elements into keeping customers satisfied. A qualitive research is done in form of interviews, focus groups, participant observations and research of other......

Words: 780 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Research

...RESEARCH Research is a process involving a series of steps to collect and analyse the information needed for decision-making in the desired / specific field of inquiry. The term research can be applied to any field of human activity. Research means ‘studious enquiry’ or a systematic, honest and impartial study conducted by trained men using scientific methods. It means detailed study relating to a particular subject. The purpose of research is to find a solution to a particular type of problem or showing the problem a direction towards solution or putting some light in the unknown areas of knowledge for your enlightenment, to that particular area of knowledge-thus research actually help us to understand our reality more clearly, as well as help us to enjoy better living standard. So, research is kind of a project to find out some answers or solutions for a particular area-research. Every project has its scope of work, time-line and resources, that is why you may easily inter -relate research work with a project. There are two different types of research: basic and applied research. These two research types are used in a variety of studies and field disciplines including psychology, biology and chemistry. Basic research is about understanding the various processes between memory, learning, and knowledge. It is about finding information, while it may become applied later, researchers choose to research topic of interest to them. It is about figuring out the answer......

Words: 2368 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Research

...goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure): * Exploratory research, which helps identify and define a problem or question. * Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question. * Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. There are two ways to conduct research: Primary research Using primary sources, i.e., original documents and data. Secondary research Using secondary sources, i.e., a synthesis of, interpretation of, or discussions about primary sources. There are two major research designs: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose one of these two tracks according to the nature of the research problem they want to observe and the research questions they aim to answer: Qualitative research Understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Asking a broad question and collecting word-type data that is analyzed searching for themes. This type of research looks to describe a population without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time consuming, and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2