Free Essay

Research

In: Other Topics

Submitted By karanjit1992
Words 3629
Pages 15
Page 1 of 8

ANZMAC 2009

Indian Restaurants and Sydneysiders: A Perceptual Study
Mohammed A Razzaque*, The University of New South Wales; ma.razzaque@unsw.edu.au

Abstract
Multi-culturism of the contemporary Australian society is well reflected in the diversity of ethnic cuisines available here. This study examines how Australian consumers perceive the quality of food and service in Indian restaurants in Sydney. Findings reveal that perceptions of various ethnic groups have similarities as well differences of likings as well as dislikes.
Key words: attitude, behaviour, decision, perception.

ANZMAC 2009

Indian Restaurants and Sydneysiders: A Perceptual Study

Introduction and Literature Review
Love for culinary diversity is perhaps the most globalised phenomenon. Food markets were the first to become globally integrated, linking distant cultures of the world (Nutzenadel and
Trentmann 2008, Sharpless 1999). Restaurants in the West have been serving ethnic foods much before the debut of global fast food chains such as McDonald. Many Westerners seem to have developed a taste for ethnic cuisines as alternatives to their traditional food (Josaim and Monteiro
2004). Chinese and Indian cuisines formed the basis of the first cultural shift in eating for the UK consumers as early as the 1960’s (Mintel Group, 2006). Over the years, Indian cuisine has become the most popular cuisine in the UK (Lloyd and Mitchinson 2006). Ethnic restaurants have also become very popular in the USA (Gabaccia 1998) and in France (Sharpless 1999).
This increased interest in ethnic foods may be a reflection of the changing dining cultures of consumers caused by the continuous contact between people from different cultures (Iqbal 1996).
Large scale migration from Asia during the last couple of decades has brought about many changes in the demographic mosaic of the Western nations including Australia. Since the end of
World War II in 1945, about 6.5 million people - mostly of European origin - have migrated to and settled in Australia. Abolition of the ‘White Australia Policy’ in the 1970s witnessed an increased influx of migrants from Asia and the Middle East. Contribution of these immigrants has been an important factor in shaping modern Australia as a culturally diverse nation. Like their cohorts from Europe, these immigrants have brought with them their cuisines to Australia. With the passage of time, cuisines from Indonesia, China, Thailand, and India gained high popularity among Australians reflecting an increasingly pluralistic composition of the Australian society.
Food habits are “culturally standardized set of behaviours… … interrelated with other standardized behaviors …” (Mead 1943:21). Food preferences, a result of physiological and psychological development and social experiences related to the degree of liking a food, play an important role in food selection because they give an indication of the amount of satisfaction an individual anticipates from eating a food. Other influencers of consumer food choices include cultural and lifestyle factors, and food trends (Asp 1999). However, food habits undergo continuous change as they adapt to travel, immigration, and the socio-economic environment
(Jerome 1982; Lowenberg et al. 1974; Senauer et al. 1991; Kittler and Sucher 1995).
Among all ethnic foods interest of Australian consumers appears to be strongest in Chinese cuisines. However, popularity of Indian food has been fast increasing. It is worth noting that a large number of Indian restaurants in Australia are actually owned by Bangladeshis. The fact that large scale migration of Bangladeshis to Australia started only in the early 1980s, much later than other Asians, may explain the reason for this rather late adaptation of Indian food in Australia.
Despite the increasing interest in the area there is very little research on customer perceptions of food and service in ethnic restaurants and their marketing implications. Increased expectations and changing culinary tastes of consumers make the hospitality industry in general, and the restaurant industry in particular, highly competitive. To attract and retain customers (Gregoire et al. 1995) and to develop and maintain customer satisfaction and loyalty (Sundaram et al. 1997) it is imperative that restaurateurs have a solid understanding of their customers’ perceptions. To

1

Page 2 of 8

Page 3 of 8

ANZMAC 2009

that end, this research aims to provide a broad understanding of the degree of patronage enjoyed by Indian restaurants in Australia’s largest and most cosmopolitan city, Sydney. Its objectives are three-fold: (i) to develop the demographic profile of patrons of Indian restaurants in Sydney; (ii) to identify factors that influence patrons’ decision to dine at these restaurants; and finally, (iii) to determine if there are differences in the perceptions of patrons of different ethnic origins influencing their decisions to dine at these eating places.

Methodology
Data for this study were collected during February and October, 2007 through interviews of patrons using a survey questionnaire in five middle-of-the-ranges, sit-in Indian restaurants.
Located in five different suburbs of metropolitan Sydney, these restaurants represent a crosssection of Sydneysiders and served similar types of food at the price range of $12 to $16 per person per meal. Prior permission was obtained to conduct the interview on the premises during lunch and dinner times. On an average, 32 patrons were approached in each restaurant.
Before undertaking the actual research, a pilot study was conducted at one of the sampled restaurants to test for consumer acceptance and reliability. The instrument used was based on the works of Reid (1983) and Qu (1997) and informal discussion with restaurateurs. It included a diverse array of variables such as healthfulness (Weinstein and Straus 1994); clean environment
(McDowell 1996, Miller 1989); quality and response time of service (Reiter 1991; Field,
McKnew and Keissler 1997); entree, portion size, takeout options (Castagna 1997; Hall 1996;
Papiernik 1997) and convenience (Lynn 1998) identified as determinants of restaurant popularity.
Results of the pilot study were used to improve the survey instrument. The finalised version of the instrument sought information on the pattern of respondents’ patronage of Indian restaurants in Sydney; factors affecting their decision to dine out and the reasons for choosing an Indian restaurant. Responses were recorded on a 5-pt Likert type scale (1 = unimportant; 2 = neither unimportant nor important; 3 = somewhat important; 4 = quite important; and 5 = extremely important). Patrons’ demographics were also collected. Since the data collection was done through face-to-face interview, some patrons volunteered additional information pertaining to dining at Indian restaurants. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package. No compensation was provided to the patrons. However, they were assured that their individual responses were anonymous and confidential.

Findings and Discussions
Respondents represented an almost equal proportion of male (51.5%) and female (48.5%) patrons with an average age of 29. Eighty percent of them were Australian citizens of whom 59% were
Australian born. Two thirds (66.5%) of them were of European origin: 47.2% being Anglo-Celtic and 19.3% from Greece and Italy. Of the remaining, 23.4% were from Asian countries other than
Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka; 9.2% from the Middle East and a mere 1.3% from other countries. About a fourth (28%) had tertiary education; an almost equal proportion
(26%) reported having no formal education. Almost two fifths (40.9%) of the patrons identified themselves as ‘executives or professionals.’ Patrons’ weekly household incomes were well
2

ANZMAC 2009

distributed averaging about $1800. The statistics in terms of age, gender, citizenship, place of birth, education, and weekly household income are consistent with the demographic profile of the population of the Sydney metropolitan area (http://www.id.com.au/dosydney/Default.aspx?pg=1,
2006). It appears that the patrons of Indian restaurants are the average Sydneysiders. This contrasts with the finding of Josiam and Monteiro (2004) who found that patrons of Indian restaurants in Minneapolis (USA) metropolitan area were better educated and more affluent. The fact that Sydney is more cosmopolitan and more multicultural than Minneapolis may explain this.
To address the second and the third objectives, patrons were requested to assign importance scores, on a Likert scale, to each of the 10 characteristics of the restaurant, five attributes of
Indian food and two sources of word-of-mouth when deciding to dine at an Indian restaurant. To enable meaningful statistical analysis, the respondents were collapsed into two broad categories:
‘European’ (EUR) and ‘Other Ethnic’ (OTH). Table I shows the mean importance scores (MS) of the total sample and the two groups. For the total sample the six most important influencers of patrons’ decision to dine at restaurants, in descending order of MS, were taste of food, reputation of the restaurant, word-of-mouth of other patrons, location of the restaurant, vegetarian food and hygiene and cleanliness. It is worth noting that food quality and cleanliness/hygiene have been consistently rated among the most important factors in selecting restaurants (Reid 1983; Dulen
1999). ‘Price’ appeared to have a low importance score; however, it was a significant factor in decision making while ‘value of money’ was not. ‘Cultural familiarity’ did not also seem to affect patrons’ decision to dine in an Indian restaurant.

Ethnic Differences in Customer Perceptions and Influences
ANOVA was used to measure the differences of perceptions of the EUR and OTH groups. The results (in col. B, C, and D of Table 1) reveal significant differences between their MS in eight of the 17 factors influencing patrons’ decision to dine at an Indian restaurant. All inter-group differences are not significant: reputation of the restaurant, hygiene and cleanliness, quality of service, variety of menu and ambience and decor were the five significant factors on which EUR patrons had a higher expectation than the OTH patrons who seemed to have higher expectations on the factors taste of food, vegetarian food, price of food and cultural familiarity. A post hoc test conducted using the Scheffe’ method did not change the results of the tests of significance.
Emergence of general reputation of the restaurant as a caterer of authentic Indian food as the strongest influencer of patrons’ decision is not surprising. Authenticity, a 'locally constructed folk idea' (Lu and Fine 1995), is an attractive, albeit complicated, attribute used in the foodservice industry (Boyle 2003; Cobe 2004; Germann Molz 2003; Halter 2000; Negra 2002). In choosing an ethnic restaurant, a patron does not only look for a different type of food, he/she expects to have an 'experience' of cultural learning and awareness (Bell and Valentine 1997) and desires authenticity (MacCannell 1976). Evaluation of authenticity is mediated by patrons’ own exposure to culturally related ‘image formation agents' (Germann Molz 2003: 62). This is a socially created and negotiated practice; for some one without much knowledge of any ethnic restaurant, its general reputation and goodwill in the market assumes great importance; for many patrons the
'illusion of authenticity' is often good enough (Ebster and Guist, 2004; Lu and Fine 1995).

3

Page 4 of 8

Page 5 of 8

ANZMAC 2009

Table 1: Mean scores of importance of restaurant characteristics and food attributes
And analysis of variance of restaurant characteristics by ethnic origin (N = 160)

Reputation as an authentic caterer
Location of the restaurant
Hygiene and cleanliness
Quality of service
Variety of menu
Ambience and decor
Friendliness of employees
Seating capacity (size)
Serving size
Value for money
Taste of food (Quality)
Vegetarian food
Price of food
Appearance of the food
Cultural familiarity
Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi etc.
Other patrons (Non-subcontinent)

Mean Score
Patrons of European
Total Sample (A)
Origin (B)
Restaurant Characteristics
4.33
4.41
4.29
4.30
4.08
4.23
3.74
3.81
3.57
3.74
3.42
3.61
3.31
3.32
3.12
3.18
3.10
3.11
3.01
2.99
Food Attributes
4.59
4.48
4.23
4.21
3.81
3.65
3.46
3.41
2.89
2.31
Word-of-Mouth
3.99
3.98
4.3
4.28

Patrons of Other
Ethnic origin (C)

F-value
(D)

4.23
4.26
3.91
3.62
3.26
3.21
3.26
3.09
3.09
3.02

5.432*
1.311
11.732*
5.542*
7.341*
6.431*
1.112
1.483
0.003
0.996

4.69
4.26
3.97
3.48
3.07

4.049*
1.445
7.982*
2.983
11.538*

4.01
4.31

0.998
1.003

EUR patrons appeared to be more concerned about the cleanliness and hygiene of the restaurant than the OTH patrons. This group may have a negative stereotypical perception formed by the way print and visual media depict India that Indian restaurants are lax about standards of hygiene and cleanliness. The EUR patrons also had significantly higher MS on quality of service, but not on friendliness of employees. Perhaps quality of service subsumes employee friendliness. During the interview many of these patrons indicated that they had a much higher expectation for service quality than the OTH patrons because they were operating in a highly competitive market. In fact, it appeared that patrons in general were rather unhappy with the service quality of the Indian restaurants; but the EUR patrons tended to believe that Indian restaurants were unaware that they were in the service industry. The EUR patrons tended to perceive that the items on the menu in the sampled restaurants offer a whole range of choices, the OTH group comprising mainly other
Asian and Middle Eastern patrons were probably aware of other items served by other Indian restaurants. Hence, they tended to seek items that are new and different.
Atmosphere or ambience, i.e., the internal environment, is an important influencer in choosing a restaurant. Internal décor, layout, smell, and general ‘feel’ combine to create the stage setting for the dining experience (Marvin 1992). For many EUR patrons, atmosphere in an Indian restaurant is very important; perhaps they expect to see a glimpse of real India in the restaurant. By contrast, the OTH group may not have any such expectations as they may already be familiar with the
Indian culture. To most patrons, taste of Indian food is spicy and hot; the OTH patrons seemed to have a higher tolerance for such food, since they are accustomed to it (Dulen 1999). Some of them indicated their preference for restaurants offering spicier food; their MS on the importance

4

ANZMAC 2009

of spicy food was higher than the MS of the EUR patrons. The more familiar a particular food looks, smells and tastes, the better is its assimilation and acceptance (Bell and Valentine 1997).
Patrons from both groups indicated that prices in the Indian restaurants were higher than those in other ethnic restaurants; but price seemed to be a more important decision variable for the OTH group. Although value for money is related to price, this was not reflected in its MS or in the MS of serving sizes. This may suggest that OTH group patrons are more price-sensitive. However, since eating in a restaurant is not a ‘regular’ activity; patrons may not factor in the perception of value or the serving size in choosing a restaurant.
While cultural familiarity is not an influencer as such, its MS for the two groups significantly differed. While some EUR patrons stated that they go to an Indian restaurant to experience Indian culture; patrons of the OTH group seem to find elements of cultural familiarity not only in the food and its preparation, but also in the atmosphere of the restaurant.
Results in Table 1 identified location of the restaurant, vegetarian options and word-of-mouth as important factors influencing the decision to dine in an Indian restaurant. This is not surprising.
Good location and easy parking facilities offer convenience to patrons. Vegetarianism is a part of
Indian philosophy and tradition. Since a large proportion of Hindus and all Buddhists and Jains avoid meat altogether (Moy and Witzel 1998) most Indian restaurants tend to offer vegetarian food. Because of general dietary and health consciousness, many patrons today prefer vegetarian dishes. These might explain why all patrons view vegetarian option as an important factor in making the decision to dine in an Indian restaurant. The MS also indicates that all patrons were significantly influenced by the recommendation of other people including other patrons and people from the Indian subcontinent countries. While the scores are different for each of the groups, the differences were not statistically significant.

Managerial Implications
The abundance of ethnic restaurants in Sydney, the unbelievable choice of foods and variety of tastes and flavours are testimony to the richness of the cuisines that Sydneysiders can enjoy. This has important implications for ethnic restaurateurs who are operating in a highly competitive industry. Since the popularity of Indian food is gradually increasing, restaurants offering them must ensure that they meet the culinary needs and wants of their multicultural patrons. This study identifies some important issues relevant to the smooth running of Indian restaurants and provides some food for thought which should facilitate a better understanding of the perceptions of their customers. The study may be extended in its scope by including other Australian cities and using larger samples which would improve the generizability of its findings.

5

Page 6 of 8

Page 7 of 8

ANZMAC 2009

References
Asp, E. H. 1999. “Factors affecting food decisions made by individual consumers”. Food Policy.
24 (2-3): 287-294
Bell, D. and Valentine, 1997. Consumer Geographies: We are where we eat. New York:
Routledge Press.
Boyle, D. 2003. Authenticity: Brands, fakes, spin and lust for real life. Flamingo, London.
Castagna, N. 1997. “Pack mentality”. Restaurant and Institutions, 107:60–62.
Cobe, P. 2004. “Get It Together”. Restaurant Business, March 15. 103(5). 39-44.
Dulen, J. 1999. “Quality control”. Restaurants and Institutions. 109(5): 38-41.
Ebster, C. and Guist, I. 2004. “The Role of Authenticity in Ethnic Theme Restaurants”. Journal of Foodservice Business Research. 7(2): 41-52.
Field, A., McKnew, M. and Kiessler, P. 1997. “A simulation comparison of buffet restaurants.
Cornell Hotel Restaurant Administration Quarterly. 6:68–79.
Gabaccia, D.R. 1998. We Are What We Eat: Ethnic Food and the Making of Americans. Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Germann Molz, J. G. 2003. “Tasting an Imagined Thailand: Authenticity and culinary tourism in
Thai restaurants”. In Long, L. (ed), Culinary Tourism, Lexington: University of Kentucky: 53-75.
Gregoire, M.B., Shanklin, C.W., Greathouse, K.R. and Tripp, C. 1995. “Factors influencing restaurant selection by travelers who stop at visitor information centers”. Journal of Travel and
Tourism Marketing. 4(2): 41-49.
Hall, S. 1996. “Double duty”. Restaurant and Institutions, 106: 64–66.
Halter, M. 2000. Shopping for Identity: The marketing of ethnicity, Schocken, New York. http://www.id.com.au/dosydney/Default.aspx?pg=1, 2006; accessed on November 28, 2008.
Iqbal, S. 1996. “Ethnic foods - the allure for the consumer”. Foodinfo, IFIS Newsletter, p. 7.
Jerome, N.W., 1982. Dietary patterning and change: a continuous process. Contemporary
Nutrition Newsletter 7 (6). General Mills, Inc.
Josiam, B. and Monteiro, P. 2004. “Tandoori Tastes: Perceptions of Indian restaurants in
America”. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 16(1): 18-26.
Kittler, P.G., Sucher, K.P., 1995. Food and Culture in America, 2nd ed. West/Wadsworth,
Belmont, CA.
Lowenberg, M.E., Todhunter, E.N., Wilson, E.D., Savage, J.R., Lubawski, J.L. 1974. Food and
Man, 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Lyrm, M., Le, J.-M. and Sherwyn, D. 1998. “Reach out and touch your customers”. Cornell
Hotel Restaurant Administration Quarterly. 39(3): 60–65.
Marvin, B. 1992. Restaurant Basics: Why Guests Don’t Come Back ... and What You Can Do about It. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

6

ANZMAC 2009

Mead, M., 1943. The problem of changing food habits. In The Problem of Changing Food
Habits, Report of the Committee on Food Habits 1941–1943. Bulletin No. 108, National
Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Mintel International Group Ltd. 2006. Ethnic Restaurants and Takeaways – UK June 2006, http://www.just-food.com/store/product.aspx?id=43688&lk=ss accessed on November 23, 2008.
Moy, Al. and Witzel, M. 1998. Influences in Modern Indian Cooking, available at: http://2028.harvard.net/ people/alycem/work/icooking.html (accessed 6 June 2000).
Negra, D. 2002. “Ethnic Food Fetishism, Whiteness and Nostalgia in Recent Film and
Television”. The Velvet Light Trap, 50: 62-76.
Qu, H. 1997. “Determinant factors and choice intention for Chinese restaurant dining: a multivariate approach”. Journal of Restaurant and Food Service Marketing. 2 (2): 35-49.
Reid, R.D. 1983. Foodservice and Restaurant Marketing. CBI Publishing Company, Inc.,
Boston, MA
Senauer, B., Asp, E., Kinsey, J., 1991. Food Trends and the Changing Consumer. Eagan Press,
St. Paul, MN.
Sharpless, M. 1999. Ethnic Foods Boom in France, http://www.fas.usda.gov/info/agexporter/
1999/articles/ethnic.html, accessed on November 13, 2008
Lloyd, J. and Mitchinson, J. 2006. The Book of General Ignorance. Faber & Faber.
Lu, S. and Fine, G. 1995. “The Presentation of Authenticity: Chinese food as a social accomplishment”. Sociological Quarterly. 36(3): 535-553.
MacCannell, D. 1976. “The Tourist: A new theory of the leisure class”. Schocken, New York.
McDowell, B. 1996. The people's choice. Restaurant and Institutions, 106: 42–65.
Miller, D. 1983. Starting a Small Restaurant, Harvard Common Press, Boston, Mass.
Nützenadel, A. and Trentmann, F. 2008. Food and Globalization: Consumption, Markets and
Politics in the Modern World. Berg Publishers.
Papiernik, R. 1997. “Home meal battle heats up”. Nation's Rest News. 31: 46–48.
Reiter. E. 1991. Making Fast Food, McGill-Queens University Press, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Sundaram, D.S., Jurowski, C. and Webster, C. 1997. “Service failure recovery efforts in restaurant dining: the role of criticality of service consumption”. Hospitality Research Journal.
20(3):137-49.
Weinstein J and Straus, K. 1994. “Tastes of America”. Restaurant and Institutions, 102: 48–72.

7

Page 8 of 8

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Research

...RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCH...

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Premium Essay

Research

...and Public Relations Herzing University Pamela Zipfel March 15, 2015 Research Program Research Program In developing a research program for a new book store for Herzing University, I would first start6 with a research plan. This would prompt me to use a marketing research plan, consumer research, advertising research and strategic research. “Market research complies information about a product.” (Hall, Prentice 2009) Consumer research is used to see what consumers are in the market for. Advertising research focuses on getting your product out there, example would be social media. Strategic research is the final plan and becomes the base of your research it allows the company to compile information from the social media and what influences consumers to purchase a product. (Hall, Prentice 2009) During the exploratory research process I would start with the literature research process, because it is the cheapest. I would use the census bureau, newspaper, and magazines to collect whether there is a need for a bookstore and what sort of books people would want to read. I would then decide if I need Qualitative or Quantitative research. Quantitative research will give numerical data. Qualitative Research gives a more details, such as consumer behavior. It observes what consumers are interested in and explores the nature of the consumer’s insight on a product. I would choose Qualitative research because it would give me more of an overview on what consumers are......

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Research

...RESEARCH PAPER * Presents the results of the investigation on a selected topic * An individual investigation carried out on a topic of specific interest, unless specifically assigned by a teacher Parts of Research Paper 1. Title Page * Cover page * Indicates the title of the research, name of the author, institutional information and a few other relevant information 2. Introduction * Introducing to the reader the “problem” by providing a brief background of the research 3. Related Literature - Provide brief summaries or descriptions of the workers of other aurthors 4. Methodology * Provides the methods that you will be using in your research Typical Methodology * Laboratory expariments * Statistical or mathematical calculations/computations * Comparison of existing literature 5. Data Analysis * Analyzing data that were obtained from the methodological operation that have chosen 6. Results - Presentation of the actual results of the analysis that you have made based on your chosen methodology 7. Discussion * Discussing more of the results of your research, its implication on other fields as well as the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of the research 8. Conclusion - Provides the conclusion of the research paper 9. Page Reference - Lists of all the academic materials you have used as sources of information in your research paper Research Paper Title ......

Words: 650 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research

...goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure): * Exploratory research, which helps identify and define a problem or question. * Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question. * Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. There are two ways to conduct research: Primary research Using primary sources, i.e., original documents and data. Secondary research Using secondary sources, i.e., a synthesis of, interpretation of, or discussions about primary sources. There are two major research designs: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose one of these two tracks according to the nature of the research problem they want to observe and the research questions they aim to answer: Qualitative research Understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Asking a broad question and collecting word-type data that is analyzed searching for themes. This type of research looks to describe a population without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time consuming, and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Research

...How To Formulate Research Problem? Posted in Research Methodology | Email This Post Email This Post Formulating the research problem and hypothesis acts as a major step or phase in the research methodology. In research, the foremost step that comes into play is that of defining the research problem and it becomes almost a necessity to have the basic knowledge and understanding of most of its elements as this would help a lot in making a correct decision. The research problem can be said to be complete only if it is able to specify about the unit of analysis, time and space boundaries, features that are under study, specific environmental conditions that are present in addition to prerequisite of the research process. Research Process Research process is very commonly referred to as the planning process. One important point to be kept in mind here is to understand that the main aim of the research process is that of improving the knowledge of the human beings. The research process consists of the following stages – 1. The Primary stage :– This stage includes – a. Observation – The first step in the research process is that of the observation, research work starts with the observation which can be either unaided visual observation or guided and controlled observation.It can be said that an observation leads to research, the results obtained from research result in final observations which can play a crucial part in carrying out further research. Deliberate and guided...

Words: 1487 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Research

...The key characteristics and differences of research methodologies The methodologies used in research include qualitative, quantitative, mixed, and action research. First, mixed methodology entails the combination of the compilation and analysis of both qualitative and qualitative statistics. Second, action research is an informal methodology that obliges all the partakers to be mutual researchers. Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies are the prevailing methods in research at present (Austin, 1978). Qualitative research methodology obtains an approach to evaluating information that looks at connotation rather than numbers. The statistics, therefore, normally consist of non-numerical data such as words or metaphors. Qualitative research is unbolt and receptive to its subject. There are various key characteristics of this research method. First, the perspective of investigation is not artificial; they are natural. Nonentity is undermined or taken for granted. Second, actions can be understood effectively only if they are spotted in context. Consequently, a qualitative researcher submerges in the setting. Under this method, interviews and observations are the most suitable strategies to be used. Quantitative research methods advance research in a different way and scrutinize the data based on figures and statistics, the consequential data is principally statistical (Trochim & Donnelly, 2006). It entails those methodologies, which include surveys, interviews, and...

Words: 454 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Research

...qualitative research. A qualitative research design could be primarily used to solve customer satisfaction problems. It is a more straight forward, structured way to seek information from your customers. Through surveys and questionnaires that can be conducted in a number of ways information can be gathered from large groups of participants. Usually they involve closed ended questions, that can effectively organized. The organization of this data is then discussed in the form of numbers and statistics. Using this information the business owner is made aware of a customer’s interest, knowledge, and changes on a product or service. Based on this they can make more informed decisions on the quality of service to their customers. Although a quantative research design can be used primarily it would benefit to use a qualitive research design as well. Part of satisfying your customer is knowing your brand not only objectively but also subjectively. Through quantative research you can monitor your success based on clear cut facts. It does not go into depth as to why your brand is doing well and a qualitive research design can give you insight to customer’s opinions. A qualitive research design is more open to personal feedback. It explores a customer’s thoughts and having access to these thoughts can help in discovering new elements into keeping customers satisfied. A qualitive research is done in form of interviews, focus groups, participant observations and research of other......

Words: 780 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Research

...activities for the quarter 4 which include weekly class discussion, class participation, midterm and final exam * Learned about what Research is and what Research is not. * Eight characteristics of research. * Sub problem – that is a question or problem that must be address before the main problem is resolved. * Hypothesis- that is a reasonable quests that needs to be proving. * I learned about assumption –that is a statement that is presume to be fact. * Learned about theory * Learned about methodology- that is a process a researchers use to collect data and information is research work. * Learned about internet – A researchers use internet to access information online. * Learned about two types of research report which is Juried or refereed – a reviewed report * Nonjuried or nonrefereed – none reviewed report. E.g. Journal report. * Learned about checklist evaluating research- that a report juried that is judge. * Learned that a research that is not screen or viewed by expert is not valid * Guidelines in reviewing research by going to library to sort for information needed for case study. * I learned as a researcher, you must read more than articles. * I learned about research paper / APA Style – that first thing is to choose the research topic. * Learned about what research paper entails, like cover page, table of content, abstract, introduction, summary, conclusion and references. * I learned about......

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Research

...Proposal on Research Research is a complicated process in order to find the right resources on a specific topic with the proper literature writing. Researching is to provide necessary information to individuals on a specific topic. Thus, this research can be used to write a paper or papers on a particular topic for intended audiences with the sources you used on your points and assertions. One job the writer needs to make sure he has done is to include a position he is on and that he has compressed or summarized all the research on various sources by focusing on the main key points. The writer also has the responsibility to provide a motivating, stimulating, or activating thesis statement. The writer’s purpose of writing a research paper is to provide specific details on all the sources that have been collected for the writing topic. He also needs to compress all the collected resources into highlighted key ideas from the passages. Also, he needs present a research paper that is consisting of three formats: a summary, a paraphrase, or a quotation. In a summary, you provide important key main points from the source’s idea and write to support the source’s idea. Paraphrase is when a person takes someone’s idea and put it into the writer’s own words. Lastly, quoting is to directly quote from an original source. Even though the writer provides information from various sources that is included to the written paper, the writer must put the researched information into their own...

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research

...ALABAMA STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION SYLLABUS FOR RESEARCH METHODS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSE NUMBER: PED 506 CATALOG DESCRIPTION: Consistent with the College of Education Conceptual Framework, Part IV: Outcomes Context, this course is designed to provide graduate candidates with a knowledge base for scientific investigation. The course includes an overview of the methods and tools of research. Emphasis is on the planning and development of a research proposal. The research proposal will be appropriate for future use in the implementation of the thesis required in selected advanced level graduate programs. TEXTBOOK: Thomas, J. and Nelson, J. (2001). Research Methods in Physical Activity, 4th ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books. CREDIT HOURS: 03 INSTRUCTOR: Pat Floyd TELEPHONE: 334-229-4522 OFFICE: JRA 243 OFFICE HOURS: TBA ATTENDANCE POLICY: See University Policy Prepared by: Dr. Pat Floyd, Ph.D. Date: 9/05 Approved by: ___________________________ Date: ____________ Department Chair Approved by: ___________________________ Date: ____________ Dean NOTE: Any candidate requiring alternative formats for testing and/or handouts for this course, or other types of accommodations due to a disabling condition, should advise the instructor within the first week of classes. PURPOSE Consistent with the College of Education Conceptual Framework, Part IV: Outcomes Context...

Words: 1649 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Research

...SOCIAL RESEARCH METHOD Q: Which research design suits your research topic and why? OUR RESEARCH QUESTION: Our research construct is glass ceiling prevailing and increasing in the organizations. Therefore, our research question is “how to break glass ceiling?” RESEARCH DESIGNS: There are five basic research designs according to which one can conduct his/her research. These research designs are: 1. Experimental design 2. Longitudinal design 3. Explanatory design 4. Cross sectional design 5. Case study design DESIGN THAT SUITS OUR TOPIC: Keeping in consideration all other methods and designs, we think that cross sectional design suits our research topic. Cross sectional design may be defined as “A basic type of research method in which a large cross-section of the population is studied at one specific time and the differences between individual groups within the population compared.” The most important advantage of cross sectional studies is that in general they are quick and cheap. As there is no follow up, fewer resources are required to run the study. Cross sectional studies are the best way to determine prevalence and are useful at identifying associations that can then be more rigorously studied using a cohort study or randomized controlled study. Cross-sectional surveys can be conducted using any mode of data collection, including telephone interviews in which landline telephones are called, telephone interviews in which cell phones are called...

Words: 561 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research

...ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research paper is made possible through the help and support from everyone including: Faculty members, mentor, friends, and in essence, all sentient beings. Especially, please allow me to dedicate my acknowledgment of gratitude toward the following significant advisors and contributors: First and foremost, I would like to thank Prof. Mukesh Sehrawat for his most support and encouragement. He kindly suggested to make my research paper and offered invaluable detailed advices on grammar, Perfect content and the theme of the paper. Second, I would like to thank DR. Rajiv bhardwaj which has given a golden opportunity to do a specific topic research on it. He has given a right way to survive and sustain our life as all the other professors who have taught me about research and he studied about how to make report in systematically way. Finally, I sincerely thank to my personal friend who provide the advice and support to make this report. The product of this research paper would not be possible without all of them. So I have learnt many things and terminology of research on a particular topic and also learn how to compare two products taking a specific aspect. CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………Page no- 4 2. LITRETATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………………Page no - 5 3. REASEARCH METHODLOGY………………………………………………………………page no -5 a. RESEARCH PROBLEM b. RESEARCH......

Words: 1312 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Research

...RESEARCH Research is a process involving a series of steps to collect and analyse the information needed for decision-making in the desired / specific field of inquiry. The term research can be applied to any field of human activity. Research means ‘studious enquiry’ or a systematic, honest and impartial study conducted by trained men using scientific methods. It means detailed study relating to a particular subject. The purpose of research is to find a solution to a particular type of problem or showing the problem a direction towards solution or putting some light in the unknown areas of knowledge for your enlightenment, to that particular area of knowledge-thus research actually help us to understand our reality more clearly, as well as help us to enjoy better living standard. So, research is kind of a project to find out some answers or solutions for a particular area-research. Every project has its scope of work, time-line and resources, that is why you may easily inter -relate research work with a project. There are two different types of research: basic and applied research. These two research types are used in a variety of studies and field disciplines including psychology, biology and chemistry. Basic research is about understanding the various processes between memory, learning, and knowledge. It is about finding information, while it may become applied later, researchers choose to research topic of interest to them. It is about figuring out the answer......

Words: 2368 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Research

...to develop effective marketing strategies and tactics and that the first step is to incorporate marketing research. Through the course of this paper the importance of marketing research will be addressed. An analysis of the importance of competitive intelligence and marketing strategy and tactics for Kudler Fine Foods will also be discussed. Importance of Marketing Research Marketing research is defining a marketing problem then systematically collecting and analyzing information and finally recommending actions (Day, 2005). Marketing research is essential to the success of any business whose main objective is, like Kudler's Fine Foods, to offer products or services that are well targeted (Day, 2005). When making business decisions based on market research, risk can be minimized and the business process is likely to thrive (Day, 2005). Market research helps organizations like Kudler‘s Fine Foods communicate better with current customers by gathering valuable information about products and service from them. Regular customers can provide the organization with valuable information about the shopping experience as well as what would make that shopping experience better (Day, 2005). If Kudler's Fine Foods asks the customers opinion, it shows them that not only do they care about their opinion and helps to increase the level of customer service they provide. Market research is a good way for Kudler's Fine Foods to identify opportunities and minimize risk. Before offering a......

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research

...Module 1 The Research Process * Is a scholarly activity aimed at finding new truths about a specific discipline basically designed to find solution to a problem. * Done in various fields of studies. * May be done in natural sciences like Biology, Chemistry and Physics. And in the field of social sciences such as Sociology, Psychology, Education, Anthropology, Industry and the like. Definitions of Research * a systematic patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles (Webster’s New World Dictionary, 1994) * a systematic investigation in order to establish facts and new conclusions (Oxford, 1996) Definitions of Research * a systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events (Best & Kahn, 1998) * purposive, systematic and scientific process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, organizing, presenting and interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for prediction, for invention, for the discovery of truth, or for the expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and improvement of the quality of life (Calderon, 2000) * a process of systematically examining and explaining the observables. It seeks to generate answers to questions but it also generates further questions for study....

Words: 7848 - Pages: 32