Free Essay

Research

In: Business and Management

Submitted By stanleblanc
Words 4547
Pages 19
Chapter 01
Research in Business

Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is an example of a business decision maker?
A. Politician's election consultant
B. Church pastor
C. Manager of a non-profit program
D. Business manager of a consumer goods product
E. All of the above 2. The acronym, RFP, stands for _____ and refers to the document used to invite research firms to propose ideas for addressing the research needs of the organization.
A. request for proposal
B. recency frequency population
C. research firm proposal
D. recognition of problem
E. recently formed protocols 3. The problem or opportunity that requires a business decision on the part of the decision maker is called a _____.
A. management dilemma
B. research problem
C. challenge
D. measurement approach
E. return on business investment

4. Northwest Airlines applied mathematical models to determine which customers in its database were currently responsible for most of its profitability and which customers were not currently profitable but had similar characteristics to the most profitable customers. Northwest Airlines utilized _____ to identify these customers.
A. computer programming
B. data warehousing
C. customer relationships management
D. data mining
E. intervention 5. The main purpose of a(n) _____ is to share company information and computing resources among internal audiences.
A. decision support system
B. intranet
C. extranet
D. internet
E. data warehouse 6. A private network that uses Internet protocols and the public telecommunication system to share an organization's information, data, or operations the external suppliers, vendors, or customers is called a(n) _____.
A. decision support system
B. intranet
C. extranet
D. internet
E. data warehouse 7. The question, "Should we do business research?" is often stimulated by data from a(n) _____.
A. data warehouse
B. intelligence system
C. decision support system
D. intranet
E. both b and c

8. Which of the following is not a possible source of business intelligence?
A. Competitor web sites
B. Government reports
C. Business research reports
D. Clipping services
E. All of the above are possible sources 9. Recordings of public proceedings, speeches by elected officials, and information on agency web sites are all examples of business intelligence available from _____ sources.
A. competitive
B. cultural
C. government
D. demographic
E. technological 10. Intuitive decision makers tend to base business decisions on _____.
A. business research
B. secondary data
C. primary data
D. proprietary research
E. all of the above 11. Visionary decision makers tend to base business decisions on _____.
A. proprietary business research
B. instinct
C. secondary data
D. past experience
E. all of the above

12. Which tier in the hierarchy of business decision makers sees research as the fundamental first step in any business venture?
A. Base tier
B. Middle tier
C. Top tier
D. All of the above
E. None of the above 13. Minute Maid sees research as the fundamental first step in any business decision and it created proprietary methods for conducting research. At what level of the hierarchy of business decision makers does Minute Maid operate?
A. Top tier
B. Middle tier
C. Base tier
D. Foundation tier
E. Information tier 14. Some organizations make decisions based on past experience, instincts, or secondary data searches. These organizations are operating at the _____ tier of the hierarchy of business decision makers.
A. top
B. middle
C. base
D. pinnacle
E. information 15. Business research may be considered unnecessary when _____.
A. management has insufficient resources to conduct an appropriate study
B. the risk associated with the decision at hand is low
C. the information is applicable to the critical decision
D. both a and b
E. both a and c

16. When a business research firm provides both quantitative and qualitative methodology expertise and conducts all phases of research from planning to execution and reporting, the firm is considered a(n) _____ firm.
A. internal
B. interactive
C. proprietary
D. omnibus
E. full-service 17. Which term below refers to a research program or technique that is owned by a single firm?
A. Proprietary
B. Omnibus
C. Full-service
D. Limited service
E. Internal 18. All of the following terms except _____ can be used to describe custom full-service business research firms?
A. ad hoc research
B. custom-designed research
C. custom researchers
D. syndicated panel
E. all of the above can be used to describe custom full-service business research firms 19. What type of research firm dominates the small research firms operated by a single person or a small staff?
A. Proprietary
B. Syndicated
C. Full-service
D. Specialty
E. Internal

20. Specialty firms can establish expertise in all of the following areas except _____.
A. methodology
B. process
C. industry
D. incentives
E. geographic region 21. Researchers who study retail shoppers by tracing their footsteps and recording the amount of time a shopper spends reading labels are conducting _____ studies.
A. survey
B. interviewing
C. observation
D. focus groups
E. empathic 22. Specialty research suppliers who provide the screening and recruiting of probability samples for a wide range of survey studies are called _____.
A. sampling specialists
B. field business specialists
C. headhunters
D. screeners
E. syndicators 23. A _____ study combines one or a few questions from several business decision makers who need information from the same population.
A. syndicated
B. proprietary research
C. omnibus
D. sampling
E. full-service

24. Which of the following is an advantage of using an omnibus study?
A. Ability to reach a convenience sample of consumers
B. Cost of less than $2000 per question
C. Ability to receive full-service research services
D. Ability to receive results in 24-48 hours
E. All of the above 25. What type of research do trade associations generally conduct?
A. Basic research
B. Practical research
C. Applied research
D. Ad hoc research
E. All of the above 26. Which of the following is not a required characteristic of good research?
A. Clearly defined purpose
B. Detailed research process
C. Focused on theory
D. Thorough research design
E. Recognition of limitations 27. Good research follows the standards of the ______.
A. American Manufacturers Association
B. scientific method
C. scientific management
D. American Association of Public Opinion Research
E. FTC

28. Which term refers to procedures for generating replicable research that are systematic and empirically-based?
A. Scientific management
B. Total quality management
C. Scientific method
D. Theoretical research
E. Applied research 29. For the limitations of a study to be revealed appropriately, the researcher should _____.
A. compare the desired procedure with the actual procedure
B. compare the desired sample with the actual sample
C. ensure that the recommendations do not exceed the scope of the study
D. address the time restraints imposed on the study
E. both a and b 30. Which characteristic of good research involves distinguishing between the organization's symptoms, its problems, the manager's perception of the problems, and the research problem?
A. Clearly defined purpose
B. Detailed research process
C. Thorough research design
D. High ethical standards
E. Justifiable conclusions 31. Which of the following is not included in the statement of the decision problem?
A. Scope
B. Limitations
C. Precise meaning of all terms
D. Desired procedures
E. Organizational symptoms

32. The procedures used in the research are specified in the _____ section of a research report.
A. problem statement
B. research design
C. limitations
D. findings
E. conclusions 33. Researchers have the ethical responsibility to guard the welfare of _____.
A. research participants
B. clients
C. colleagues
D. organizations to which they belong
E. all of the above 34. Which of the following considerations is not a potential ethical dilemma for a researcher?
A. Psychological harm to respondents
B. Physical harm to respondents
C. Omission of significant procedural details in the research process
D. Invasion of privacy
E. Exploitation of respondents 35. The goal of the research design is to maximize the _____ of the results.
A. objectivity
B. subjectivity
C. profitability
D. morality
E. reportability

36. Are any of the following not a good reason for managers to be well grounded in basic research?
A. Do research for themselves.
B. Make competent decisions on whether to make or 'buy' research from researchers outside the firm.
C. Define their own needs and form researchable questions for the specialist.
D. Judge the logic of a research approach.
E. All are good reasons. 37. Which of the following types of research is conducted to evaluate specific courses of action or forecast current or future values?
A. Reporting studies
B. Explanation studies
C. Description studies
D. Prediction studies
E. Observation studies 38. Which of the following is not an example of research?
A. An experiment in product taste preferences.
B. A statistical analysis of errors in the recording of inventories.
C. A test of cognitive dissonance theory and major investment decisions.
D. A simulation of the information flows in an organization.
E. A decision to change the firm's method of accounting. 39. Applied research:
A. Has little direct impact on policy decisions.
B. Is problem directed but not decision directed.
C. Is problem directed and closely related to policy or action needs.
D. Calls for a hypothesis to initiate the research.
E. Is usually conducted in the laboratory.

40. Data was analyzed and it showed that: a salesperson's performance is directly and positively related to the salesperson's level of education. This is an example of what type of research?
A. Descriptive
B. Reporting
C. Predictive
D. Explanatory
E. Experimental 41. A predictive study showed that a company would gain a 10% market share if it reduced its product price by $5. The study assumed competitors would keep the prices of their products unchanged.
A. This study can be used in all situations.
B. The company should reduce its product price by $5.
C. As the company cannot control the price decisions of its competitors so the study is not very useful.
D. A new study focusing on a smaller number of variables is required.
E. Market fluctuations make this study important for prediction. 42. An estimate of next year's market share is an example of what type of research?
A. Descriptive
B. Reporting
C. Predictive
D. Explanatory
E. Longitudinal

43. Which of the following is pure rather than applied research?
A. Sleep duration, as impacting work efficiency.
B. Disruption of cognitive ability under stress.
C. The relationship between leadership traits and corporate success.
D. Work towards the discovery of a possible new element.
E. Comparing brand logos after a change. 44. Most firms in the business research industry are _____.
A. syndicated data providers
B. small firms and one-person shops
C. large full-service suppliers
D. wholesale distributors
E. advertising agencies 45. Ethnographic research is based on the study of _____.
A. anthropology
B. marketing
C. economics
D. statistics
E. psychology 46. Research methods courses recognize that students preparing to manage any function need training in a disciplined process for conducting an inquiry of a management dilemma. Which of the following is not a reason for such training?
A. More government intervention.
B. Information overload.
C. Greater computing power and speed.
D. More government cooperation through information sharing.
E. Shifting global centers of economic activity and competition.

47. A business intelligence system in conjunction with business research often has the task of:
A. Create an platform for surveillance of corporate competitors.
B. Discovering opportunities that influence strategic decisions.
C. Generate numerous elements of data organized for retrieval.
D. Relying heavily on those methodologies that proved themselves in the last several decades of the 20th century—surveys and focus groups.
E. None of the above. 48. In the early part of your career, you will likely be asked to perform a number of reporting studies. Many managers consider the execution of such studies:
A. An excellent way for new employees to become familiar with their employer and its industry.
B. The least valuable type of research.
C. A way to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where, and sometimes, how.
D. The primary means to control a process once we can explain and predict it.
E. Essential to evaluate specific courses of action or forecast current or future values.

Essay Questions 49. The hierarchy of business decision makers categorizes organizations based on how they use business research to make decisions. List and explain the three levels in the hierarchy.

50. Sometimes business research may be unnecessary. Explain when this could occur.

51. What is the difference between applied research and basic research?

52. What characteristics of research are associated with the standards of the scientific method?

Chapter 01 Research in Business Answer Key

Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is an example of a business decision maker?
A. Politician's election consultant
B. Church pastor
C. Manager of a non-profit program
D. Business manager of a consumer goods product
E. All of the above

Level: moderate 2. The acronym, RFP, stands for _____ and refers to the document used to invite research firms to propose ideas for addressing the research needs of the organization.
A. request for proposal
B. recency frequency population
C. research firm proposal
D. recognition of problem
E. recently formed protocols

Level: easy

3. The problem or opportunity that requires a business decision on the part of the decision maker is called a _____.
A. management dilemma
B. research problem
C. challenge
D. measurement approach
E. return on business investment

Level: easy 4. Northwest Airlines applied mathematical models to determine which customers in its database were currently responsible for most of its profitability and which customers were not currently profitable but had similar characteristics to the most profitable customers. Northwest Airlines utilized _____ to identify these customers.
A. computer programming
B. data warehousing
C. customer relationships management
D. data mining
E. intervention

Level: moderate 5. The main purpose of a(n) _____ is to share company information and computing resources among internal audiences.
A. decision support system
B. intranet
C. extranet
D. internet
E. data warehouse

Level: easy

6. A private network that uses Internet protocols and the public telecommunication system to share an organization's information, data, or operations the external suppliers, vendors, or customers is called a(n) _____.
A. decision support system
B. intranet
C. extranet
D. internet
E. data warehouse

Level: easy 7. The question, "Should we do business research?" is often stimulated by data from a(n) _____.
A. data warehouse
B. intelligence system
C. decision support system
D. intranet
E. both b and c

Level: moderate 8. Which of the following is not a possible source of business intelligence?
A. Competitor web sites
B. Government reports
C. Business research reports
D. Clipping services
E. All of the above are possible sources

Level: moderate

9. Recordings of public proceedings, speeches by elected officials, and information on agency web sites are all examples of business intelligence available from _____ sources.
A. competitive
B. cultural
C. government
D. demographic
E. technological

Level: moderate 10. Intuitive decision makers tend to base business decisions on _____.
A. business research
B. secondary data
C. primary data
D. proprietary research
E. all of the above

Level: moderate 11. Visionary decision makers tend to base business decisions on _____.
A. proprietary business research
B. instinct
C. secondary data
D. past experience
E. all of the above

Level: moderate

12. Which tier in the hierarchy of business decision makers sees research as the fundamental first step in any business venture?
A. Base tier
B. Middle tier
C. Top tier
D. All of the above
E. None of the above

Level: easy 13. Minute Maid sees research as the fundamental first step in any business decision and it created proprietary methods for conducting research. At what level of the hierarchy of business decision makers does Minute Maid operate?
A. Top tier
B. Middle tier
C. Base tier
D. Foundation tier
E. Information tier

Level: easy 14. Some organizations make decisions based on past experience, instincts, or secondary data searches. These organizations are operating at the _____ tier of the hierarchy of business decision makers.
A. top
B. middle
C. base
D. pinnacle
E. information

Level: easy

15. Business research may be considered unnecessary when _____.
A. management has insufficient resources to conduct an appropriate study
B. the risk associated with the decision at hand is low
C. the information is applicable to the critical decision
D. both a and b
E. both a and c

Level: moderate 16. When a business research firm provides both quantitative and qualitative methodology expertise and conducts all phases of research from planning to execution and reporting, the firm is considered a(n) _____ firm.
A. internal
B. interactive
C. proprietary
D. omnibus
E. full-service

Level: easy 17. Which term below refers to a research program or technique that is owned by a single firm?
A. Proprietary
B. Omnibus
C. Full-service
D. Limited service
E. Internal

Level: moderate

18. All of the following terms except _____ can be used to describe custom full-service business research firms?
A. ad hoc research
B. custom-designed research
C. custom researchers
D. syndicated panel
E. all of the above can be used to describe custom full-service business research firms

Level: easy 19. What type of research firm dominates the small research firms operated by a single person or a small staff?
A. Proprietary
B. Syndicated
C. Full-service
D. Specialty
E. Internal

Level: moderate 20. Specialty firms can establish expertise in all of the following areas except _____.
A. methodology
B. process
C. industry
D. incentives
E. geographic region

Level: moderate

21. Researchers who study retail shoppers by tracing their footsteps and recording the amount of time a shopper spends reading labels are conducting _____ studies.
A. survey
B. interviewing
C. observation
D. focus groups
E. empathic

Level: moderate 22. Specialty research suppliers who provide the screening and recruiting of probability samples for a wide range of survey studies are called _____.
A. sampling specialists
B. field business specialists
C. headhunters
D. screeners
E. syndicators

Level: moderate 23. A _____ study combines one or a few questions from several business decision makers who need information from the same population.
A. syndicated
B. proprietary research
C. omnibus
D. sampling
E. full-service

Level: easy

24. Which of the following is an advantage of using an omnibus study?
A. Ability to reach a convenience sample of consumers
B. Cost of less than $2000 per question
C. Ability to receive full-service research services
D. Ability to receive results in 24-48 hours
E. All of the above

Level: difficult 25. What type of research do trade associations generally conduct?
A. Basic research
B. Practical research
C. Applied research
D. Ad hoc research
E. All of the above

Level: moderate 26. Which of the following is not a required characteristic of good research?
A. Clearly defined purpose
B. Detailed research process
C. Focused on theory
D. Thorough research design
E. Recognition of limitations

Level: moderate 27. Good research follows the standards of the ______.
A. American Manufacturers Association
B. scientific method
C. scientific management
D. American Association of Public Opinion Research
E. FTC

Level: easy

28. Which term refers to procedures for generating replicable research that are systematic and empirically-based?
A. Scientific management
B. Total quality management
C. Scientific method
D. Theoretical research
E. Applied research

Level: easy 29. For the limitations of a study to be revealed appropriately, the researcher should _____.
A. compare the desired procedure with the actual procedure
B. compare the desired sample with the actual sample
C. ensure that the recommendations do not exceed the scope of the study
D. address the time restraints imposed on the study
E. both a and b

Level: moderate 30. Which characteristic of good research involves distinguishing between the organization's symptoms, its problems, the manager's perception of the problems, and the research problem?
A. Clearly defined purpose
B. Detailed research process
C. Thorough research design
D. High ethical standards
E. Justifiable conclusions

Level: easy

31. Which of the following is not included in the statement of the decision problem?
A. Scope
B. Limitations
C. Precise meaning of all terms
D. Desired procedures
E. Organizational symptoms

Level: moderate 32. The procedures used in the research are specified in the _____ section of a research report.
A. problem statement
B. research design
C. limitations
D. findings
E. conclusions

Level: easy 33. Researchers have the ethical responsibility to guard the welfare of _____.
A. research participants
B. clients
C. colleagues
D. organizations to which they belong
E. all of the above

Level: easy 34. Which of the following considerations is not a potential ethical dilemma for a researcher?
A. Psychological harm to respondents
B. Physical harm to respondents
C. Omission of significant procedural details in the research process
D. Invasion of privacy
E. Exploitation of respondents

Level: moderate

35. The goal of the research design is to maximize the _____ of the results.
A. objectivity
B. subjectivity
C. profitability
D. morality
E. reportability

Level: moderate 36. Are any of the following not a good reason for managers to be well grounded in basic research?
A. Do research for themselves.
B. Make competent decisions on whether to make or 'buy' research from researchers outside the firm.
C. Define their own needs and form researchable questions for the specialist.
D. Judge the logic of a research approach.
E. All are good reasons.

Level: easy 37. Which of the following types of research is conducted to evaluate specific courses of action or forecast current or future values?
A. Reporting studies
B. Explanation studies
C. Description studies
D. Prediction studies
E. Observation studies 38. Which of the following is not an example of research?
A. An experiment in product taste preferences.
B. A statistical analysis of errors in the recording of inventories.
C. A test of cognitive dissonance theory and major investment decisions.
D. A simulation of the information flows in an organization.
E. A decision to change the firm's method of accounting.

39. Applied research:
A. Has little direct impact on policy decisions.
B. Is problem directed but not decision directed.
C. Is problem directed and closely related to policy or action needs.
D. Calls for a hypothesis to initiate the research.
E. Is usually conducted in the laboratory. 40. Data was analyzed and it showed that: a salesperson's performance is directly and positively related to the salesperson's level of education. This is an example of what type of research?
A. Descriptive
B. Reporting
C. Predictive
D. Explanatory
E. Experimental 41. A predictive study showed that a company would gain a 10% market share if it reduced its product price by $5. The study assumed competitors would keep the prices of their products unchanged.
A. This study can be used in all situations.
B. The company should reduce its product price by $5.
C. As the company cannot control the price decisions of its competitors so the study is not very useful.
D. A new study focusing on a smaller number of variables is required.
E. Market fluctuations make this study important for prediction. 42. An estimate of next year's market share is an example of what type of research?
A. Descriptive
B. Reporting
C. Predictive
D. Explanatory
E. Longitudinal

43. Which of the following is pure rather than applied research?
A. Sleep duration, as impacting work efficiency.
B. Disruption of cognitive ability under stress.
C. The relationship between leadership traits and corporate success.
D. Work towards the discovery of a possible new element.
E. Comparing brand logos after a change. 44. Most firms in the business research industry are _____.
A. syndicated data providers
B. small firms and one-person shops
C. large full-service suppliers
D. wholesale distributors
E. advertising agencies

Level: easy 45. Ethnographic research is based on the study of _____.
A. anthropology
B. marketing
C. economics
D. statistics
E. psychology

Level: difficult 46. Research methods courses recognize that students preparing to manage any function need training in a disciplined process for conducting an inquiry of a management dilemma. Which of the following is not a reason for such training?
A. More government intervention.
B. Information overload.
C. Greater computing power and speed.
D. More government cooperation through information sharing.
E. Shifting global centers of economic activity and competition.

47. A business intelligence system in conjunction with business research often has the task of:
A. Create an platform for surveillance of corporate competitors.
B. Discovering opportunities that influence strategic decisions.
C. Generate numerous elements of data organized for retrieval.
D. Relying heavily on those methodologies that proved themselves in the last several decades of the 20th century—surveys and focus groups.
E. None of the above. 48. In the early part of your career, you will likely be asked to perform a number of reporting studies. Many managers consider the execution of such studies:
A. An excellent way for new employees to become familiar with their employer and its industry.
B. The least valuable type of research.
C. A way to discover answers to the questions who, what, when, where, and sometimes, how.
D. The primary means to control a process once we can explain and predict it.
E. Essential to evaluate specific courses of action or forecast current or future values.

Level: moderate

Essay Questions 49. The hierarchy of business decision makers categorizes organizations based on how they use business research to make decisions. List and explain the three levels in the hierarchy.
The three levels in the hierarchy are the base tier, the middle tier, and the top tier. Organizations in the base tier are called intuitive decision makers because they use past experience and intuition to make decisions. The middle tier organizations are called standardized decision makers because they base some decisions on business research and others are past experience. The top tier is called the visionaries because they consider research to be the foundation of any good decision. This group may also develop specific proprietary methods of research.

Level: moderate

50. Sometimes business research may be unnecessary. Explain when this could occur.
Business research may be unnecessary in several situations. If the value of addressing the problem is less than the cost of the research, research is unnecessary. If the organization suffers from constraints of time, money, or skill, the research may not be appropriate. If the necessary information cannot be collected in a manner that is applicable to the research, it may not be necessary. Finally, if the decision is of low-risk anyway, research is unnecessary.

Level: moderate 51. What is the difference between applied research and basic research?
Applied research is research that has a practical problem-solving emphasis and is conducted to reveal answers to specific questions related to action, performance, or policy needs. Basic research is designed to solve problems of a theoretical nature with little direct impact on strategic or tactical decisions.

Level: easy 52. What characteristics of research are associated with the standards of the scientific method?
Exhibit 1-8 lists several characteristics of research that should result in good research following the standards of the scientific method. These include a clearly defined purpose, detailed research process, thorough research design, high ethical standards, discussion of limitations, adequate analyses, unambiguous findings, justifiable conclusions, and an honest assessment of the researcher's experience.

Level: moderate

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...Research Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods (Babbie, 1998). Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed; deductive methods verify the hypothesized principles through observations. The purposes are different: one is to develop explanations, and the other is to test the validity of the explanations. One thing that we have to pay attention to research is that the heart of the research is not on statistics, but the thinking behind the research. How we really want to find out, how we build arguments about ideas and concepts, and what evidence that we can support to persuade people to accept our arguments. Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) proposed four types of knowledge that research contributed to education as follows: 1. Description: Results of research can describe natural or social phenomenon, such as its form, structure, activity, change over time, relationship to other phenomena. The descriptive function of research relies on instrumentation for measurement and observations. The descriptive research results in our understanding of what happened. It sometimes produces statistical information about aspects of education. 2. Prediction: Prediction research is intended to predict a phenomenon that will occur at time Y from information at an earlier time X. In......

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...STEP 1etasblish the need for research We have to consider if it is a real need for doing a research? Research takes time and costs money. If the information is already available, decisions must be made now, we cant afford research and costs outweigh the value of the research, then the research is not needed. Step 2 define the problem or topic State your topic as a question. This is the most important step. Identify the main concepts or keywords in your question. Problem maybe either specific or general. Step 3 establish research objective Research objectives, when achieved, provide the Information necessary to solve the problem identified in Step 2. Research objectives state what the researchers must do. Crystallize the research problems and translate them into research objective. At this point, we will pin down the research question. Step 4 determine research design The research design is a plan or framework for conducting the study and collecting data. It is defined as the specific methods and procedures you use to acquire the information you need. based on the research objectives, we will determine the most appropriate research design: qualitative and/ or quantitative. • Exploratory Research: collecting information in an unstructured and informal manner. • Descriptive Research refers to a set of methods and procedures describing marketing variables. • Causal Research (experiments): allows isolation of causes......

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...Research Article Research is important to every business because of the information it provides. There is a basic process to researching information and that process begins by deciding what information needs to be researched. The next step is to develop a hypothesis, which describes what the research paper is about and what the researcher’s opinion is regarding the topic. The research article chosen for this paper is titled, “The Anchor Contraction Effect in International Marketing Research.” The hypothesis for this paper is, “This raises the issue of whether providing responses on rating scales in a person’s native versus second language exerts a systematic influence on the responses obtained.” Simply explained, the hypothesis of this paper is to determine whether research questions should be in a person’s native language rather than expecting them to respond to questions in a language in which they might not be fluent. The hypothesis of this paper was accepted based on the research data gathered by the research team. This hypothesis was supported by nine studies using a variety of research methods. The research methods provided data that demonstrated the level of inaccuracy based on questions being asked in a language that was not the respondent’s native language. The research data provided insight into the probability of more accurate results when the respondent was asked questions in a manner that related well with their culture. There are several......

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...ACE8001: What do we mean by Research? & Can we hope to do genuine Social Science Research (David Harvey)  What do we mean by research? What might characterise good research practice? There is no point in us trying to re-invent the wheel - other and probably more capable people than us have wrestled with this problem before us, and it makes good sense and is good practice to learn what they have discovered.  In other words - we need to explore more reliable and effective methods and systems for the pursuit of research than we have been doing so far. What is research? Dictionary Definitions of Research: * "The act of searching closely or carefully for or after a specified thing or person" * "An investigation directed to discovery of some fact by careful study of a subject" * "A course of scientific enquiry" (where scientific = "producing demonstrative knowledge") Howard and Sharp (HS) define research as:  "seeking through methodical processes to add to bodies of knowledge by the discovery or elucidation of non-trivial facts, insights and improved understanding of situations, processes and mechanisms".  [Howard, K. and Sharp, J.A. The Management of a student research project, Gower, 1983 - a useful and practical “how to do it” guide] Two other, more recent guides are: Denscombe, Martyn, 2002, Ground rules for good research: a 10 point guide for social research,  Open University Press. Robinson Library Shelf Mark: 300.72 DEN, Level 3 (several copies)...

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...solve analytic models or whatever, but they often fail to demonstrate that they have thoroughly thought about their papers—in other words, when you push them about the implicit and explicit assumptions and implications of their research models, it appears that they haven’t really given these matters much thought at all.[1] Too often they fall back on saying that they are doing what they are doing because that is the way it is done in the prior literature, which is more of an excuse than a answer. (Of course, once a researcher reaches a certain age, they all feel that youngsters aren’t as good as they were in the good old days!) Therefore, in this class we shall go beyond simply studying research in managerial accounting. For many of you, this is your first introduction to accounting research and to PhD level class. Hence, in these classes we shall also learn how to solve business problems systematically and to understand what it means to have thoroughly “thought through” a paper. We begin not with academic research, but with some real world cases, because we should never forget that ours is an applied research field: accounting research is a means towards the end of understanding business and is not an end in itself, in the way pure science research is. Developing a systematic procedure for solving a real world business problem is the starting point for developing a...

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...manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? Answer: Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Research is the organized and systematic inquiry or investigation which provides information for solving a problem or finding answers to a complex issue. Research in business: Often, organization members want to know everything about their products, services, programs, etc. Your research plans depend on what information you need to collect in order to make major decisions about a product, service, program, etc. Research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems. The more focused you are about your resources, products, events and environments what you want to gain by your research, the more effective and efficient you can be in your research, the shorter the time it will take you and ultimately the less it will cost you. Manager’s role in research programs of a company: Managing people is only a fraction of a manager's responsibility - they have to manage the operations of the department, and often have responsibilities towards the profitability of the organization. Knowledge of research can be......

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...goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure): * Exploratory research, which helps identify and define a problem or question. * Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question. * Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. There are two ways to conduct research: Primary research Using primary sources, i.e., original documents and data. Secondary research Using secondary sources, i.e., a synthesis of, interpretation of, or discussions about primary sources. There are two major research designs: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose one of these two tracks according to the nature of the research problem they want to observe and the research questions they aim to answer: Qualitative research Understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Asking a broad question and collecting word-type data that is analyzed searching for themes. This type of research looks to describe a population without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time consuming, and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.......

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...How To Formulate Research Problem? Posted in Research Methodology | Email This Post Email This Post Formulating the research problem and hypothesis acts as a major step or phase in the research methodology. In research, the foremost step that comes into play is that of defining the research problem and it becomes almost a necessity to have the basic knowledge and understanding of most of its elements as this would help a lot in making a correct decision. The research problem can be said to be complete only if it is able to specify about the unit of analysis, time and space boundaries, features that are under study, specific environmental conditions that are present in addition to prerequisite of the research process. Research Process Research process is very commonly referred to as the planning process. One important point to be kept in mind here is to understand that the main aim of the research process is that of improving the knowledge of the human beings. The research process consists of the following stages – 1. The Primary stage :– This stage includes – a. Observation – The first step in the research process is that of the observation, research work starts with the observation which can be either unaided visual observation or guided and controlled observation.It can be said that an observation leads to research, the results obtained from research result in final observations which can play a crucial part in carrying out further research. Deliberate and guided...

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...activities for the quarter 4 which include weekly class discussion, class participation, midterm and final exam * Learned about what Research is and what Research is not. * Eight characteristics of research. * Sub problem – that is a question or problem that must be address before the main problem is resolved. * Hypothesis- that is a reasonable quests that needs to be proving. * I learned about assumption –that is a statement that is presume to be fact. * Learned about theory * Learned about methodology- that is a process a researchers use to collect data and information is research work. * Learned about internet – A researchers use internet to access information online. * Learned about two types of research report which is Juried or refereed – a reviewed report * Nonjuried or nonrefereed – none reviewed report. E.g. Journal report. * Learned about checklist evaluating research- that a report juried that is judge. * Learned that a research that is not screen or viewed by expert is not valid * Guidelines in reviewing research by going to library to sort for information needed for case study. * I learned as a researcher, you must read more than articles. * I learned about research paper / APA Style – that first thing is to choose the research topic. * Learned about what research paper entails, like cover page, table of content, abstract, introduction, summary, conclusion and references. * I learned about......

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...RESEARCH Research is a process involving a series of steps to collect and analyse the information needed for decision-making in the desired / specific field of inquiry. The term research can be applied to any field of human activity. Research means ‘studious enquiry’ or a systematic, honest and impartial study conducted by trained men using scientific methods. It means detailed study relating to a particular subject. The purpose of research is to find a solution to a particular type of problem or showing the problem a direction towards solution or putting some light in the unknown areas of knowledge for your enlightenment, to that particular area of knowledge-thus research actually help us to understand our reality more clearly, as well as help us to enjoy better living standard. So, research is kind of a project to find out some answers or solutions for a particular area-research. Every project has its scope of work, time-line and resources, that is why you may easily inter -relate research work with a project. There are two different types of research: basic and applied research. These two research types are used in a variety of studies and field disciplines including psychology, biology and chemistry. Basic research is about understanding the various processes between memory, learning, and knowledge. It is about finding information, while it may become applied later, researchers choose to research topic of interest to them. It is about figuring out the answer......

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...Volume 3, number 2 What is critical appraisal? Sponsored by an educational grant from AVENTIS Pharma Alison Hill BSC FFPHM FRCP Director, and Claire Spittlehouse BSc Business Manager, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, Institute of Health Sciences, Oxford q Critical appraisal is the process of systematically examining research evidence to assess its validity, results and relevance before using it to inform a decision. q Critical appraisal is an essential part of evidence-based clinical practice that includes the process of systematically finding, appraising and acting on evidence of effectiveness. q Critical appraisal allows us to make sense of research evidence and thus begins to close the gap between research and practice. q Randomised controlled trials can minimise bias and use the most appropriate design for studying the effectiveness of a specific intervention or treatment. q Systematic reviews are particularly useful because they usually contain an explicit statement of the objectives, materials and methods, and should be conducted according to explicit and reproducible methodology. q Randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews are not automatically of good quality and should be appraised critically. www.evidence-based-medicine.co.uk Prescribing information is on page 8 1 What is critical appraisal What is critical appraisal? Critical appraisal is one step in the process of evidence-based clinical practice. Evidencebased clinical......

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