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Valenzuela National High School
A. Fernando St., Marulas, Valenzuela City

THE EFFECTS OF EARLY RELATIONSHIP
WITH THE OPOSITE SEX IN LIFE
AND STUDIES OF STOC STUDENTS IN VNHS

A Research Paper

Presented By:
ISIAHNA FAE BALABAG
JAMEZEL ANNE SIPSIP
Researchers

Presented To:
MRS. LEAH P. VILOG
Research teacher

DEDICATION
We would like to dedicate this research paper to the following:
STOC STUDENTS OF VNHS
OUR FAMILY
RESEARCHERS
who are interested to know the possible effects of early relationship.

-Isiahna Fae Balabag & Jamezel Anne Sipsip

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
Valenzuela National High School
A. Fernando St., Marulas, Valenzuela City

February 26, 2014

Dear Respondent: The following is a survey questionnaire dealing with the effects of early relationship to the life of STOC students. Being a STOC student, you are selected to accomplish the said questionnaire. You are requested to answer the given questions as honestly as possible. Please be assured that your answers will be treated with confidentiality. Kindly accomplish the questionnaire by either filling in the blanks or placing checkmarks on the space provided. Thank you very much. Sincerely yours, JAMEZEL ANNE SIPSIP
Researcher

ISIAHNA FAE BALABAG Researcher

LETTER OF APPROVAL
Valenzuela National High School
A. Fernando St., Marulas, Valenzuela City

February 21, 2014

Mrs. Leah P. Vilog
Research Teacher
Valenzuela National High School
Dear Madam: This year, we have the opportunity to write a research paper. “The Effects of having early relationship with the opposite sex to the life and studies of STOC students in VNHS” is the title of our research paper. Our proposed research aims to know how early relationship affects the life and studies of STOC students in VNHS. As a part of our research, we will conduct a cluster sampling of interview. Thank you.
Sincerely yours,
JAMEZEL ANNE SIPSIP Researcher

ISIAHNA FAE BALABAG Researcher
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Since gratitude is hereby extended to the following that never ceased in helping and guiding until this paper is structured:
Mrs. Leah P. Vilog, research teacher, for the unwavering guidance; and
For the unwavering moral, emotional and financial support of the proponents’ family and friends.
Above all, utmost appreciation to the Almighty God for the divine intervention in this academic endeavor.

-Researchers

ABSTRACT
The researchers used snowball sampling and surveyed 25 STOC students. And to compute the results, the researchers used weighted mean to compute for the statistical treatment of data.
The researchers, after further investigations, concluded that male and female respondents have their own perception regarding teenage relationships. Male students say that personal (self-worth) is the biggest factor that affects teenagers’ decisions on engaging into a relationship while personal (self-worth) and family relationships turned out to be the biggest factor for female students. On the other hand, male students say that their relation to environment has the greatest changes or effect on them, whereas, personal (self-worth) and family relationships for female.
Overall, the main factor that affects teenagers on engaging into a relationship is personal (self-worth) and also it has the greatest changes on them as its effect.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
friendship, love, dating, premarital sex, going steady, marriage, family-these are some of the issues that young people may face when they grow up. The teenage love relationship deals with the relationship of love that exists between the teenage groups. In schools, the teenagers usually make friends easily and therefore they remains the chance for a young boy/girl to get easily involved in a relationship. The teenagers usually do not consider the various aspects that are associated with the relationship of love and therefore tend to make mistakes regarding the choosing of a girlfriend/boyfriend. Teenage is the phase of life. When one tries to discover life or it could be said that a teenager finds himself/herself trapped in this complex world. A teenager therefore searches for a true friend, with whom hwe. She can share all his/her troubles or is in need of a friend who would help him/her to cope with the challenges offered by life. Therefore it can be deducted that the root of teen love is friendship and often adulation of friends leads to infatuation.
Background of the Study In 1900 teenagers did not exist. There were young people in their teens, but there was no culture or institution that united them or fostered peer group development on a societal scale. While some worked at home, on family farms, or in factories or offices, others attended school. Still more married or prepared for marriage. One hundred years later, in 2000, teenagers were impossible to avoid. There were more teens than ever before and their cultural presence was undeniable. They existed not only as high school students, but as highly sought consumers, carefully watched as trendsetters in fashion, music, and movies.
Theoretical Framework This study is primarily based on the guiding principles in having a relationship to opposite sex. The principles are as follows: 1. Respect each others individuality. 2. Avoid restricting each others freedom. 3. Negotiate agreements regarding shared responsibilities such as cleaning duties, money & spending, decorating, time alone, noise levels and so forth. 4. Recognize that both are equal and therefore have equal rights. 5. Treat each other with kindness. 6. Remember that you are together by choice, not obligation. 7. Your mate does not have to be your everything. 8. Be supportive of your mates’ goals, dreams and aspirations. 9. Learn your mate's love language and make an effort to ensure that they feel loved. 10. Take responsibility for your own happiness.
Research Paradigm
INPUT
Factors that contribute in having a teenage relationship 1. Personal 2.1 Attitude 2. Family 3.2 Problems 3.3 Time 3.4 Parents 3. Environment 4.5 Peer Group 4.6 Society
PROCESS
Through the use of survey, interpretation of collected data and the further studies of researchers.
OUTPUT
Based from the collected data and obtained results, the researchers conclude that factors of teenage relationship may contribute to the following: 1. Personal 2. Family Relationship 3. Environmental Relationship This study made use of the following research paradigm:

Assumptions For this study, the researchers assumed the followings: 1. That having a relationship. Older STOC students must know the limitations of having a relationship to the opposite sex; 2. That Grade 7 STOC students must not be taking serious in their relationship for they are young enough to handle serious relationship; and 3. That STOC student must prioritize their studies before their relationships.
Statement of the Problem This research generally aimed to discuss the effects of early relationships to STOC students. Specifically, the researchers seek to find the answer to the following question: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 2.1 age; 2.2 gender; and 2.3 relationship status? 2. How many were: 3.4 strongly agree; 3.5 agree; 3.6 disagree; and 3.7 strongly disagree?
Scope and Delimitation of the Study The study aims to know and ensure if the respondents, STOC students, are affected by what factors and what the respondents think may result to that as it affect the life of a teenager. The researchers are trying to show what factor has the greatest contribution on deciding whether the respondents would engage into a relationship or not and also to know whether what effect has the greatest possible changes on them.
Significance of the Study This study is significant to the following: To students who had a relationship at early age; To parents who gave consent to their child; To teachers who guide and as the second parent of their students; and To researchers who are interested regarding this topic.
Definition of Terms The following terms used in this study are defined operationally. * Adolescence - a process of achieving the attitude and beliefs needed for effective participation in a society; one of the crucial periods one must pass through in life (Rogers, 1985). * Puberty - the period or age at which a person is first capable of sexual reproduction of offspring: in common law; presumed to be 14 years inthe male and 12 years in the female (Dictionary Reference). * Expectation- the act or state of expecting or looking forward to an event as about to happen (Ardictionary). * Peer pressure- the strong influence of a group, especially of children, on members of that group to behave as everyone else does (Cambridge Dictionary). * Commitment- an agreement or pledge to do something in the future (Merriam- Webster Dictionary). * Self-worth - the feeling that you have good qualities and have achieved good things (Reverso Dictionary). * Immaturity- the state or quality of being fully grown or developed (thefreedictionary). * Self-esteem- a confidence and satisfaction in oneself; self- conceit (Merriam- Webster Dictionary). * Maturity- the quality or state of being mature; full development (Merriam- Webster Dictionary). * Inexperienced- lack of knowledge gain by experience (thefreedictionary). * Infatuation- the state of being inspire with a foolish or extravagant love or admiration (Merriam- Webster Dictionary). * Disappointment- the act or an instance of disappointing; the state or emotion of being disappointed (Merriam- Webster Dictionary).

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents a review of local and foreign literature and studies related to the research study being conducted.
Local Literature and Studies
Falling in love is sometimes a potent painkiller, and now scientists have figured out why: it stimulates the brain’s reward pathway, much like the rush of an addictive drug. The next question is whether better understanding of the love pain relationship might somehow help scientists tackle chronic pain. Falling head over heels isn’t exactly something a doctor can prescribe. But “maybe prescribing a little passion in one’s relationship can go a long way toward helping with one’s chronic pain, assuming it’s passion with the one you’re with,” said study co-author Dr. Sean Mackey, Chief of Pain Management at Stanford University. (Philippine Star, Fresh Romance can ease pain, Lauran Neergaard)
When Dr. Thomas Crook measured the brain activity of people who are infatuated, they found out that areas of the brain rich in dopamine are active. Dopamine produces pleasurable sensations. When a relationship matures such as in marriage, and dopamine-driven euphoria evolves into love and respect, the area of the brain that gets activated is the cortex, the same place where information is stored and rational decisions are made. Other studies confirm that falling in love induces a calming effect on the body and mind by raising levels of nerve growth for about a year. This hormone-like substance improves memory by triggering the growth of new brain cells. (Mylene Mendoza-Dayrit, January 2011)
When a person is in a relationship, He/she has an instant best friend, because his/her partner may become one of his/her best friends. He/she can talk to him about anything, anytime. He/she is one of the first people you can turn to when you need advice or when you have a problem, he/she knows you better than most of your friends do, and he/she genuinely cares about you. He/she gives you support and companionship, and you do the same for him. You’ll always have someone to tell all your stories to at the end of the day, because one of the best things about being in a relationship is having someone to talk to, even if it’s the most trivial of topics. You’ll never feel alone in a crowd. You learn to be responsible for someone else as well as yourself. (Candy Magazine, September 2008)
A relationship is not just connecting on a physical level. To a certain point, feelings should be balanced. But when a teenager and his/ her partner came to a point when after just liking each other, they begin to feel and care for each other that they can never do for anyone else, then will just be the moment that they would understand just how much that person means to them. A feeling like that can never be replaced by just physical looks or anything else. (Steven Sanchez, 2010)
The 2007 issue of Human Communication Research reports that a study conducted that writing affectionate feelings down on paper could lower one’s cholesterol level. For a period of five weeks, volunteers were asked to write about their feelings for their loved ones in 20-minute sessions three times a day. Measured against a control group, significantly lower cholesterol levels were obtained. (Mylene Mendoza-Dayrit, 2010)
Having someone to care about other than you helps you grow and mature. You learn to be more careful about making rash decisions. You avoid making bad choices because you know someone cares about you and doesn’t want to see you hurt. You inspire each other. Simply put, you bring out the best in each other. He/she encourages you to pursue your talents and passions. He/she is your biggest fan, and you are his/her. You learn from each other. Being in a relationship teaches you how to coexist with others. And if you’re having trouble with your studies (or he/she is having trouble with his/her), you can play on your unique strengths and help each other out. You have someone with whom you can discover new things. Experiences are usually more meaningful when they are shared, and being in a relationship means there is always someone to share them with you. (Candy Magazine, September 2008).
Foreign Literature and Studies
During the early and middle years of adolescence, a constant falling in and out of love is entirely normal. Both boys and girls have a good deal of sampling and experimenting. By having many short commitments to many different people, they gradually learn what kind of individual they really like best. (Psychology of Childhood and Adolescence, Luella Cole)
Approximately 12% of adults aged fifteen and over lived alone in 1995; the majority was women (Bureau of the Census 1997a). The major factor increasing the number of young singles and the length of the dating period before marriage is the trend to postpone marriage. The median age at first marriage in 1995 was 24.5 years for women and 26.7 years for men. This represents an increase since 1970 of 4 years for women and 3.5 years for men (Bureau of the Census 1997a). (Human Intimacy, Frank Cox)
A few of the most common situations for the development of crushes are listed as: 1) The girl who has recently lost her mother, or who is away from home and from those upon whom she usually lavishes her affection, may develop a crush on some older woman as a means of giving expression to the emotion of tenderness; 2) The girl who has been denied the affections of a mother during childhood, either because of her mother’s death or because of her mother’s lack of maternal instinct, may acquire a longing for the intimacies and love expressed by the mothers of her friends and thus may select an older woman to fill this need; 3) Modern attitudes toward sex improved decidedly; yet we find many girls who are growing up with an attitude of fear toward all members of the opposite sex. If parental relationships are not happy, the girl usually sympathizes with her mother and concludes that mean are brutes. If parents perpetuate the idea that sex is vile and indecent and must be talked about in whispers, then the adolescent girl may select one of her own sex as the object of her affection or decide to lead a cloistered life; 4) Another situation which is likely to bring about crushes is the lack of opportunity to make normal contacts with boys, and this is the most evident in boarding schools and women’s colleges. In all situations the teacher becomes a substitute either for a girl’s mother or for the heterosexual attachments she should be making. (The Clearing House, B. E., Johnson)
There are lots of things that help make a healthy relationship. Mutual respect is one because respect in a relationship means that each person values who the other is and understands — and would never challenge — the other person's boundaries. Trust because even though jealousy is normal, we should also learn how to deal with situations and when to be jealous or not. Honesty as well as it goes hand-in-hand with trust because it’s tough to trust someone when one of you isn’t being honest. We should tell people the truth and what we would really do because it enables us to build trust. Support because in a healthy relationship, your significant other is there with a shoulder to cry on when you find out your parents is getting divorced, etc. Fairness/ equality because it does not like you have to keep a running count and make sure things are exactly even, of course. But you'll know if it isn't a pretty fair balance. Things get bad really fast when a relationship turns into a power struggle, with one person fighting to get his or her way all the time. A separate identity is one because in a healthy relationship, everyone needs to make compromises. Good communication because you just ask if you're not sure what he or she means, and speak honestly and openly so that the miscommunication is avoided in the first place. (What Makes a Healthy Relationship, John Black)
According to the general definition of relationship, this is any connection between two or more elements and these elements can be anything from chemical substances to human beings. A teen relationship can be any kind of relationship: between teens of the same gender; between teens of the opposite gender, like boyfriend-girlfriend relationships; between teens and other persons of the same or different gender and different age. (Teen Relationships, Terje Ellingsen)
Being a student and being in a committed relationship can present you with important life roles that sometimes feel incompatible and conflictual and at other times feel quite harmonious. Your relationship can provide you with important emotional support as you cope with the stresses of school and work, but at the same time represent additional responsibilities and demands on your time. Not surprisingly, trying to fill both roles can be a confusing and frustrating experience. As a couple, communication, and the way you handle inevitable “boundary issues” can greatly influence the quality of your life together and the quality of your student experience. (Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, 2007)
Middle school peer relationships affect your child's ability to succeed. Positive friendships will boost motivation. Negative friendships filled with emotion let downs and continued arguments work against one’s child's ability to succeed. (Joe Bruzzese, 2007)
Teenage relationship deals with the relationship of love that exists between teenage groups. In schools, teenagers usually make friends easily and therefore there remains the chance for a young boy/girl to get easily involved in a relationship. Teenagers usually do not consider the various aspects that are associated with the relationship of love and therefore tend to make mistakes about choosing a partner in life. (My Dear Valentine Website, 2011)

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the method of research used, respondents of the study, construction and validation of the survey questionnaire, data gathering procedures and the statistical treatment for this study.
Method of Research Used
The descriptive method was used to attain the objective of this research. Descriptive method in research is about description of data and characteristics about population. This method aims clearly describe what actually exist such as current conditions, practice, situation or any phenomena which lead to determine the possible factors of teenage relationships. This method also seeks to determine the effect of teenage relationships as perceived by STOC students.
Respondents of the study This study had selected 25 students from different year level who took the survey questionnaire.
Construction and Validation of Survey Questionnaire The researcher designed the survey questionnaire with six multiple choice items and others are putting a check in the space provide. The researchers designed the questionnaire to be composed of multiple choice items because of its objectivity and the facility in making them. The checking process is not only easy, but also totally must answer it an utmost honesty. To determine the effects on them, a 30- item survey question has been made. The table of specifications for the effects of early relationship is shown below: SECTION | AREA OF COMPONENT | ITEM | NO. OF ITEMS | I | Multiple Choice | 1-6 | 6 | II | Personal Factors | 7-9 | 3 | III | Family Factors | 10-12 | 3 | IV | Environment Factors | 13-15 | 3 | V | Personal Effects | 16-20 | 5 | VI | Family Effects | 21-25 | 5 | VII | Environment Effects | 26-30 | 5 |
Evaluation of the Survey Questionnaire Mrs. Leah P. Vilog, a research teacher evaluate and analyze the quality of a survey questionnaire. Some of those important factors are relevance, efficiency, specificity, variability and reliability.
Data-Gathering Procedures This study made use of the following steps or procedures in data-gathering:
Drafting of Questionnaire The researchers were tasked to make a draft of survey questionnaire to be answered by STOC students. After the construction of the survey questionnaire, it was evaluated and validated by Mrs. Leah P. Vilog.
Collecting of Data The researchers will the collect the questionnaires after the respondent finish filling it out.
Recording of the Results The researchers organized the questionnaire and arrange it to its designated order.
Determination of the Student’s Profile The ages, gender and relationship status were taken through conducting a survey.
Statistical Treatment This study being a descriptive research, made use of frequency tables and percentages for its statistical treatment. The formula is as follows:
Percentage (%) = Sf x 100 N
Where %= frequency percentage distribution Sf=frequency (number of respondent) N=total number of student respondent

CHAPTER 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents the tables containing the data in the investigation and the analysis and interpretation of said data. 1. Respondent’s Profile
Table 1.1 FREQUENCY OF AGES OF RESPONDENTS | Age | Frequency | Percentage | 13 years old | 15 | 60% | 14 years old | 10 | 40% | Total | 25 | 100% | Table 1.1 presents the frequencies of ages of the respondents. It shows that 60% of them were 13 years old and the remaining were 14 years old.
Table 1.2 FREQUENCY OF GENDER OF RESPONDENTS | Gender | Frequency | Percentage | Male | 6 | 24% | Female | 19 | 76% | Total | 25 | 100% | Table 1.2 presents the frequencies of gender of the respondents. Based on the table, 76 % were female respondents while the male ones were 24%.
Table 1.3 FREQUENCY OF RESPONDENTS’ RELATIONSHIP STATUS | Status | Frequency | Percentage | Single | 20 | 80% | In a relationship | 2 | 8% | It’s complicated | 3 | 12% | Total | 25 | 100% | Table 1.3 presents the frequencies of respondent’s relationship status. Majority or 80% of the respondents were single, whereas 8% and 12% were in a relationship and its complicated status. 2. Areas of Concern in the Survey Questionnaire SECTION | AREA OF COMPONENT | ITEM | NO. OF ITEMS | I | Multiple Choice | 1-6 | 6 | II | Personal Factors | 7-9 | 3 | III | Family Factors | 10-12 | 3 | IV | Environment Factors | 13-15 | 3 | V | Personal Effects | 16-20 | 5 | VI | Family Effects | 21-25 | 5 | VII | Environment Effects | 26-30 | 5 | Table 2 lists the areas of learning included in the survey questionnaire.
Table 3.1
ANALYSIS OF SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ACCORDING TO AGES OF RESPONDENTS Age | Strongly Agree | Agree | Disagree | Strongly Disagree | Total | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | | 13 | 2 | 13% | 4 | 27% | 5 | 32% | 4 | 30% | 15 | 14 | 1 | 10% | 4 | 40% | 3 | 30% | 2 | 20% | 10 | Total | 3 | 12% | 8 | 32% | 8 | 32% | 6 | 24% | 25 | Table 3.1 presents an analysis of the survey questionnaire according to ages of the respondents. Of the 13-year-old respondents, 13% were strongly agree, 27% were agree, 32% were disagree and 30% were strongly disagree. Those aged 14 years had a higher percentage of strongly agree and a lower percentage of agree (40%) is higher.
Table 3.2
ANALYSIS OF SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ACCORDING TO GENDER OF RESPONDENTS Age | Strongly Agree | Agree | Disagree | Strongly Disagree | Total | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | | Male | 1 | 17% | 2 | 33% | 2 | 32% | 1 | 17% | 15 | Female | 2 | 10% | 6 | 32% | 7 | 37% | 4 | 21% | 10 | Total | 3 | 15% | 8 | 40% | 4 | 20% | 5 | 25% | 25 | Table 3.2 presents an analysis of the survey questionnaire according to gender of the respondents. The female respondents had a better knowledge in relationship than their male counterparts shown by a higher percentage of both disagree (37%), agree (32%), and strongly agree (10%). Among the male respondents, those who disagree were lower by 4% but those who agree were higher by 1% and those who strongly disagree were higher by 4%. Women are said to be have knowledge in handling relationship than men.
Table 3.3
ANALYSIS OF SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ACCORDING TO RELATIONSHIP STATUS OF RESPONDENTS Status | Strongly Agree | Agree | Disagree | Strongly Disagree | Total | | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | Frequency | Percentage | | Single | 2 | 10% | 7 | 35% | 8 | 40% | 3 | 15% | 20 | In a relationship | | | 1 | 50% | 1 | 50% | | | 2 | It’s complicated | | | 1 | 33% | 1 | 33% | 1 | 34% | 3 | Total | 2 | 8% | 9 | 36% | 10 | 40% | 4 | 16% | 25 | Table 3.3 presents an analysis of survey questionnaire according to relationship status of the respondents. Among of respondents who are in a relationship agrees and disagrees in the factors and effects of early relationship.

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This research study aimed to analyze the effects of early relationship to the STOC student. It proved that at a young age, many of the respondents were single until now. The survey questionnaire constructed by the researchers was the research instrument used and percentages and frequency table were the statistical tools employed. The results of the survey based on the validated questionnaire were recorded, tallied and categorized. The data then gathered were analyzed, interpreted and summarized in this section.
Survey of Findings Based on the data gathered, analyzed and interpreted, the findings are summarized as follows: 1. The profile of the STOC respondents is as follows; 2.1 According to age, about 15 of them were 13 years old and the rest were 14 years old; 2.2 According to gender, about one-fourth (6) of them were male and the rest (19) were female; and 2.3 According to the relationship status, about two-thirds of them were single, and one-third of them were in a relationship and it’s complicated. 2. The areas of learning included in the survey questionnaire were their views about relationship, personal factors and effects, family factors and effects and environment factors and effects. 3. Based on the survey results: 4.4 Most students agree that early relationship makes them inspired and motivated to go to school every day. 4. Based on the analysis of the survey questionnaire, the researchers found out that: 5.5 With respect to age, both 13-year-old and the 14-year-old respondents who had almost the same views in early relationship; 5.6 With respect to gender, the female respondents show their knowledge in having a relationship than the male ones; and 5.7 With respect to relationship status, most of them were single.
Conclusions
Based on the summarized findings, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The profile of the STOC respondents 2.1 Age. There were more 13-year-old respondents than 14-year-old ones; 2.2 Gender. There were more female respondents than the male ones; and 2.3 Relationship status. There were more respondent who are single than the other two. 2. The areas of learning included in the questionnaire were basically about views, factors and effects of early relationship. 3. The difference in ages, gender and relationship status brought about differences in survey results of respondents, as follows; 4.4 younger respondents had fewer knowledge when it comes in relationship; 4.5 Female respondents knows the extent of their relation with men than the male ones; and 4.6 Most respondents prioritize more their study than their relationship. Recommendations The researchers, after further investigations through questionnaires about the study, concluded that there are lots of possibilities of further studies to their subject matter and kindly proposed the following recommendations To the Students The researchers highly recommend the students to wait for the right time before having a relationship. This will help them to avoid being pregnant early, have early marriage, have broken families, etc. just wait for the right time before engaging in a relationship. To the School Administrators The researchers recommend to always being on a look-out for students inside the school that are may be engaging in a relationship. They should seriously and really take care of the students for them to protect their own lives and live beyond risks. To the Researchers The researchers would recommend the future researchers who would have the same topic to conduct surveys to other buildings of Valenzuela National High School. Enlarge the number of respondents to gather more information about the factors and the effects of teenage relationships as perceived by the surveyed students of Valenzuela National High School.

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...activities for the quarter 4 which include weekly class discussion, class participation, midterm and final exam * Learned about what Research is and what Research is not. * Eight characteristics of research. * Sub problem – that is a question or problem that must be address before the main problem is resolved. * Hypothesis- that is a reasonable quests that needs to be proving. * I learned about assumption –that is a statement that is presume to be fact. * Learned about theory * Learned about methodology- that is a process a researchers use to collect data and information is research work. * Learned about internet – A researchers use internet to access information online. * Learned about two types of research report which is Juried or refereed – a reviewed report * Nonjuried or nonrefereed – none reviewed report. E.g. Journal report. * Learned about checklist evaluating research- that a report juried that is judge. * Learned that a research that is not screen or viewed by expert is not valid * Guidelines in reviewing research by going to library to sort for information needed for case study. * I learned as a researcher, you must read more than articles. * I learned about research paper / APA Style – that first thing is to choose the research topic. * Learned about what research paper entails, like cover page, table of content, abstract, introduction, summary, conclusion and references. * I learned about......

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...RESEARCH Research is a process involving a series of steps to collect and analyse the information needed for decision-making in the desired / specific field of inquiry. The term research can be applied to any field of human activity. Research means ‘studious enquiry’ or a systematic, honest and impartial study conducted by trained men using scientific methods. It means detailed study relating to a particular subject. The purpose of research is to find a solution to a particular type of problem or showing the problem a direction towards solution or putting some light in the unknown areas of knowledge for your enlightenment, to that particular area of knowledge-thus research actually help us to understand our reality more clearly, as well as help us to enjoy better living standard. So, research is kind of a project to find out some answers or solutions for a particular area-research. Every project has its scope of work, time-line and resources, that is why you may easily inter -relate research work with a project. There are two different types of research: basic and applied research. These two research types are used in a variety of studies and field disciplines including psychology, biology and chemistry. Basic research is about understanding the various processes between memory, learning, and knowledge. It is about finding information, while it may become applied later, researchers choose to research topic of interest to them. It is about figuring out the answer......

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...Module 1 The Research Process * Is a scholarly activity aimed at finding new truths about a specific discipline basically designed to find solution to a problem. * Done in various fields of studies. * May be done in natural sciences like Biology, Chemistry and Physics. And in the field of social sciences such as Sociology, Psychology, Education, Anthropology, Industry and the like. Definitions of Research * a systematic patient study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles (Webster’s New World Dictionary, 1994) * a systematic investigation in order to establish facts and new conclusions (Oxford, 1996) Definitions of Research * a systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events (Best & Kahn, 1998) * purposive, systematic and scientific process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, organizing, presenting and interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for prediction, for invention, for the discovery of truth, or for the expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and improvement of the quality of life (Calderon, 2000) * a process of systematically examining and explaining the observables. It seeks to generate answers to questions but it also generates further questions for study....

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... The research project will be guided by the following; i. To examine whether funding requirements influences project funds utilization ii. To establish to what extent Institutional capacity affects project funds utilization. iii. To explore whether management information systems affects project funds utilization. iv. To investigate whether sector policy framework affects project funds utilization. Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework is a graphical representation showing the relationship between the independent variables and dependent variables. The dependent variables are influenced by the independent variables when the later is manipulated Constraints Moderating variables Moderating Variable Dependent Variable VVariabltvVariablt DDDVV Independent Variables Intervening Variables a) Clearly identify the operating independent and dependent variables Independent Variables i. Funding requirements. ii. Institutional capacity. iii. Management Information systems. iv. Policy framework. Dependent Variables i.Project Funds Utilization b) What is the most suitable research......

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...Contents TITLE 2 INTRODUCTION 3 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 3 AIM 4 OBJECTIVES 4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 4 LITERATURE REVIEW 5 METHODOLOGY AND DATACOLLECTION 5 POPULATION AND SAMPLING 6 DATA ANALYSIS METHODS 6 PARTICIPANTS IN THE STUDY 7 STUDY PERIOD (GANTT CHART) 8 STUDY RESOURCES 9 REFERENCES 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 APPENDICES: 10 * The Impact of Motivation through Incentives for a better Performance - Adaaran Select Meedhupparu Ahmed Anwar Athifa Ibrahim (Academic Supervisor) Applied Research Project to the Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Studies The Maldives National University * * Introduction As it is clear, staff motivation is important in all the sectors especially in the tourism sector where we require highly skilled employees to get the best of their output to reach the organizational goals. Therefore, organizations spend a lot on their staff motivation in terms of different incentive approaches, such as financial benefits, training and development, appreciations, rewards and promotions. As mentioned in the title, the outline of the findings will be focused on the motivation of the staffs on improving their performances by the different incentive packages that they get at the resort. This study will be executed at Adaaran Meedhupparu by giving questionnaire to the staff working in different departments to fill up and return to the scholar to examine the current situation of staff satisfaction on motivation to......

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...A RESEARCH PROJECT PRESENTED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF KABIANGA ABOUT ; SUPERVISOR; PHILIP ZEAL CHEBUNET DATE;……………………….. MEMBERS; NAME; REG. NO. PHONE; SIGN 1. KIBET CORNELIUS KIPTOO CPR/033/13 0724612633 …………….. 2. AGUNDA ALICE CPR/036/14 0719281475 ……………… 3. OLOO NBELINDA ONYANGO CPR/032/14 0714056988 ……………… 4. WANGILA JOYCE N. CPR/015/14 0704464395 ……………….. 5. ALEX KIPLAGAT CPR/026/14 0710397622 ……………….. 6. KIMUTAI SHEILLAH CPR/025/14 0703117280 ……………….. 7. ONKOBA K. PHOEBE CPR/27/14 0702573832 ………………… 8. KELVIN NZIVO CPR/007/14 0710293935 ………………… 9. WAFULA HARRIET CPR/38/13 0721180983 …………………. 10. APARENMG GODFREY CPR/016/14 0727814068 …………………. 11. SIMION KARIUKI CPR/022/14 0701917384 ………………… DECLARATION We declare that this research is our original work and has not been presented to any another university for an award of degree or diploma. Therefore, no part of this research maybe reproduced without the......

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...Research Methodology & Fundamentals of MR. 100 Marks Course Content 1. Relevance & Scope of Research in Management. 2. Steps Involved in the Research Process 3. Identification of Research Problem. 4. Defining MR problems 5. Research Design 6. Data – Collection Methodology, Primary Data – Collection Methods / Measurement Techniques – Characteristics of Measurement Techniques – Reliability, Validity etc. – Secondary Data Collection Methods – Library Research, References – Bibliography, Abstracts, etc. 7. Primary and Secondary data sources and data collection instruments including in-depth interviews, projective techniques and focus groups 8. Data management plan – Sampling & measurement 9. Data analysis – Tabulation, SPSS applications data base, testing for association 10. Analysis Techniques – Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis Techniques – Techniques of Testing Hypothesis – Chi-square, T-test, Correlation & Regression Analysis, Analysis of Variance, etc. – Making Choice of an Appropriate Analysis Technique. 11. Research Report Writing. 12. .Computer Aided Research Methodology – use of SPSS packages Reference Text 1. Business Research Methods – Cooper Schindler 2. Research Methodology Methods & Techniques – C.R.Kothari 3. D. K. Bhattacharya: Research Methodology (Excel) 4. P. C. Tripathy: A text book of Research Methodology......

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...Research Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods (Babbie, 1998). Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed; deductive methods verify the hypothesized principles through observations. The purposes are different: one is to develop explanations, and the other is to test the validity of the explanations. One thing that we have to pay attention to research is that the heart of the research is not on statistics, but the thinking behind the research. How we really want to find out, how we build arguments about ideas and concepts, and what evidence that we can support to persuade people to accept our arguments. Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) proposed four types of knowledge that research contributed to education as follows: 1. Description: Results of research can describe natural or social phenomenon, such as its form, structure, activity, change over time, relationship to other phenomena. The descriptive function of research relies on instrumentation for measurement and observations. The descriptive research results in our understanding of what happened. It sometimes produces statistical information about aspects of education. 2. Prediction: Prediction research is intended to predict a phenomenon that will occur at time Y from information at an earlier time X. In......

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...STEP 1etasblish the need for research We have to consider if it is a real need for doing a research? Research takes time and costs money. If the information is already available, decisions must be made now, we cant afford research and costs outweigh the value of the research, then the research is not needed. Step 2 define the problem or topic State your topic as a question. This is the most important step. Identify the main concepts or keywords in your question. Problem maybe either specific or general. Step 3 establish research objective Research objectives, when achieved, provide the Information necessary to solve the problem identified in Step 2. Research objectives state what the researchers must do. Crystallize the research problems and translate them into research objective. At this point, we will pin down the research question. Step 4 determine research design The research design is a plan or framework for conducting the study and collecting data. It is defined as the specific methods and procedures you use to acquire the information you need. based on the research objectives, we will determine the most appropriate research design: qualitative and/ or quantitative. • Exploratory Research: collecting information in an unstructured and informal manner. • Descriptive Research refers to a set of methods and procedures describing marketing variables. • Causal Research (experiments): allows isolation of causes......

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...Research Article Research is important to every business because of the information it provides. There is a basic process to researching information and that process begins by deciding what information needs to be researched. The next step is to develop a hypothesis, which describes what the research paper is about and what the researcher’s opinion is regarding the topic. The research article chosen for this paper is titled, “The Anchor Contraction Effect in International Marketing Research.” The hypothesis for this paper is, “This raises the issue of whether providing responses on rating scales in a person’s native versus second language exerts a systematic influence on the responses obtained.” Simply explained, the hypothesis of this paper is to determine whether research questions should be in a person’s native language rather than expecting them to respond to questions in a language in which they might not be fluent. The hypothesis of this paper was accepted based on the research data gathered by the research team. This hypothesis was supported by nine studies using a variety of research methods. The research methods provided data that demonstrated the level of inaccuracy based on questions being asked in a language that was not the respondent’s native language. The research data provided insight into the probability of more accurate results when the respondent was asked questions in a manner that related well with their culture. There are several......

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