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( The main function of the reservation process is to match room requests with room availability. Below is the detailed process of reservation:

a) Conduct the reservation inquiry
b) Determine room and rate availability
c) Create the reservation record
d) Confirm the reservation record
e) Maintain the reservation record
f) Produce reservation reports

I- Reservation and Sales:
( Prior to Computerization era, the main function of the Reservation Process is only to determine Basic Room Availability. That is to say, the reservation clerk can only tell the potential guest that a room is reserved for him/her. However, the reservation clerk can not tell you the type of the room, rate honored… Nowadays, with the wide use of reservation software package programs, it is now possible to reserve a room by room type, rate, and to accommodate all the possible special requests of the guest. Therefore, the selling function shifted from the front office to the reservation department. Hence, projections of Room Revenues and Profitability Analysis became one of the basic functions of the Reservation Department.
( In parallel, reservation department and reservation agents should have sales goals to achieve which might focus on number of room nights, average room rate, and/or booked room revenue.

II- Types of Reservations:
1. Guaranteed Reservation: Insures that the hotel will hold a room for the guest until a specific time following the guest’s scheduled arrival date [i.e. Check-out time or start of the hotel’s day Shift or any time the lodging property chooses]. On return, the guest shall guarantee his/her reservation of room unless reservation is properly canceled. In order to guarantee a reservation, guests might opt for one of the following methods:
a) Prepayment guaranteed reservation
b) Credit card guaranteed reservation
c) Advance deposit or partial payment
d) Travel agent guaranteed reservation
e) Voucher or Miscellaneous Charge Order [MCO]
f) Corporate guaranteed reservation

2. Non-guaranteed Reservation: Insures that the hotel agrees to hold a room for the guest until a stated reservation cancellation hour (Usually 6 p.m.) on the day of arrival.
( Reservation agents shall make sure to encourage their guests to guarantee their reservations especially in the high season

III- Reservation Inquiry:
( Guests can communicate their reservation inquiries in person, over the telephone, via mail, through facsimile, telex, e-mail… Moreover, reservation inquiries can be made through a Central Reservation System or an Intersell Agency.
( While getting a reservation inquiry, the reservation agent shall obtain the following guest-related information:
a) Guest’s name, address and telephone number
b) Company or travel agency name
c) Date of arrival and departure
d) Type and number of rooms requested
e) Desired room rate
f) Number of people in the group, if applicable
g) Method of payment and/or guarantee
h) Any other special requests
( Most of the above mentioned information is used to create a reservation record.

IV- Sources of Reservations:

1. Central Reservation Systems
2. Intersell Agencies
3. Property Direct Reservation System

1. Central reservation systems:
( The majority of Lodging Properties belongs to one or more Central Reservation Systems
( A central reservation system is composed of a central reservation office, member hotels connected together via communication devices, and potential guests.
( Central Reservation Office [CRO] offers its services via a 24-hours toll free telephone number(s) [Green Numbers].
( Hotel members of the central reservation system shall provide and exchange accurate room availability data to central reservation offices. To illustrate, central reservation offices and member hotels shall communicate (on real time) any reservation transaction. This is possible, nowadays, with the sophisticated communication equipment available. This very equipment shall be provided by central reservation offices to its member hotels. Such equipment may range from Teletype, telex, facsimile machines, to personal computers, Internet connections…
( On return, central reservation offices charges a fee for the utilization of its services which might take the form of a flat fee and a variable fee, or a flat percentage of potential room revenue, actual room revenue, and/or Rooms Division gross profit…
( Central Reservation Offices are divided into two:
A) Affiliate reservation network:
( This very network is referred to as the hotel chain’s reservation system. In fact, it is composed of a CRO, and hotels, which are members of the same chain. The main advantages of affiliate reservation network are:
a) Streamline the process of reservation
b) Reduce overall system costs
c) Attract business for or refer business to another chain property
d) Affiliate reservation networks might serve, in addition to its main function, other duties like: (Serve as an inter property communication network (Serve as an accounting transfer tool ( Serve as a destination information center ( Serve as a connection with Global Distribution Systems [GDS]( System including several Central Reservation Offices connected to each other

B) Non-affiliate reservation network:
( A non-affiliate reservation network is composed of a central reservation office, potential guests, and member independent hotels.

2. Intersell Agencies:
( Intersell Agencies are special types of central reservation offices contracting to handle reservation for more than one Product Line [ex: Handle at the same time Airline Tickets, Car Rental, Hotel Reservation…] ( “ One Call Does it All Approach “!

3. Property Direct Reservation System:
( Even though many of the five-star hotels rely heavily on central reservation offices and intersell agencies, some potential guests might still find it convenient, and personal to call directly the hotel to communicate a reservation inquiry.

V- Group Reservations:
( Conducting a reservation request for a group shall be treated differently than accommodating a reservation of individual guests (i.e. Frequent Independent Traveler). The main reason is that individual reservation requests are treated by the reservation department, while group reservations are initiated by the Sales & Marketing division, and finalized through a careful coordination of the reservation from one hand and the marketing from the other. Here are some other differences between handling individual and group reservations:

|Individual Reservation |Group Reservation |
|-Reservation Department |- Sales Department |
|- Usually one person calls to reserve for himself / herself |- Usually one person reserves for the whole members of the group |
| |(Group representative, Group leader, Member of the travel agency / |
| |Tour operator…) |
|- One Reservation record for each potential guest |- One Reservation rerecord for the whole group |
|- One Guest Folio for each potential guest opened as part of the |- One Master Folio for the whole group opened as part of the |
|pre-registration process |pre-registration process |
|- Higher price assigned for room |- Low price assigned for room |
|- Upon matching room inquiry with room availability, reservation agent |- Upon signature of allotment contract, first block rooms needed. |
|reserves a room |Later, upon receipt of Final List by Cut-off date, deblock the block,|
| |reserve for those rooms conveyed in the List and release the |
| |remaining for sale. |
|- Reservations can be either Guaranteed or Non-guaranteed. |- Reservations are usually on a Guaranteed basis. |

( Below is a detailed procedure of how group reservation, in a typical hotel, is conducted:
1. A group representative, a member of the travel agency or the tour operator, not individuals, shall communicate group reservations' request to the hotel's marketing department
2. Upon availability, the hotel's reservation department shall block the requested number of rooms for this very group
3. The Hotel shall give a deadline for the group, in order to receive their final list. That deadline is called Cut-off Date
4. After receiving the final list, the reservation department shall change the desired number of rooms' status from blocked to booked (or reserved) rooms, and release the remaining rooms (if any left) as vacant
5. If the hotel did not receive the final list by the cut-off date, then the reservation department has all the right to cancel the group reservation and release all the initially booked rooms into vacant rooms. However, management shall use this right with precautions especially when it comes to groups reserving from travel agencies and tour operators of which the hotel is frequently operating.
Illustration → Allotment Contract signed between Karakartal Hotel and BJK Travel

Clause 1: • Hotel Karakartal agrees to allot BJK Travel:
10 Single, 25 Double & 5 Triple rooms
For the period running from 01/10/07 (Monday) till 20/12/07 for arrivals on each: Thursday (for 3 nights) Friday (for 3 nights)
→ Different rates by room type, view, location, supplements...

Other clauses:
• The Final List for each expected group shall be sent by fax to Karakartal Hotel latest one week before the expected arrival of that very group. Failing to do so or sending the Final List later would give the right to the hotel to cancel all the group without previous notice.
• Once the Final List is recieived, Karakartal Hotel will reserve for the number of rooms needed on a guaranteed basis. If any room turns out to be on a no-show basis, on the actual day of arrival, BJK Travel is responsible for the eventual payment for the whole rooms sent in the Final List → Guarantee.

What to do ?
• Once allotment contract is signed, Karakartal Sales / Marketing Department (Division) should: 1. Dispach allotment periods into as many Thursdays & Fridays as the period contains
2. For each Thursday or Friday expected arrivals, block the initial allotment for BJK Travel (for 3 nights)
3. Upon reciept of Final List (by the cut-off date), de-block the block. Reserve the number of rooms displayed in the Final List on a guaranteed basis (for 3 nights). All left over rooms (from the deblocking process) shall be released for sale (i.e. Status become Available for Sale rooms)

Example (Friday 19/10/2007 – Expected Arrival):
• Cut-off date → According to allotment contract shall be one week before expected arrival of group → In this case: Friday 12/10/07 (until beggining of check-in time).
• Suppose on Friday 12/10/07, BJK travel sent Karakartal Hotel a final list encompassing the need for 8 Single, 22 Double & 2 Triple rooms. This means:
- Wash Out Rooms (Left-over rooms) = Initial Allotment – Number of rooms needed (according to final list) = (10 + 25 + 5) – (8 + 22 + 2) = 40 – 32 = 8 rooms.
- Wash Out Factor = (Wash Out Rooms / Initial Allotment) * 100 = (8 / 40) * 100 = 20.00 %.

VI- Reservation Availability:

( After receiving a reservation request, the hotel might accept it, as it is, if there is room availability. If not, the reservation department should suggest alternative room types, dates, and/or rates, to the potential guest. If, however, the potential guest insists on his/her previous request, the hotel should suggest an alternative hotel. That's one of the main reasons why we need to maintain good relation-ships with nearby competing Hotels
( The reservation department should always compare historical reservation volumes against actual arrivals. The main reason is to cope with overbooking, which a situation occurring when the total number of rooms reserved for a certain period of time exceeds the total number of rooms available for sale, for the same period of time.
( In order to cope with the overbooking problem, some statistical and historical data should be stored and processed by the hotel and should be continuously updated. Such data should include:
a) Number of rooms reserved for a specific date
b) Number of rooms occupied by stayovers (for a certain specific date)
c) Forecasted no-shows percentage
d) Forecasted understays percentage
e) Forecasted overstays percentage
f) Forecasted cancellation percentage
g) Number of out of order rooms for a specific date

Let's consider the Following Problem:
Fatma Hotel consists of 100 Rooms. Mr. John Green has been newly hired for the position of a Reservation Assistant manager. One of the responsibilities of John is to calculate how many rooms above 98 (i.e. the Maximum Number of Rooms in the Hotel) does management need to overbook for the night of October 29th, 2002. Mr. Green was given the following data, at hand, both updated and concerning the night of October 29th, 2002: ← Number of rooms reserved: 50 Rooms ← Number of rooms occupied by stayovers: 45 Rooms ← Forecasted no-shows percentage: 10% ← Forecasted understays percentage: 05% ← Forecasted overstays percentage: 10% ← Forecasted cancellation percentage: 07% ← Number of out of order rooms: 02 Rooms

1. Potential Solution: ← Total number of rooms expected to be occupied for the night of October 29th, 2002 = 50 reserved rooms + 45 stayover rooms = 95 Rooms ← Adjustment due to no-shows % = -10%*50 = -5 Rooms ← Adjustment due to understays % = -5%*45 = -2.25 Rooms ← Adjustment due to overstays % = 10%*45 = +4.5 Rooms ← Adjustment due to cancellation % = -7%*50 = -3.5 Rooms ← Total adjustment = -5-2.25+4.5-3.5 = -6.25 Rooms ← Total number of rooms expected to be occupied for the night of October 29th, 2002 (i.e. after adjustment) = 95 - 6.25 = 88.75 Rooms ← Total number of rooms available for sale for the night of October 29th,2002 = 100-2 = 98 Rooms ← Additional number of rooms to be reserved for the night of October, 29th, 2002 = 98-88.75 = 9.25 Rooms ← Total number of rooms expected to be reserved and occupied for the night of October 29th, 2002 = 95+9.25 = 104.25 Rooms ← Expected occupancy rate with adjustments = 104.25/98 * 100 = 106.38% ← Overbooking factor = 106.38% - 100% = 6.38%

2. Drawbacks of this problem: ← Even though Historical Forecasts are vital to solve this overbooking problem, they are only "Forecasts" and cannot "exactly" reflect the current situation. ← “Number of out of order rooms” data is obtained from the housekeeping department. However, no body can be 100 % sure whether eventually on the actual day of arrival; exactly 2 Rooms (i.e. no more no less) will be out of order. ← This very method is a simple method for solving the overbooking problem. In fact, this method only gets use of certain forecasts (i.e. no all of them), and ignores the possible interaction these forecasts might have on each other.

VII- Equipment Tracking Room Availability:
( In order to function properly, the reservation department shall maintain control books, wall charts, and/or a computerized system. Whatsoever system chosen, the reservation department shall maintain and update that system to include any reservation transaction (i.e. whether a reservation, cancellation, modification…). Below is a description of the three commonly used sets of equipment to track room availability under the manual, semi-automated and fully-automated systems:

1. Control books:
( Control books are standard three-ring, loose-leaf binders with a tally Page assigned to each day of the year. Under this very system, when a potential guest calls to have a reservation, the reservation clerk shall check the cells corresponding to rooms. If there is an empty cell for all the length of stay of the guest then the reservation clerk mark it as X (i.e. reserved). If the guest is expected to continue staying the next day, then the reservation clerk shall mark the next day's respective room cell as O (i.e. Stayover). Lastly, the reservation clerk is encouraged to use colors while updating information or the cells on the control book.

2. Wall charts:
( These are charts stapled on the wall depicting days of the month versus hotel rooms. Moreover, upon need and convenience, these charts might be customized to track appropriate room Numbers, rates, and codes, hence, is advantageous to control books. Moreover, in this very system, different colors are used to differentiate between different reservation transactions, types of guest reserving…Lastly, wall charts eliminates the erasures and rewriting associated with control book, hence lees errors might occur.
3. Computerized systems:
( Computerized systems are by far the best systems that track room availability. In fact, these very systems control room availability data and automatically generate many reservation-related reports in an accurate manner. Moreover, computerized systems can itemize room availability for future periods by open dates, closed dates, versus special event dates. Lastly, this very system can forecast room availability for any reservation horizon needed in the future.
( In the case of non-availability of room type, the system can further suggest alternative room types, rates, or even other nearby hotels.

VIII- Reservation Record:
( Each reservation department shall prepare a reservation record, which depicts the various personal and financial data of guests, for each reservation transaction. The aim is to identify guests and their occupancy needs before guest’s arrival. Moreover, the hotel can personalize or customize guest services and better schedule staff accordingly
( In order to create a reservation record, the following items are needed:
a) Guest name (and group name, if applicable)
b) Guest’s home or billing address
c) Guest’s telephone number, including area code
d) Name, address, and telephone number of guest’s company, if appropriate
e) Name of and pertinent information about the person making the reservation, if not the guest
f) Number of people in the group, and perhaps ages of any children
g) Arrival date and time
h) Number of nights required or expected departure date, depending on how the system is programmed
i) Reservation type [Guaranteed versus Non-guaranteed]
j) Special requirements [i.e. infant, disabled guest, or no-smoking accommodation]
k) Additional information, if needed [i.e. late arrival, method of transportation, flight number, room preferences…]

( At the reservation process, reservation agents shall keep in mind that a rate quoted and confirmed must be honored. Moreover, reservation clerks should be aware of the following:
a) Supplementary charges for extra services or amenities
b) Minimum stay requirements in effect for dates requested
c) Special promotions in effect for dates requested
d) Applicable currency exchange rates, if quoting rates to an international tourist
e) Applicable room tax percentages
f) Applicable service charges or gratuities

IX- Reservation Confirmation:
( The hotel should communicate guests by telephone, telex, mail, or e-mail a Letter of Confirmation, which confirms the important points of the reservation agreement. This very letter might be shown at the registration process in order to accelerate the pace of registration and prove that the guest has the right to have a room at the hotel.
( The Hotel shall send a confirmation letter to all reserved potential guests, whether their reservations are guaranteed or non-guaranteed. Below are the main points that should be communicated in a confirmation letter:
a) Name and address of the guest
b) Date and time of arrival
c) Room type and rate
d) Length of stay
e) Number of persons in a group, if any
f) Reservation type [guaranteed or not]
g) Reservation confirmation number
h) Special requests, if any

1. Confirmation numbers:
( Hotels shall communicate meaningful confirmation numbers to their potential guests. These numbers shall have statistical meanings, which might help the hotel in maintaining an efficient historical database. Here is an example:

32 02 G JC 63

a) 32: Guest’s scheduled arrival date on Julian dates calendar.
b) 02: Group reservation. In this very system, 01 might mean Frequent Independent Traveler.
c) G: means that the reservation is guaranteed. If N is written, it means non-guaranteed.
d) JC: are the initials of the reservation agent who processed the reservation (ex: Jamel Chafra)
e) 63: Consecutive numbering of all reservation confirmation numbers issued in the current year.

X. Reservation Reports:
(In the reservation department, the widely used management reservation reports include:
a) Reservation transaction report
b) Commission agent report
c) Turnaway report (sometimes called the refusal report)
d) Revenue forecast report

XI. Expected Arrival, Stayover, and Departure Lists: • On a daily basis, the reservation department shall prepare the expected arrival, stayover, and departures lists and communicate them to the front office department.
1. Arrival list: List of the names, and surnames along with respective room number of the guests who are expected to arrive the next day.
2. Stayover list: List of the names, and surnames along with respective room number of the guests who are expected to continue occupy their rooms the next day.
Departure list: List of the names, and surnames along with respective room number of the guests who are expected to depart the next day.

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Hotel Reservation

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Hotel Reservations

...organization provided a waterfall paradigm method, development projects would be at severe risk of missing deadlines, escalating budgets and a low quality system. As a methodology, the water fall paradigm provides the structure method, controls and checklist needed to ensure successful development figure below show the phases in software process waterfall paradigm. Preliminary investigation Requirement analysis Design Testing Construction Implementation maintenance Paradigm: Waterfall Model Waterfall paradigm prescribes stages and activities performed in each stage are describe as fallows: a) Preliminary investigation The major requirement for online hotel reservation system is to provide back office forContent management, reservation management and housekeeping management. The online hotel reservation hotel system also expected to provide a better preview of the hotel rooms. These features are in order to enhance efficiency and performance and also the service to the guest. From here, it will proceed and establishing the scope, preliminary requirements and constraints, project participation and schedule. b) Requirement analysis System requirement to be defined clearly and requirementsgathering becomes more intensive. The objective of require analysis is to identify what the users would...

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