Premium Essay

Resource Dependency Theory

Submitted By
Words 1131
Pages 5
The financial resource in public Universities (mostly in terms expenditure per student) from principal benefactors (governments) has been realized declining across African countries, where Kenya is among this countries and is not left behind in resource scarcity, (Johnstone, 1998; World Bank, 2010). However in order to understand how public universities in Kenya as organizations obtain their revenue for their survival, many theories that explain organizational responses to resource challenges are of important and of great necessity and been found appropriate to be used. Therefore Resource dependence theory (RDT) has been useful in providing useful conceptual tools for understanding organizational responses to financial performance, or financial …show more content…
The environment is been understood in terms of which other organizations have their interest to attract one another in acquiring resources, (Levine and White, 1961; Thompson, 1967). For an organization to survive, it must engage in an exchange with its environment. Pfeffer and Salancik (1978) indicate that organizations depend on environment for acquiring vital resources for their survival. Where the most popularly known organization environment include a variety of actors or stakeholders or resource providers that have various demands and expectations (see Freeman, 1984). Therefore these stakeholders have strong effects on the activities or outcomes of the resource of the recipient organization. The environment, on the other side along with resources, comprises of rules and regulations, opportunities, competitors, and threats. These environmental aspects can enable for and erect barriers to the ability of the focal organization to obtain its income. The resource recipient organization will have to identify key stakeholders; and thus manage stakeholder relationships to ensure survival in that environment where competition is stiff especially with private universities. Therefore this theory states that we cannot understand organizational structure or behavior unless we first understood the context within which it operates (Aldrich, 1979; Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978; Scott, …show more content…
This is because the university leaders positively see revenue generation as a means to gain more flexibility in their internal financial management, as public funding (also some donor’s funding) often comes with complex administrative rules and regulation which need to be adhered to. This is to say all income generated internally other than governmental sources this income is perceived as being comparatively easier to manage and has the advantage that it can be allocated internally without restrictions (Wangenge-Ouma,

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Modernization and Dependency Theory

...Examine the debates between modernization and dependency theory. Which one is more compelling? This essay will analyze the definitions of modernisation and dependency theory, the similarities and differences between them and it will evaluate which one is more convincing. Modernization is an imposing theory around many different disciplines for the reason that it attempts to explain how society develops and what variables are involved in the development and how society react to these changes looking at internal factors such as social and cultural structures. As Diana Kendall mentions, "Urbanization accompanied modernization and the rapid process of industrialization." (Kendall 2007) Modernization theory has developed in three different parts; the first part appeared in the 1950s and 1960s, when the dominance of materialistic western, individualist culture and individual achievement became the influential and dominant way of life during this period of time. The second part of modernization theory is part of the “idea of progress” that was accepted in the 1980s with the thought of people themselves could develop and transform their society. The last part of modernization theory takes place in the 1990s and it tries a more neutral approach without being in favor or against western modernization. Rather it attempts to expose the disagreements in the modernization process and to explain the consequences of modernity for individuals in contemporary society (Giddens, 1991a,......

Words: 1461 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Student Paper

...shared has been collectively termed as organisation theory (Crowther and Green 2004). Organisation theory is an area of study whereby organisations serve as the phenomenon of interest for theorisation and explanation. In actual fact, it involves many theories that do not always fit together thus multiple perspectives have to be used to analyse the complexities in organisation. The four perspectives are modernism, symbolic-interpretivism, postmodernism and critical theory. Each perspective provides different manner of interpreting the world which results in different knowledge acquired (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). Globalisation has enable organisations to enter new markets and reduce business cost. These organisations are known as transnationals because their routine activities have crossed borders. They are able to exert control through ownership and/or through operations (eds. Alvesson, Bridgman & Willmott 2009). In this essay, I will be using modernist and critical theory perspective and related theories to analyse how Apple as a capitalist, exercise power and over its organisation network and external environment. The first section of the essay includes the meta-theoretical frame work of the two perspectives. It also includes how the two different perspectives view power in the organisation and the environment. The second section will be my analysis of Apple using control theories and the resource dependency theory to analyse how Apple has the power over Apple’s......

Words: 2752 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Modernization and Dependency Theory Paper

...industrialized society, our world economical growth was fast. Many scholars and researchers have been trying to understand why the developing nations are still under developed. The modernization and Dependency theories will explain some of our world socio-economic differences between the developing and developed countries. This essay discussed about the major differences between Modernization and Dependency theories, and their impact on the developing nations. Modernization Theory A theory designed to explain the process of modernizing societies. The theory considers the internal factors of development of any country, based on the installation, that the "traditional" countries may be involved in the development the same way as are the developed countries. According to Gavrov (2005), modernization theory endeavors to recognize the social variables, which add to social development and expansion of society, and will attempt to elucidate the procedure of social development. At the same time Gavrov (2005) stated that none of the scientists does not deny the process of modernization of society (the transition from traditional to industrial society), the theory itself has undergone considerable criticism from both Marxists and the representatives of free-market ideas, and supporters of the theory depend on the reason that is a simplified representation of the historical process. According to Tipps (2003) the basic structural changes in this phase of modernity clear four......

Words: 1654 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Economics History Essay

...Answer: Three main theories: Modernization Theory: developed by Rostow and is broken down into different stages of growth. Development in the first and second world is used as models for development progress in the third world and assumes innovation and development are easily transferred from the first and third World. Criticized for ignoring diversity of experience, cultural factors and unequal relationships between nations. 1. Commercial Modernization (1700-1979) Associated with early commercial functions in mercantile era. 2. Industrial Modernization (1850- mid 1900) Involves the metropolitanization of primate cities in the developing world. 3. Technological modernization( mid 1900 –present) Adopts capitalism, export-led development, and is associated with political democracy. Advocating primate cities in the developing world. Dependency Theory:developed by Andre Gunder Frank (1967) Focus on a political and economical perspective in order to explain lack of development. Dependent development in third world cities. It also divides the power distribution into 3 main categories, the core (first World), Periphery (third world) and semi- periphery in both regions. Development in third world develops with the first world. First world under-develops the Third World by exploiting their raw materials, resources and goods. Inorder for the third world to develop they need to break free from first world and its capitalist agenda. World Systems Theory:......

Words: 461 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

“Underdevelopment Is Primarily a Consequence of Cultural Rather Than Economic Factors”. to What Extent Do Sociological Evidence and Arguments Supports This View of Underdevelopment in the World Today?

...Underdevelopment takes place when resources are not used to fulfil their socioeconomic potential. Underdeveloped nations are characterised by a wide disparity between their rich and poor populations and unhealthy balance of trades. Modernisation theory is a functionalist view thats says of a country to be seen as modern it has to undergo an evolutionary advance in science and technology which in turn would lead to an increased standard of living for all. Parsons, 1979, stresses the need for cultural change in the LEDC’s as he believes that culture acts as a barrier. He saw modernity as being associated with societies that have their base in individuality and achievement as opposed to traditional societies which have their base in ascription. Parsons states that not only does there need to a political change but countries need to change socially and in order to do so cultural change is necessary. Through education a political elite could be created who would lead the country into social change through political policies and thus bring about modernisation. Nevertheless, It implies that traditional values and institutions have little or no value compared with their Western equivalents. However, there is evidence from Japan and the ‘Asian Tigers’ that the traditional (e.g. religion and extended family) can exist successfully alongside the modern. Bill Rostow, a modernisation sociologist suggested that development should be seen as an evolutionary process in which countries......

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Organizational Theories

...Organizational Theories Amanda Stasiewicz CJS210 12/21/2014 There are three major organizational theories associated with policing. These three theories are the contingency theory, institutional theory, and the resource dependency theory. The contingency theory was designed for understanding and belief that the police organizations were created and structured to achieve certain goals such as crime control and prevention. The contingency theory leads us to believe that organizations must adapt and make adjustments based on our surrounding environment. We must stay up to date with new technology and adjust to survive. The institutional theory leads us to think that police organizations are social institutions. It leads us to think that there isn’t any real structure involved within these organizations. This theory suggests that the organizations develops ideas off of the surrounding environment. Last is the resource dependency theory. The resource dependency theory suggests that these organizations must obtain and use different resources in order to survive. They must use the resources available in order to continue adapting and adjusting to society. If for some reason the resources become unavailable then the organization does not survive. In my opinion the theory that best serves police organizations would be the resource dependency theory. We have so many different resources available and if they do become......

Words: 312 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mordernization

...undevelopment. The latter term simply refers to a condition in which resources are not being used. For example, the European colonists viewed the North American continent as an undeveloped area: the land was not actively cultivated on a scale consistent with its potential. Underdevelopment refers to a situation in which resources are being actively used, but used in a way which benefits dominant states and not the poorer states in which the resources are found. 2. The distinction between underdevelopment and undevelopment places the poorer countries of the world is a profoundly different historical context. These countries are not "behind" or "catching up" to the richer countries of the world. They are not poor because they lagged behind the scientific transformations or the Enlightenment values of the European states. They are poor because they were coercively integrated into the European economic system only as producers of raw materials or to serve as repositories of cheap labor, and were denied the opportunity to market their resources in any way that competed with dominant states. 3. Dependency theory suggests that alternative uses of resources are preferable to the resource usage patterns imposed by dominant states. There is no clear definition of what these preferred patterns might be, but some criteria are invoked. For example, one of the dominant state practices most often criticized by dependency theorists is export agriculture. The criticism is that many poor......

Words: 365 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Computers and Technology

...pages: XV + 198 = 213 ISBN: 978-050-276-9 Reviewer: Johnson, Nsikak Emmanuel INTRODUCTION - PURPOSE OF THE BOOK Development and underdevelopment: The politics of the north-south divide is written specifically to keep the students and the general public abreast of the causes and reasons for Africa, Asia and Latin America Perpetual underdevelopment despite the enormous human and materials resources God deposited in the continent. According to the author of the book, development and underdevelopment: Politics of the north-south divide was written with the intention to familiarize the readers with exciting and challenging subject of political economy of development and underdevelopment. It endeavour to expose the students to various strands of perspectives that are inherent in the study of politics of development and underdevelopment- it is the anticipation of the author that the book would be a good resource material for the researchers and the students of the social sciences as a whole. The students of politics of development and underdevelopment, state and economy, third world and dependency, international economy relations as well as those studying political...

Words: 1642 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Superpower Theories

...Dependency theory According to dependency theory, countries become more dependent upon more powerful, frequently colonial powers, as a result of interaction and ‘development’. As the more powerful country exploits the resources of its weaker colony, the colony becomes dependent upon the stronger power. Goods fl ow from the colony to support consumers in the overseas country. Andre Frank (1971) described the effect of capitalist development on many countries as ‘the development of underdevelopment’. The problem of poor countries is not that they lack the resources, technical know-how, modern institutions or cultural developments that lead to development, but that they are being exploited by capitalist countries. Dependency theory has a very different approach from most models of development. • It incorporates politics and economics in its explanation. • It takes into account the historical processes of how underdevelopment came about, that is how capitalist development began in one part of the world and then expanded into other areas. • It sees development as a revolutionary break, a clash of interests between ruling classes and the working classes. • It believes that modernisation does not necessarily mean Westernisation and that underdeveloped countries must set goals of their own, which are appropriate to their own resources, needs and values. However, it is a largely economic theory (from a Western perspective) seeing the outcome as a form of......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Development Studies

...>>> español INTRODUCTION THEORY OF MODERNIZATION THEORY OF DEPENDENCY THEORY OF WORLD-SYSTEMS THEORY OF GLOBALIZATION A MODO DE COLOFON BIBLIOGRAPHY NOTES   1.  Introduction  The main objective of this document is to synthesize the main aspects of the four major theories of development:  modernization, dependency, world-systems and globalization.  These are the principal theoretical explanations to interpret development efforts carried out especially in the developing countries.  These theoretical perspectives allow us not only to clarify concepts, to set them in economic and social perspectives, but also to identify recommendations in terms of social policies.  For the purposes of this paper, the term development is understood as a social condition within a nation, in which the authentic needs of its population are satisfied by the rational and sustainable use of natural resources and systems.  This utilization of natural resources is based on a technology, which respects the cultural features of the population of a given country.  This general definition of development includes the specification that social groups have access to organizations, basic services such as education, housing, health services, and nutrition, and above all else, that their cultures and traditions are respected within the social framework of a particular country.  In economic terms, the aforementioned definition indicates that for the population of a country, there......

Words: 6890 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Assess the View That Urbanisation Is a Necessary and Desirable Aspect of Development

...Urbanization refers to the process by which the proportion of a countries population living in cities increases an also to the related economic, social and political changes. A city is usually defined as having more than 10, 00 inhabitants; mega cities have more than 10 million inhabitants. Urbanization occurs as a result of migration but also of smaller settlements growing so that they are reclassified as cities. The growth of cities in developing countries will be much faster than that of developed countries. Rural populations are expected to remain stable overall, though with some variation between regions of the world. Personally I believe that urbanization is not a necessary and desirable aspect of development due to the fact that it results in the opposite effect being ‘crowded cities with slum conditions’, the exact opposite result of what the developing country aimed to achieve and this not being a necessary step towards the process of development. Modernization theorists, looking back to the model of the Western development, see the growth of cities as an essential part of economic growth. Cities provide a labour force concentrated in one place for factories and businesses. They are also important in promoting cultural change, because they remove people from the countryside, where traditional ways are strongest, and through exposing them to Western values, cultural change should occur. Modernization theorists would therefore expect that urbanization would be an......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Modernization Theory, Strengths and Weaknesses

...accepted approaches which can work as a utility and panacea for development. Development encompasses the advancement of agriculture, village and cottage industries, the socio-economic infrastructure, human resources, community services, human rights and the political environment. Phenomenally, development is the end result of the interactions between various physical, technological, economic, social, cultural and political institutional factors (Singh, 1999). The thrust of this paper is however, not on definition of terms but a chronicle of the modernization theory, its basic tenants and its critical appreciation in the development context of the third world countries. In development discourse the modernization movement of the 1950s and 1960s is an economic theory that is rooted in capitalism. The concept of modernization incorporates the full spectrum of the transition and drastic transformation that a traditional society has to undergo in order to become modern (Hussain et al., 1981). Modernization is about Africa following the developmental footsteps of Europe. According to modernity, policies intended to raise the standard of living of the poor often consist of disseminating knowledge and information about more efficient techniques of production. The modernization theory assumes a total change of policies intended to raise the standard of living of the poor often consist of disseminating knowledge and information about more efficient techniques of production. For......

Words: 2167 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Development Communication

...significant role, where people move from a traditional way of doing things to a different, more technological development and more rapid changing way of life. Mass media are important in spreading awareness of new possibilities and practices. Research has shown that even thou group of public can obtain information from impersonal sources such as radios and television; this information has little effect on behavioral changes. Self-management is seen as the most developed form of participation. This principle implies the right to participate in the planning and production of media context. In all of these, development played a very important part of the movement for a new world information and communication. Modernization Theory in the 1950s and 1960s and fall of the theory in America and Russia were booming economically and ideologically. This is after Stalin’s Five Year Plan and America recuperating after the Great Depression. It was believed that Third World countries could develop if they adhere to modern values and drop traditional ones. Societies could develop if they were exposed to new ideas and technology. Theorists assumed the following: underdevelopment was a stage towards development; once the process was started it would flow relatively smoothly. The fall...

Words: 535 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Wid Wad Gad Theories

...Gender is defined by FAO as ‘the relations between men and women, both perceptual and material. Gender is not determined biologically, as a result of sexual characteristics of either women or men, but is constructed socially. It is a central organizing principle of societies, and often governs the processes of production and reproduction, consumption and distribution’ (FAO, 1997). Development is a process of structural societal change. Thomas (2000, 2004) refers to this meaning of development as a process of historical change. The essay shall look at Women in Development, Women And Development and Gender And Development and give their contributions to development as well as their strengths and limitations. The term "women in development" came into use in the early 1970s, after the publication of Ester Boserup's Women's Role in Economic Development (1970). Boserup was the first to systematically delineate on a global level the sexual division of labour that existed in agrarian economies. The Women in Development concept is based on a recognition of the importance of the roles and status of women in development process. It is meant to give special attention to the women's role, while extending development assistance. For the effective and efficient implementation of assistance, it is essential to ensure that the women should have the opportunities to participate positively as important players in development process. Such enlargement of opportunities will also pave the way......

Words: 2167 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Brazil and Panama Labor Relations

...Brazil and Panama Labor Relations Labor relations have been characterized over the years by strong attachment of emergency needs. As in other nations of the world, the labor relations in Brazil and Panama the maintenance of labor relations are mutual interests of the countries. The worker sells his labor power in exchange of a fee. While the employer gains from the profits earned from the labor of his employee. Wages value guarantees the maintenance of labor relations in these countries and the world (Business Dictionary). In Brazil, the economic dependency was already noticeable in the agrarian export period, when the country depended on foreign markets, consumer products and their primary supplier of industrial products. Nowadays, with the globalization process, where the capital have lost their nationality and become volatile as a rain cloud, which at any time can be taken to another place by a strong wind, the economic dependence became a nightmare (Gomez, 2014). The financial system that drives the technological renovation of these two countries industries does not have self-sufficiency. This weakness puts Brazil and Panama industrial development on feet of clay. Secondly, it is worth remembering that these countries remain in some agricultural export sectors. So, still selling their cheap primary products and buying technology and seeking financing, which are the most expensive elements of the market. This analysis allows us to build the argument that places like...

Words: 600 - Pages: 3