Free Essay

Review of Related Literature and Studies

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By maebaraya
Words 1302
Pages 6
II. Review of Related Literature and Studies Interacting with friends and family across long distances has been a concern of humans for centuries. As social animals, people have always relied on communication to strengthen their relationships. When face-to-face discussions are impossible or inconvenient, humans have dreamed up plenty of creative solutions.
The history of social media is the roots of social media stretch far deeper than you might imagine. Although it seems like a new trend, sites like Facebook are natural outcome of many centuries of social media development. The earliest methods of communicating across great distances used written correspondence delivered by hand from one person to another it is also called letters. The earliest form of postal service dates back to 550 B.C., and this primitive delivery system would become more widespread and streamlined in future centuries. In 1792, the telegraph was invented. This allowed messages to be delivered over a long distance far faster than a horse and rider could carry them. Although telegraph messages were short, they were a revolutionary way to convey news and information. Although no longer popular outside of drive-through banking, the pneumatic post, developed in 1865, created another way for letters to be delivered quickly between recipients. A pneumatic post utilizer’s underground pressurized air tubes to carry capsules from one area to another. Two important discoveries happened in the last decade of the 1800s: The telephone in 1890 and the radio in 1891. Both technologies are still in use today, although the modern versions are much more sophisticated than their predecessors. Telephone lines and radio signals enabled people to communicate across great distances instantaneously, something that mankind had never experienced before.
Social Media in the 20th Century Technology began to change very rapidly in the 20th Century. After the first super computers were created in the 1940s, scientists and engineers began to develop ways to create networks between those computers, and this would later lead to the birth of the Internet. The earliest forms of the Internet, such as CompuServe, were developed in the 1960s. Primitive forms of email were also developed during this time. By the 70s, networking technology had improved, and 1979′s UseNet allowed users to communicate through a virtual newsletter. By the 1980s, home computers were becoming more common and social media was becoming more sophisticated. Internet relay chats, or IRCs, were first used in 1988 and continued to be popular well into the 1990′s. The first recognizable social media site, Six Degrees, was created in 1997. It enabled users to upload a profile and make friends with other users. In 1999, the first blogging sites became popular, creating a social media sensation that’s still popular today.
Social Media Today After the invention of blogging, social media began to explode in popularity. Sites like MySpace and LinkedIn gained prominence in the early 2000s, and sites like Photobucket and Flickr facilitated online photo sharing. YouTube came out in 2005, creating an entirely new way for people to communicate and share with each other across great distances. By 2006, Facebook and Twitter both became available to users throughout the world. These sites remain some of the most popular social networks on the Internet. Other sites like Tumblr, Spotify, Foursquare and Pinterest began popping up to fill specific social networking niches. Today, there is a tremendous variety of social networking sites, and many of them can be linked to allow cross-posting. This creates an environment where users can reach the maximum number of people without sacrificing the intimacy of person-to-person communication. We can only speculate about what the future of social networking may look in the next decade or even 100 years from now, but it seems clear that it will exist in some form for as long as humans are alive.
Examples of Social Media
LiveJournal
* LiveJournal started in 1999 and took a different approach to social networking. While Six Degrees allowed users to create a basically-static profile, LiveJournal was a social network built around constantly-updated blogs. LiveJournal encouraged its users to follow one another and to create groups and otherwise interact. It was really the precursor to the live updates we see in social networks currently.

World of Warcraft / MMORPGS * MMORPGS (Massively multiplayer online role-playing games) have become social networks in their own right. The most famous of these is World of Warcraft, where players interact both in the game world and on related forums and community sites. Social interaction within the games ranges from teams set up specifically for tactical reasons within the game to friendships to romances. MMORPGS became popular in the early 2000s, though there were other online role-playing and other games prior to that.
Friendster
* Friendster was really the first modern, general social network. Founded in 2002, Friendster is still a very active social network, with over 90 million registered users and 60+ million unique visitors each month. Most of Friendster’s traffic comes from Asia (90% of it). Its goal was to be a safer place to meet new people than in real-life, as well as being faster. Friendster was, in part, a new kind of dating site. Instead of matching complete strangers based on shared interests, it operated on the assumption that people with shared friends and acquaintances would have a better chance than those who had no shared connection.
Hi5
* Hi5 is another major social network, established in 2003 and currently boasting more than 60 million active members according to their own claims. Profile privacy works a bit differently on Hi5, where a user’s network consists of not only their own contacts, but also second (friends of friends) and third (friends of friends of friends) degree contacts. Users can set their profiles to be seen only by their network members or by Hi5 users in general. While Hi5 is not particularly popular in the U.S., it has a large user base in parts of Asia, Latin America and Central Africa.
LinkedIn
* LinkedIn was founded in 2003 and was one of the first mainstream social networks devoted to business. Originally, LinkedIn allowed users to post a profile (basically a resume) and to interact through private messaging. They also work on the assumption that you should personally know the people you connect with on the site.
MySpace
* MySpace was founded in 2003 and by 2006 had grown to be the most popular social network in the world. Originally MySpace allowed communication through private messages, public comments posted to a user’s profile, and bulletins sent out to all of your friends. Blogs are also a big part of MySpace profiles, with each member automatically getting a blog. In 2006 MySpace introduced MySpace IM, an instant messaging client that lets users chat with their friends.
Facebook
* Facebook started out as a Harvard-only social network back in 2004, it quickly expanded to other schools, then to high schools, businesses and eventually everyone (by 2006). In 2008 Facebook became the most popular social networking site, surpassing MySpace, and continues to grow. Facebook doesn’t allow the same kind of customization that MySpace does. Facebook does, however, allow users to post photos, videos and otherwise customize their profile content, if not the design. Facebook has added a number of features over the past few years, including instant messaging/chat and apps (and their developer platform). Users have a few different methods of communicating with one another. Private messaging is available as well as writing on another user’s wall. Wall posts are visible to that user’s friends, but usually not to the general public. Users can easily change their privacy settings to allow different users to see different parts of their profile, based on any existing relationships (the basic privacy settings are “only friends”, “friends of friends”, and “everyone”).

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Review of Related Literature

...REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE (FOREIGN) I. Introjection in GESTALT THERAPY In Gestalt therapy the concept of "introjection" is not identical with the psychoanalytical concept. Central to Fritz and Laura Perls' modifications was the concept of "dental or oral aggression", when the infant develops teeth and is able to chew. They set "introjection" against "assimilation". In Ego, Hunger and Aggression Fritz and Laura Perls suggested that when the infant develops teeth, he or she has the capacity to chew, to break apart food, and assimilate it, in contrast to swallowing before; and by analogy to experience, to taste, accept, reject or assimilate. Laura Perls explains: "I think Freud said that development takes place through introjection, but if it remains inrojection and goes no further, then it becomes a block; it becomes identification. Introjection is to a great extent unawares.” Thus Fritz and Laura Perls made "assimilation", as opposed to "introjection", a focal theme in Gestalt therapy and in their work, and the prime means by which growth occurs in therapy. In contrast to the psychoanalytic stance, in which the "patient" introjects the (presumably more healthy) interpretations of the analyst, in Gestalt therapy the client must "taste" with awareness his or her experience, and either accept or reject it, but not introject or "swallow whole". Hence, the emphasis is on avoiding interpretation, and instead encouraging discovery. This is the key point in the divergance...

Words: 2642 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Fraternities Related Studies and Literature

...Related Studies and Literature Local Related Literature In joining a fraternity, one must undergo the initiation rites better known as hazing. Some dismiss hazing as a parochial issue, to be dealt with only by the universities and academies involved. But in his article “Hazing should concern us all”, Juan Alvin Tiamson submits that it should concern us all. He wrote that by now, hazing particularly the violent kind has invaded most of our institutions. It is now prevalent in schools even in police and military academies. Hazing, as we all know, systematically develops a culture of violence among the youth. Most importantly, the bonds developed by hazing become seeds of corruption. Hazing is hazing whether it results in death, mutilation or years of pain or whether it is done inside or outside the school or institution. In the article “Fraternal Fury” written by Argee Guevara, he stated that there is something intriguing and frightening about the culture of college fraternities. The more we try to understand it, the more we end up abhorring it. As a result of two rival fraternities rumble, one was reported by TV Patrol to have been severely injured after getting a pretty nasty whack on the head when rival frat men pounce on him with lead pipes, clubs and baseball bats. The cause of rumble is un-important since rumbles erupt for a variety of reason, none of which is intimately related to the pursuit of academic excellence, the repudiation of our foreign debt or the......

Words: 2448 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Review of Related Literature

...REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE FOREIGN Suzanne Rose Created on: September 04, 201 Behavior changes can occur for a variety of reasons. It is important to be aware of the factors at play, because sometimes these can signal a significant underlying event that needs to be addressed. Consider the following issues. Underlying physical issues Sometimes behavior change is precipitated by some sort of physical change. Sometimes it is a sign of a disease, and it is important to recognize these so that you might be able to treat them. Brain tumors, while rare, can influence behaviors and sometimes cause major personality differences. In addition, a disease such as Alzheimer's Disease can change the behavior of a person. Mental disorder Many mental disorders cause minor and significant changes in behavior. When someone is depressed, for instance, they may almost seem like a shadow of their former self, always focusing on the bad, not being motivated, wanting to sleep a lot and displaying other symptoms. Someone with schizophrenia might also act very differently. There are many mental disorders, and they affect behavior in different ways. Alcohol/Medications/drugs People can also display a significant behavior change due to legal and illegal prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Some people seem to behave in a completely different way when they develop an alcohol or drug problem. Someone who is very kind, logical and reasonable might behave in a way that is horrible......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Review of Related Literature and Studies

...Chapter II Review of Related Literatures and Studies This chapter presents the related literature and studies that is relevant and significant to the current studies. This presents a survey of related literature and studies which is reviewed by the researchers to be understood and help the researchers to gather more information. Analysis of Students’ Performance in Junior Secondary School Mathematics Examination in Bayelsa State of Nigeria The finding of this study showed that students’ performance in 2006 JSS Mathematics test was high. Comparing the hypothetical pass mark of 20.00 with the students’ mean score of 28.59 this indicated that the students performed very well. This result is in agreement with Linn (1965), Anderson (1942) and Akpan (1989) who reported that if an examiner has a favourable attitude towards a particular subject, then this will reflect in his performance in that subject. This is to say that since mathematics has been made compulsory and a pre-requisite for admission into the senior secondary, hence the students have developed a favourable attitude towards the subject resulting in their high performance. On whether performance is influenced by sex, the result showed that male students obtained higher mean score than the females with the calculated t-value significant. This result is in line with those of Fememe and Sherman (1977), Grambs (1972), Comber and Keeves (1973), Tyler (1961), Fin et al. (1979) and Maccoby and Jacklin (1975) who all...

Words: 1895 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies

...CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a review of literature and studies both local and foreign which are relevant to the present study. Local Studies Foreign Studies According to Waldbridge, "Responsible gaming is an attitude we need if we are engage into Computer Game. Developing this attitude is not a personal choice alone, it requires the participation of society (parents, school, and game developer and government)." As a computer game user, player and fan, it has led me to study the effects of playing computer games such as DOTA, KHAN, and other highly innovative and competitively graphical games. The purpose of the study was to establish an understanding of to what extent is the effect of playing online games, network games and other types to the studies of the students in the university where I graduated. While it was difficult to set a parameter of classifying games according to types and quality since I and my friend believed that the characteristics of the games have something to do with the addiction of students to playing, we thought that it would be safe to just assume games as if have the same characteristics even though these games are under of different types and of the different level of complex graphical presentation, level of real-time experiences, the plot of story it is trying to project and a lot more qualities. Thus, if we quantify the effects then assumption holds that each game that we have studied has......

Words: 2104 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Review of Related Literature and Studies

...CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the summary of related literature and studies that were gathered by the researchers from different references like the Internet, books and unpublished theses that were really a big help in relating this study. The gathered related information served as a starting point in evaluating and understanding the whole study. The following chapter shall review the current literature on energy related consumer behavior and attitudes to sustainable consumption. This section of the research also reviews the trends of previous research conducted on domestic energy use. The chapter shall finally delve into some of the instruments used to affect energy efficient consumer behavior, as well as the effectiveness of one or a set of instruments. Related Literature Saving energy is one of the most fundamental things we can do as student of Bicol University to save money and help balance our budget. "This is an opportunity to cut expenses without affecting services; I encourage everyone to make energy conservation part of our daily routine", (President Curt Tompkins), [1]. The energy is conserved by the “law of conservation of energy”. It states that energy can be neither created nor be destroyed. Energy is a finite resource. The materials we derive energy from (oil, coal, electricity, etc.) can also harm the environment. By conserving energy you help to save parts of the environment. There are many ways to......

Words: 1008 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Review of Related Literature

...approximate time limit for each question Give plenty of time (should be a power test not a speed test) Do not create overconcern about time Avoid optional questions Giving choices means students taking different tests They will not study the entire domain"A test item which requires a response composed by the examinee, usually in the form of one or more sentences, of a nature that no single response or pattern of responses can be listed as correct, and the accuracy and quality of which can be judged subjectively only by one skilled or informed in the subject." Review checklist on p. 248 OH 5 Essay Questions: Scoring Criteria The Scoring Problem · There is no single correct or best answer to an essay question, so you need guidelines—"rubrics"--for rating the quality of answers. · Rubric = a set of guidelines for the application of performance criteria to the responses and performances of students Tackle it early--before you give the test Carefully specify your scoring criteria before you finalize the exam May cause you to rethink or modify the question and its accompanying performance criteria That, in turn, enhances likelihood of calling forth the intended responses Do an initial review of answers to a question to find exemplars or anchors for your scoring levels Make sure you can describe the kinds of performance (e.g., "lists two of the four key points") that qualify for each scoring level ("satisfactory," 2 points,......

Words: 912 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Review of Related Literature

...The Review of Related Literature The review of related literature for this study focuses on college romantic relationships of college students. An article written by Allan Reifman discusses about a book that talks about the transition of college relationships way back before 1920’s and from 1920’s onwards. Prior to 1920’s, it was common that the gentleman would ask the lady’s parents for their permission if they would allow him to court her. The gentleman would also ask for their consent if he could take her out on a date. It was also common then that before two people get into a relationship, they would get to know each other first. Couples back then often know each other already or they come from the same school/college before they get into a romantic relationship. Up until around 1920’s, "calling" was the dominant mode of young people establishing romantic relationships. A man would seek to "call upon" a woman in her home, with her mother's permission, and with the family at home during the visit. A variety of factors, such as the increasing availability of the automobile to facilitate two people going out by themselves, then made "dating" the primary form of seeking romance and relationships from the 1920s through the 1960s. “Hooking-up” also became popular especially for college students. Essentially, then, a system has been evolving for roughly the last 40 years, in which unattached college students would begin their weekend evenings going out with a group of buddies......

Words: 1054 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Review of Related Literature and Studies

...Review of Related Literature and Studies Foreign Literature Classroom management is defined as a “multi-faceted concept that includes the organization of the psychical environment, the establishment of rules and routines, the development of effective relationships, and prevention of and responsive to misbehavior” (Garrett, 2008) The ideal classroom environment will have “fewer disruptions during instructional time, better teacher planning, classroom organization, and student engagement, this will allow for more learning time” (Weiner, 2010) Montessori’s pedagogy, as those of Dewey (1937) and Kilpatrick (1918), follows a belief of constructivism rather than behaviorism. Montessori (1912) strongly encourages educators to be observers of student’s activities and not restrict the student’s mobility with unnecessary discipline. A student will learn when that student is actively engaged in an assignment, problem-solving and constructing their own understanding. Foreign Studies According to Milner & Tenore (2010), Teachers are sometimes pressured and closely monitored by their administrators to follow a set frame of referral, discipline, and management, which can make it difficult for teachers to employ culturally responsive classroom management. Teachers can experience less than ideal support from administrator; consequently, their students may believe that the teachers “forget to care” about them. In a highly structured classroom environment we...

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Review of Related Literature

...For Sherry (1996), interactivity takes many forms; it is not just limited to audio and video, nor solely to teacher-student interactions. It represents the connectivity the students feel with the distance education lecturer, the facilitators and their peers. Sherry (1996) states that without connectivity, distance learning degenerates into the old correspondence course model of independent study. The student becomes autonomous and isolated, and eventually drops out. She argues that effective distance education should not be independent and isolated from learning, but should approach Keegan's ideal of an authentic learning experience. In a well researched literature review on video conferencing, Amirian (2002) found that interaction is critical to any video conferencing-based learning situation. She argues that video conferencing should be used in ways that make full use of its unique qualities. Specifically, she says, “interaction is the key component of this use of the technology to support a more social learning, negotiating meaning through interaction”. Echoing Amirian's point about interaction, Irele (1999) finds that video conferencing enables remote learners to be part of a social and socialising environment. Irele concludes in his comparative analysis that in a video conferencing-based learning situation, a combination of media “increases the chances of positive learning outcomes by increasing the range of learning styles that can be accommodated”. Also suggesting......

Words: 693 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Related Literature in Study Habits

...Teacher Education for granting permission to conduct this study. Our instructor, who assisted the researchers to float the questionnaire in her class. Mrs Bella Patricia G Osalvo., the researchers kind and patient teacher and adviser who spared her time and effort guiding the researchers in the completion of this study in many ways. And above all, to our HEAVENLY FATHER, for his guidance and abundant blessings. Without him this study would not be made possible. RESEARCHERS DEDICATION To God Almighty Who had been the source Of everything To our family for their love, inspiration and moral support To our educator who provided the challenge and inspiration for us to complete this book And to our adviser who helped us until the last pages of this book and never left us. We dedicated this book To everyone. RESEARCHERS TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………………………………i APPROVAL SHEET …………………………………………………………………………………………….ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………iii DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………v LIST OF TABLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………vi CHAPTER 1. THE PROBLEMS AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………………………… 2 Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………………… 3 Significant of the Study ………………………………………………………… 3 Scope and......

Words: 5381 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Review of Related Literature

...Bulletin of Education and Research December 2012, Vol. 34, No. 2 pp.19-28 Pattern of Facebook usage and its Impact on Academic Performance of University Students: A Gender Based Comparison Ahsan ul Haq & Sohail Chand _______________________________________________________________ Abstract This paper explores the popularity and usage pattern of the Facebook among the University students. A self-administered questionnaire is used for collecting data from a sample of 384 students. The study reveals that 87.5% of the students have account on the Facebook and no gender differences found. Male and female on the average spend equal time on internet. Though female users spend more time on Facebook than their counterparts but male users have more Facebook friends. Facebook use, in general, adversely affecting the academic performance of students but this adverse effect is observed greater for male students. The social interaction with the existing friends is found the most common use of the Facebook among students. Keywords: Facebook; Academic performance; Social networking. * Corresponding Author Pattern of Facebook Usage and its Impact on Academic Performance 20 Introduction Among the vast variety of online tools which are available for communication, social networking sites have become the most modern and attractive tools for connecting people throughout the world (Aghazamani, 2010). The first social networking site was created in 1997 in the name of Sixdegree.com, and......

Words: 2859 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Review of the Related Literature and Studies

...Review of the Related Literature and Studies A researcher needs to review the write-ups, readings, and studies related to the present study in order to determine the similarities and differences of the findings between the past and present studies Related Literature * Literature maybe defined as written works collectively, especially those enduring importance, exhibiting creative imagination and artist skill which are written in a particular period, language, and subject. * In other words, any written matter such as book, journal, magazine, novel, poetry, and encyclopedia are considered as literature. Guidelines on Effective writing of Literature 1. Research paper must be written in a formal style, which is in the third person, not the first person. 2. Avoid highly descriptive writing style, not appropriate for a scholarly research. 3. Language should be neutral gender, no sexy language like his. 4. Make the conclusion and contradictions found in the literature clear in the report. 5. Use proper grammar and proofread the work. 6. Never plagiarized, give credit to the original author of ideas. 7. Pay attention to the structure and form of published articles, which are good examples of how literature reviews can be written. Example 1. Peters (1993) claims that job-related stress can enhance productivity up to a certain point. There is, however, a threshold point beyond which stress becomes a harmful factor in one’s productivity.......

Words: 909 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Review of Related Literature

...Background Study According to a dictionary definition, “A gadget is a small tool or device that has a specific useful purpose and function. Gadgets tend to be more unusual or cleverly designed than normal technology.” Our lives were changed by technology since the 20th century. Many gadgets that were invented back then were now forgotten or disregarded. All gadgets were created differently. In fact most gadgets are built on the newest technology. Devices fall into four categories: mechanical, electronic, programmable, and application. Mechanical gadgets include the wheel, the pulley, the bicycle, the sail boat, and the sort. Followed by electricity, gadgets were improved and taken to a new level as inventors discover a different uses of newly applied electricity. The television, radio and quartz watch are some of the examples of electronic devices. After electricity, inventors toyed around with electronic information via microprocessor where begins the age of programmable devices such as computers, and later, MP3 players and the iPhone. Application gadgets include iTunes, Microsoft Office, and other computer applications that customize our experience in programmable devices. In today’s generation, modern technology has improved people's lives in many fields such as medicine, work, industry, and especially in education. This helps not only the professionals but also the children and students at the very young age. Way back then where technology does not still exists,......

Words: 881 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Review of Related Literature Food Industry

...Business and Management Review of Related Literature Food Industry REVIEW OF LITERATURE OF FAST FOOD INDUSTRY Previous Research on fast food Industry has shown us a light in this project: The Research done by UCLA Anderson assistant professor Raphael Thomadsen. He presented the result in the paper entitled, ³Seeking an Aggressive Competitor: How Product Line Expansion Can Increase All Firms¶ Profits.´ According to him, if a McDonald¶s and a Burger King compete in the center of a small town, and a Burger King opens in the suburbs, it can boost profits for the McDonald¶s store. In previous research, Thomadsen demonstrated that prices at fast food outlets located near other outlets belonging to the same chain often charge high prices to avoid cannibalizing sales between the two outlets. These price differences can be large, with prices at many restaurants 20 percent or more higher than they would be if the restaurant owners did not worry about cannibalization. Now he finds that a firm may also charge higher prices when faced with a new competitor or product. He said that product-line expansion would affect profits .He said that when a firm adds products to its line, the profits of the incumbent firms in the market must go down. He used a standard economic model in this study. ³Consumers have different utility preferences,´ He explains that some people like one type of food while other people like a different type. There are also variations in location. So model consumers......

Words: 351 - Pages: 2