Free Essay


In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By royalpain24
Words 809
Pages 4
Name: Donato M. Galleon III Discussion Questions #5

IT 193 - Systems Analysis & Design

Chapter 5: Data and Process Modeling

1. Describe data and process modeling, and name the main data and process modeling techniques.

Data and process modelling uses a variety of techniques to represent an information system and processes and data flow contained within the information system. Methods of data and process modelling can include DFD's (Data Flow Diagrams), object modelling and entity-relationship diagrams. (

2. Describe the Gane and Sarson symbols used for processes, data flows, data stores, and entities. Give four examples of typical names for processes, data flows, data stores, and entities.

3. What is the relationship between a Context Diagram and Diagram 0, and which symbol is not used in a context diagram?

A context diagram is a top-level view of an information system that shows the boundaries and scope of the system, whereas a diagram 0 is a DFD that depicts the first level of detail below the initial context diagram and shows major processes, data flows and data stores as well as repeating the external entities and data flows that appear in the context diagram. Data stores are not shown in the context diagram because they are contained within the system and remain hidden until more detailed diagrams are created. (

4. What is meant by an exploded DFD?

An exploded DFD has a higher-level diagram called the parent diagram, and a lower-level diagram that is referred to as the child diagram. In this sense, a diagram 0 is a child diagram of a context diagram because diagram 0 is a more detailed or exploded view of process 0 on the context diagram.(

5. Describe a data dictionary and give examples of how and when it is used.

A data dictionary, also known as a data repository, is a central storehouse of information about a system’s data that also defines all data elements and meaningful combinations of data elements (also known as a data item) within the system. Data dictionaries are typically used by a systems analyst to collect, document and organize specific facts about the system including the contents of data flows, data stores, entities and processes. (

6. Explain the DFD leveling technique.

Leveling is a technique used to show more detail in lower-level or child diagrams. Leveling is done by drawing a series of increasingly detailed diagrams until the desired degree of detail is reached. (

7. What is a balanced DFD?

DFD balancing ensures that the input and output data flows of the parent DFD are maintained on the child DFD in order to maintain consistency between the parent and child DFD’s. (

8. Describe the steps in creating a decision table.

a) Place a heading at the top left that names the table. b) Enter the conditions under the heading, with one condition per line, to represent the outcomes. c) Enter all potential combinations of Y/N (for yes and no) for the conditions. Each column represents a numbered possibility called a rule. d) Place an X in the action entries area for each rule to indicate a decision on an action

9. Discuss the pros and cons of decision tables versus decision trees.

Decision tables often are the best way to describe a complex set of conditions. Many analysts use decision tables because they are easy to construct and understand, and programmers find it easy to work from a decision table when developing code. Decision trees show the logic structure in a horizontal form that resembles a tree with the roots at the left and the branches to the right. Like flowcharts, decision trees are useful ways to present the system to management. Decision trees and decision tables provide the same results, but in different forms. Whether to use a decision table or decision tree often is a matter of personal preference. A decision table might be a better way to handle complex combinations of conditions. On the other hand, a decision tree is an effective way to describe a relatively simple process. (

10. What is Structured English?

Structured English is a subset of standard English that describes logical processes clearly and accurately, and when used must conform to the following rules:

• Use only the three building blocks of sequence, selection and iteration. • Use indentation for reliability. • Use a limited vocabulary, including standard terms used in the data dictionary and specific words that describe the processing rules.


Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Introduction to Law Series Part 1 - Law (What is Law?) In its broadest sense, means any rule of action or norm of conduct, applicable to all kinds of action and to all objects of creation. In a strict legal sense, law is a rule of conduct, just and obligatory, promulgated by legitimate authority, of common observance and benefit. (Sanchez Roman) Law is: 1.) A rule of conduct; 2.) Just; 3.) Obligatory; 4.) Promulgated by legitimate authority; 5.) Of common observance; and 6.) Of common benefit. <><><> Things to Ponder Why and how, law is a rule of conduct? Why and how, law is just? Why and how, law is obligatory? Why and how, law is promulgated by legitimate authority? What is promulgation? Why promulgate law? Who is legitimate authority? Why and how, law is of common observance? Why and how, law is of common benefit? ============================ Introduction to Law Series Part 2.1 - Evolution of the Concept of Law A.) Classical Greek Concept of Law ============================ Side Notes: - Literature is the reflection of reality. -Greek civilization is two things, politics and drama. -Greek drama is two things, tragedy  and comedy  -Alexander the Great's teacher is Aristotle. -Aristotle's school is the Lyceum. -Aristotle's teacher is Plato. -Plato's school is the Academy. -Plato's teacher is Socrates. -Socrates' teachers are the Sophists. -One of the sophists is Sophocles. -Sophocles is an ancient Greek tragedian......

Words: 5241 - Pages: 21

Free Essay


...HISTORY AND THEORY STUDIES FIRST YEAR Terms 1 and 2 Course Lecturers: CHRISTOPHER PIERCE / BRETT STEELE (Term 1) Course Lecturer: PIER VITTORIO AURELI (Term 2) Course Tutor: MOLLIE CLAYPOOL Teaching Assistants: FABRIZIO BALLABIO SHUMI BOSE POL ESTEVE Course Structure The course runs for 3 hours per week on Tuesday mornings in Terms 1 and 2. There are four parallel seminar sessions. Each seminar session is divided into parts, discussion and submission development. Seminar 10.00-12.00 Mollie Claypool, Fabrizio Ballabio, Shumi Bose and Pol Esteve Lecture 12.00-13.00 Christopher Pierce, Brett Steele and Pier Vittorio Aureli Attendance Attendance is mandatory to both seminars and lectures. We expect students to attend all lectures and seminars. Attendance is tracked to both seminars and lectures and repeated absence has the potential to affect your final mark and the course tutor and undergraduate coordinator will be notified. Marking Marking framework adheres to a High Pass with Distinction, High Pass, Pass, Low Pass, Complete-toPass system. Poor attendance can affect this final mark. Course Materials Readings for each week are provided both online on the course website at and on the course library bookshelf. Students are expected to read each assigned reading every week to be discussed in seminar. The password to access the course readings is “readings”. TERM 1: CANONICAL BUILDINGS, PROJECTS, TEXTS In this first term......

Words: 22588 - Pages: 91

Free Essay


...ACID -is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts. -Aqueous solutions of acids have a pH of less than 7. A lower pH means a higher acidity, and thus a higher concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic. | Name of the Drink | pH Content | 1 | Coca-Cola | Almost 2.5 | 2 | Sprite | Almost 2.5 | 3 | Orange juice | Around 3.5 | 4 | | | GLUCOSE  -C6H12O6, also known as D-glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple monosaccharide found in plants. -The mean normal blood glucose level in humans is about 5.5 mM (5.5 mmol/L or 100 mg/dL, i.e. milligrams/deciliter) | Name of the Drink | Conclusion | Content (g/100 ml) | 1 | Coca-Cola | GLUCOSE IS PRESENT | 3.9-4.5 | 2 | Sprite | GLUCOSE IS PRESENT | 3.9-4.5 | 3 | Orange juice | GLUCOSE IS PRESENT | 20.8 | 4 | | | | PHOSPHATE  -an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid. | NAME OF THE DRINK | Observation | Conclusion | | Coca-Cola | | | | Sprite | | | | | | | | | | | If small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in separate test tubes and Ammonium Molybdate followed by concentrated Nitric Acid (HNO3) was added to it. And the solution was heated. Appearance of canary-yellow precipitate confirmed the......

Words: 522 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Filkom- Kabanata 1 Aralin 1 “Ang wika ay masistemang balangkas ng sinasalitang tunog na isinaayos sa paraang arbitraryo. Ang mga tunog ay hinuhugisan o binigyan ng makabuluhang simbolo (letra) na pinagsama- sama upang makabuo ng mga salita na gamit sa pagbuo ng kaisipan.” – Henry Allan Gleason (ecologist, botanist at taxonomist) *See page 3 – Webster, Sturtevant….* Katangian ng Wika * Ang wika ay masistemang balangkas * Tunog, salita, parirala, pangungusap at diskors a. Ponolohiya o tunog – makaagham na pag-aaral ng mga makahulugang tunog o ponema b. Morpolohiya o salita- pag-aaral ng mga pinakamaliit nay unit ng tunog o morpema c. Sintaksis o parirala/sugnay/pangungusap- pag-aaral ng sistema ng pagasama-sama o paguugnay-ugnay ng mga salita d. Semantika o kahulugan ng salita- kahulugan o relasyon ng mga salita Diskurso- palitan ng pangungusap * Ang wika ay sinasalitang tunog * Interaksyon ng mga aparato sa pagsalita gaya ng bibig, dila, ngipin, ngalangala, velum at gilagid (speech organs) * Unibersal na katotohanan sa wika na tunog- pinakapangunahing pangangailangan ng wika * Ang wika ay arbitraryong simbolo ng mga tunog * Simbolong bokal at arbitrary * Dualismo- isang panagisag at isang kahulugan * Arbitraryo- walang tiyak na batayan * Ito ay arbitraryo sapagkat walang rasyunal na magagamit upang ipaliwanag ang koneksyon ng mga ito * Nakaugaliang gamitin * Ang wika ay komunikasyon * Kasangkapan ng......

Words: 3394 - Pages: 14

Free Essay


...Pagbasa  Proseso ng pagkokonstrak ng kahulugan mula sa mga tekstong nakasulat.  Komplikadong kasanayan na nangangailangan ng ilang magkakaugnay na hanguan ng impormasyon.(Anderson, et al., 1985)  Proseso ng pagkokonstrak ng kahulugan sa pamamagitan ng dinamikong interaksyon ng mga sumusunod: 1. Dating kaalaman ng mambabasa;2 impormasyong taglay ng tekstong binabasa;3 konteksto ng sitwasyon sa pagbasa.(Wixson, et al., 1987)  Isang komplikado at kognitibong proseso ng pagdedekowd ng mga simbolo para sa intension ng pagkokonstrak o pagkuha ng kahulugan. (  Isang paraan ng pagkatuto ng wika, paraan ng komunikasyon at paraan ng pagbabahagi ng mga impormasyon at ideya. Apat na hakbang sa pagbasa 1. 2. 3. 4. Persepsyon- pagkilala sa mga nakalimbag na simbolo. Komprehensyon- proseso ng isipan sa mga impormasyong ipinapahayag ng simbolong nakalimbag. Reaksyon- hinahatulan o pinagpapasyahan ang kawastuhan, kahusayan at pagpapahalaga ng teksto. Asimilasyon- iniintegreyt at iniuugnay ang kaalamang nakuha ng mambabasa sa kanyang dati nang kaalaman o karanasan . 4 na yugto ng pagbasa Pagbasang elementari- karaniwang natutunan sa paaralang primarya at preschool. Pagbasang inspeksyonal- makikilala ito sa espesyal na emphasis sa oras. Pagbasang analitikal – tinatangka ang posibleng pinakamaayos at pinakakompletong pagbasa sa loob ng oras o panahong walang limitasyon. Pagbasang sintopikal- tinawag ding pagbasang komparatibo ni Gestalt. Uri at Paraan ng pagbasa ......

Words: 680 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...BA CHAPTER 13: MOTIVATING PERFORMANCE Motivating for Performance * Understanding why people do things is not an easy task * Predicting their response to management’s latest productivity program is harder. * Motivation * forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts * highly motivated people, with adequate ability and understanding of the job, will be highly productive * To be effective motivators managers must know what behaviors they want to motivate people to exhibit * Managers must motivate people to * Join the organization * Remain in the organization * Come to work regularly * Perform * Exhibit good citizenship * Good citizens of org are committed, satisfied employees who perform above and beyond the call of duty by doing extra things, the company needs. * Importance of citizenship behavior may be less obvious that productivity. * Process: goal-setting, reinforcement and expectancy theories – basic and powerful actions to take. * Content: what people want and need SETTING GOALS Overview * Goal setting is perhaps the most important, valid, and useful single approach to motivating performance * Goal setting works for any job in which people have control over their performance * Goal setting theory * people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end Goals that motivate * goals should be......

Words: 3411 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Oblicon Reviewer

...CIVIL LAW REVIEWER TABLE of CONTENTS OBLIGATIONS Table of Contents Chapter II. Nature and Effect of Obligations93 I. Kinds of Prestations ............................93 II. Breach of Obligation............................94 III. Fortuitous Event (Force Majeure) .......96 IV. Remedies to Creditors ........................96 V. Usurious Transactions and Rules on Interest .........................................................97 Chapter III. Different Kinds of Obligations ..98 I. Pure and Conditional Obligations .......98 II. Reciprocal Obligations ......................100 III. Obligations with a Period ..................100 IV. Alternative and Facultative Obligations 101 V. Joint and Solidary Obligations ..........103 Effects of Prejudicial and Beneficial Acts (Art.1212) ...................................................105 VI. Divisible and Indivisible Obligations..106 VII. Oblligations with a Penal Clause ..106 Chapter IV. Extinguishment of Obligations .......................................................................107 I. Payment or Performance ..................107 II. Loss or Impossibility..........................109 III. Condonation or Remission of the Debt 109 IV. Confusion or Merger of Rights ..........110 V. Compensation ...................................110 VI. Novation ............................................111 Charts: Payment & Performance ................114 90 OBLIGATIONS Chapter I. General......

Words: 19824 - Pages: 80

Free Essay

Math Reviewer

...3RD GRADING PERIOD GRADE 6 MATH REVIEWER Name : ______________________________________ Lesson 1 : Place Value The 'zeroth power' of any number always equals one Ex. 3 = 1. 1994587685775 = 1. 8999 = 1. 92 = 1. The exponent equals the number of DECIMAL PLACES. 7 Ex. Exponent 7 = 7 places 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 = 10 000 000 1 x 10 = 1 10 = 10 10 = 100 10 = 1 000 10 = 10 000 10 = 100 000 -5 10 = 0.000 01 10 -1 = 0.1 10 -2 = 0.01 1 2 3 4 5 10 -3 = 0.001 Exponent -5 = 5 DECIMAL places INCLUDING 1 10 -4 = 0.0001 10 -5 = 0.00001 5. 27 x 101 = _______________ 6. 128 x 108 = _______________ 7. 77 x 10 -6 = _______________ 8. 122 x 10 - 9 = ______________ 9. 10. EXERCISE: PLACE VALUE 1. 2 x 101 = _______________ 2. 4 x 107 = _______________ 3. 9 x 10 - 5 = ______________ 4. 8 x 10 - 10 = _____________ Write in standard form: 1. seven hundred seventy seven an three hundred sixty eight thousandths _________________ 2. ninety two thousand and two hundred one ten thousandths ______________________ 3. five hundred eighty eight millionths ____________________________ Give the place value of the digit 7 in each number 1. 6.123457 ____________________________ 2. 9457.2234 _____________________ 3. 3.2355622547 ______________________________ 4. 712.4532......

Words: 702 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Reviewer in Marketing

...viewer in karketing1. allowance – promotional money paid by manufacturers 2. Attitudes – person’s feelings 3. beliefs – descriptive thought 4. black box – buyer’s characteristics and decision process 5. Brand - name,term,sign,or symbol that identifies the product 6. Business buyers are organizations that buy goods and services for use in the production of other products and services that are sold, rented or supplied to others. 7. business analysis – review of sales… 8. cognitive dissonance – buyer discomfort 9. convenience stores – limited line of high-turnover convenience goods 10. Culture – most basic cause of person’s wants/behavior 11. Demand – relationship bet price and no. of units 12. demographic – div. market into segments based on age, educ, income, race, etc 13. differentiated mktg Large segments with specific marketing mixes. 14. Discount - straight reduction 15. economic situation - Affects real spending and consumer confidence in borrowing. 16. Esteem – recog, status 17. Experience - a type of product that combines a service or physical product with a memorable experience 18. family – most impt cust buying org 19. Industrial – prod bought by indiv for further processing 20. Innovators – 1st adopters 21. labeling – printed info 22. learning – permanent changes 23. lifestyle – person’s pattern of living 24. line filling- adding prod w/in current range 25. line stretching – adding prod outside of current range 26. logistics/supply chain -......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Physics Reviewer

...Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its conservation Static Electricity – amber effect, Electric charge Unlike charges attract, like charges repel. Two types of electric charge: positive and negative (amber). (By Benjamin Franklin) Whenever a certain amount of charge is produced on one object, an equal amount of the opposite type of charge is produced on another object. Net change in the amount of charge produced is zero. Charges are separated, but the sum of the two is zero. Law of conservation of electric charge – the amount of electric charge produced in any process is zero: no net electric charge can be created or destroyed. If one object acquires a positive charge, then an equal amount of negative charge will be found in neighboring areas or objects. Electric Charge in the Atom Atom – tiny but heavy, positively charged nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. Nucleus – contains protons, neutrons. Protons – positive Electrons – negative Neutrons – no net electric charge. All protons and all electrons have exactly the same magnitude of electric charge; but are opposite. Neutral atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons. Atom may lose one or more of its electrons or may gain extra electrons, in which case it will have a net positive or negative charged called ion. When an object is neutral, it contains equal amounts of positive and negative charge. Object by rubbing can be explained by the transfer of electrons...

Words: 378 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mas Reviewer

...Forecasting MCQs Contains: in a random basis Gleim Book Gleim CD IMA - Retired 2005 IMA - Retired 2008 By: Mohamed “hengoo” to members Gleim CMA Test Prep: Part 1: Financial Planning, Performance, and Control (119 questions) [1] Gleim #: 1.5.133 -- Source: CMA 691 4-1 The expected monetary value of an act is the A. B. C. D. Revenue minus the costs for the act. Conditional profit (loss) for the best event times the probability of each event’s occurrence. Sum of the conditional profit (loss) for each event. Sum of the conditional profit (loss) for each event times the probability of each event’s occurrence. [Fact Pattern #1] Proper Propeller, Inc. plans to manufacture a newly designed high-technology propeller for airplanes. Proper Propeller forecasts that as workers gain experience, they will need less time to complete the job. Based on prior experience, Proper Propeller estimates a 70% cumulative learning curve and has projected the following costs. Cumulative number Manufacturing Projections of units produced Average cost per unit Total costs 1 2 $20,000 14,000 $20,000 28,000 [2] Gleim #: 1.3.98 -- Source: CMA 0408 1-148 (Refers to Fact Pattern #1) If Proper Propeller produces eight units, the average manufacturing cost per unit will be A. B. C. D. $14,000 $9,800 $1,647 $6,860 [3] Gleim #: 1.4.104 -- Source: CMA 1293 4-25 The four components of time series data are secular......

Words: 31430 - Pages: 126

Premium Essay

Managenent Reviewer

...MGT220 Principles of Marketing Long Exam No. 1 Review Guide CHAPTER I : Marketing: Creating and Capturing Customer Value 1. What is Marketing? 2. The Marketing Process a. Understanding the marketplace i. Customer Needs, Wants, Demands ii. Market Offerings iii. Marketing Myopia iv. Markets b. Designing a customer-driven marketing strategy v. Marketing Management vi. Market Segmentation vii. Target Marketing viii. Market Positiong ix. Value Proposition x. Marketing Management Orientation 1. Production Concept 2. Product Concept 3. Selling Concept 4. Marketing Concept 5. Societal Marketing Concept c. Preparing an Integrated Marketing Plan and Program xi. Marketing Mix xii. Integrated Marketing Program d. Building Customer Relationship xiii. Customer Relationship Management xiv. Relationship Building Blocks 6. Customer Value 7. Customer Satisfaction xv. Partner Relationship Management e. Capturing Value from Customers xvi. Customer Loyalty xvii. Share of Customers xviii. Customer Equity 3. The changing Marketing Landscape CHAPTER II : Company and Marketing Strategy Partnering to Build Customer Relationships 8. Strategic Planning 9. Steps in Strategic Planning ...

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Film Reviewer

...Film Viewer Opinion Billy Green University of Phoenix Introduction to Film Studies HUM/159 Wendy Hamilton February 19, 2011 Film Viewer Opinion In today’s society, there are many different film types to watch. The different films range from the Disney movies that you may show your preschoolers and elementary kids to PG-13 movies that may be appropriate for the middle school age and high school age to the rated R movies that may be appropriate for adults only. Within all these rated films you can find action, suspense, drama, Sci-Fi, horror, comedy, musical, and many more types. Even though there are many different films for different types of viewers: drama, action, suspense are my favorite films because they can be very eye-catching and these films keep my attention. I decide on most of the films that I watch based on the type of film produced by the filmmaker and others. For example, being as though I personally know I am not a supporter of Sci-Fi movies, I wouldn’t entertain the fact of showing interest in viewing that type of films. I usually tend to stick to the movie type that I am interested within and looking at the previews can play a huge decision maker whether or not I would view the film. Ninety percent of the films that I have viewed were introduced to me by watching to preview first. I usually can determine whether or not the film would be of my interest after viewing the previews. I am mostly interested by drama, action, and suspense......

Words: 576 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Theater Reviewer

...* Drama – stories composed in verse or prose, usually for theatrical performance, where conflicts and emotion are expressed through dialogue and action * Fable – narration demonstrating a useful truth, especially in which animals speak as humans; legendary, supernatural tale * Fairy tale – story about fairies or other magical creatures, usually for children * Fantasy – fiction with strange or other worldly settings or characters; fiction which invites suspension of reality * Fiction narrative – literary works whose content is produced by the imagination and is not necessarily based on fact * Fiction in verse – full-length novels with plot, subplot(s), theme(s), major and minor characters, in which the narrative is presented in (usually blank) verse form * Folklore – the songs, stories, myths, and proverbs of a people or "folk" as handed down by word of mouth * Historical fiction – story with fictional characters and events in a historical setting * Horror – fiction in which events evoke a feeling of dread and sometimes fear in both the characters and the reader * Humor – Usually a fiction full of fun, fancy, and excitement, meant to entertain and sometimes cause intended laughter; but can be contained in all genres * Legend – story, sometimes of a national or folk hero, that has a basis in fact but also includes imaginative material * Mystery – fiction dealing with the solution of a crime or the unraveling of secrets *......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mis Reviewer

...CHOICES WHO WILL BUILD YOUR SYSTEM: 1. Insourcing 2. Selfsourcing (also called end-user development) 3. Outsourcing MAJOR SDLC PHASES: 1. Planning 2. Analysis 3. Design 4. Development 5. Testing 6. Implementation 7. Maintenance PRIMARY ACTIVITIES IN PLANNING PHASE: 1. Define the system to be developed 2. Set the project scope 3. Develop the project plan PRIMARY ACTIVITIES IN ANALYSIS PHASE: 1. Gathering the business requirements 2. Prioritize the requirements PRIMARY ACTIVITIES IN DESIGN PHASE: 1. Design the technical architecture 2. Design the system model PRIMARY ACTIVITIES IN DESIGN PHASE: 1. Build the technical architecture 2. Build the database and programs PRIMARY ACTIVITIES IN DESIGN PHASE: 1. Write the test conditions 2. Perform the testing of the system PRIMARY ACTIVITIES IN IMPLEMENTATION PHASE: 1. Write detailed user documentation 2. Provide training for the system users PRIMARY ACTIVITIES IN MAINTENANCE PHASE: 1. Build a help desk to support the system users 2. Provide an environment to support system changes COMMON TYPES OF TESTS: 1. Unit testing 2. System testing 3. Integration testing. 4. User acceptance testing (UAT) TYPES OF TRAINING: 1. Online training 2. Workshop training IMPLEMENTATION METHODS: 1. Parallel implementation 2. Plunge implementation 3. Pilot implementation 4. Phased......

Words: 3227 - Pages: 13