Premium Essay

Revision Cold War

In: Historical Events

Submitted By 09jwalla
Words 13995
Pages 56
r

Contents

This revision guide is intended to guide you to the key essentials necessary for answering questions on Unit 3. You shouldn’t use at it a replacement for your class notes or your own revision notes, but as a way of supplementing them and ensuring you have a firm awareness of major events, individuals and ideas.

1. The seeds of conflict 2. Emergence of Cold War, 1944-53 3. The ‘Thaw’ & ‘Peaceful Co-existence’ 4. The arms impact of the arms race 5. Sin-Soviet relations 6. Détente 7. End of Cold War

Reminder of the structure of Unit 3

• Unit 3 = 25% of total marks • Written exam: 2 hours • Answer ONE question from Section A (30 marks), and ONE from Section B (40 marks) - choice of 2 questions in both sections • Section A – discuss an historical issue • Section B – use source material & knowledge to discuss an historical event

Section A – themes to explore in your revision:

1. The post-Stalin thaw and the bid for peaceful coexistence in 1950s: a) USSR: Khrushchev b) USA: the responses of Dulles, Eisenhower and Kennedy. • the continuation of the Cold War in the 1950s following the retirement of Truman & death of Stalin, despite the bid for improved relations on the part of the USSR in the form of unilateral cuts in the size of the Red Army and withdrawal from Austria and Finland. • the concept of peaceful coexistence & what motivated Khrushchev & the Soviet leadership, & why the USA under Eisenhower & his Secretary of State, Dulles, and later Kennedy and his staff, responded in the way they did. • the role of personality, particularly that of Khrushchev, in shaping relations in these years should be addressed & students should be aware of the Paris Summit, the U2...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Arsenal Are the Best

...History Leaving Cert American Essay Notes By James Esses Mocks.ie History Leaving Cert Revision Notes James Esses Page 1 Contents 1.0 Essay 1: Changes in the US Economy from 1945-1989 ..................................................................... 3 1.1 Boom (1945-1968) .................................................................................................................. 3 1.2 Bust (1968-1989)..................................................................................................................... 4 2.0 Essay 2 Consumer Society post 1945 ................................................................................................ 6 3.0 Essay 3 Foreign Policy 1945-1972 ..................................................................................................... 8 3.1 Berlin ....................................................................................................................................... 8 3.2 Korea ....................................................................................................................................... 9 3.3 Berlin Wall ............................................................................................................................. 10 3.4 Cuba ...................................................................................................................................... 10 4.0 Essay 4: How did the US become involved in Vietnam and why did it escalate in...

Words: 5670 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Ijnjnok

...Globalization ,Education and Japan Ikuo ISOZAKI(Dr. & Prof.) Chiba University,JAPAN Introduction The word “globalization” is the buzzword of the moment. Similar to the word “democracy”, it could be one of those words that become more ambiguous in meaning as they are more widely used. Globalization, however, is not too difficult a word to understand when we interpret it as a phenomenon where goods, people, information and services are now more easily coming together over national boundaries. Behind globalization, no doubt, is rapid technological innovation. The idea is that globalization is dramatically making our globe smaller, our spectrum wider and our various networks larger. Some people argue that there are downfalls however, including flooding information and heightening psychological insecurity from various types of inequality. We are required to face globalization while fully understanding the positives and negatives of globalization. Globalization is likely impacting not only on how economies work, but also on what a state actually is. For example, some experts maintain that the function of a state is diminished by globalization and forced to focus efforts on localization and regionalization. I would like to examine from various aspects how globalization influences states,and public policies, especially on the educational policy by taking Japan as an......

Words: 4654 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Japanese Recontstruction

...This was not always the case, prior to World War two the Japanese and United States’ relationship was very tumultuous. Admiral Perry took a very exploitive stance toward establishing foreign relations with the island nation and it left a lasting impression upon the Japanese. World War II brought saw the ultimate conflict between the two nations which left Japan devastated from both the aftermath of brutal fighting in the Pacific and the use of the atomic bomb on their homeland. How did Japan rebound from such a crippling defeat in the Second World War and how is it that we now enjoy such close ties, especially being from two opposing cultural styles? The United States took a front and center seat to Japan’s reconstruction after the war and it is a combination of both our help and the Japanese people’s remarkable character that facilitated such a miraculous rebirth; also forever tying our two nations together in the bonds of cooperation. “It’s resurgence was due to a legacy of past accomplishments, an indomitable determination to succeed in the quest for modernity, prodigious amounts of hard work, generally shrewd planning, and occasional injections of unanticipated stimulation, or what economists prefer to think of as exogenous events”(McClain 2002). Japan’s post war miracle recovery was the direct result of combined American/Japanese efforts to rebuild the nation and the nature of the Japanese people’s remarkable character to forge ahead with great determination....

Words: 2273 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

The Cold War and the U.S. Diplomacy

...The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy POL 300 January 31, 2012 The key problem for his presidency clearly would be the Vietnam War. It had driven his predecessor from office, and if it were not resolved in a way that could be turned to political advantage, it would drive him from office as well. Two months after Nixon assumed the presidency, American combat deaths exceeded thirty-six hundred, and there seemed no end in sight. Nixon was in a dilemma, for during the campaign he had said that he had a "secret plan" to end the war but could not divulge it because it might upset the Paris peace negotiations. If his plan involved escalation, Democrats could charge that he was abandoning attempts to reach a peaceful solution and could point to mounting American casualties and prisoners of war. If he negotiated a solution that led to the fall of the government in Saigon, Democrats could charge he had abandoned an ally. Nixon had to find a way to cut American commitments while preserving the non-Communist government in South Vietnam—at least for a "decent interval" so that the overthrow of the regime could not be blamed on the United States (Morgan 2002). Nixon, his national security adviser Henry Kissinger, and Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird settled on an approach with several elements. First, the Laird policy for "Vietnamization" was adopted. Responsibility for fighting would be turned over to the Vietnamese, in order to reduce American casualties....

Words: 1576 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Regional Power In China

...China is one of the most ancient civilizations in the world that recorded about 3,000 years old. It has only in recent historical times become part of the “known world”- that is known to the West. More books had been published in Chinese than in all of the other world’s languages combined in recent time. Yet, even today Chinese literature remains unknown in the West except to specialists. The West was long ignorant of China, and the Chinese state was not inclined to initiate contacts with the West. The isolation and self-contained character of Chinese culture is epitomized by the Great Wall erected by the Chin dynasty, which made China more mysterious and attractive for other countries. Today’s China differed from old China greatly. Today’s...

Words: 2145 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

European Union

...The historical roots of the European Union lie in the Second World War. Europeans are determined to prevent such killing and destruction ever happening agWar begins. West European nations create the Council of Europe in 1949. It is a first step towards cooperation between them, but six countries want to go further.ain. Soon after the war, Europe is split into East and West as the 40-year-long Cold 9 May 1950 — French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman presents a plan for deeper cooperation. Later, every 9 May is celebrated as 'Europe Day'. 18 April 1951:Based on the Schuman plan, six countries sign a treaty to run their heavy industries – coal and steel – under a common management. In this way, none can on its own make the weapons of war to turn against the other, as in the past. The six are Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Founding Member States: Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Treaty of paris: Some of the main enemies during the war were now sharing production of coal and steel, the key-resources which previously had been central to the war effort. Treaty of rome: progressive reduction of customs duties and the establishment of a customs union. It proposed to create a common market of goods, workers, services Single european act: first major revision of treaty of rome....

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Eu Enlargement in 1995 and Neutrality

...After the fall of the Berlin wall, everyone expected that a large number of the central and eastern European countries would apply for EU membership that lead to a big revision of the EU system including the institutions. Several western European countries outside the EC became nervous if that they did not soon were to become a member of the community, they would end up in the same block as the new countries missing out on the advantages that the EU provided. The EU received applications from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Switzerland and also from Malta and Cyprus in the beginning of the 1990s. Before any of these countries were accepted in the union, the treaty of Maastricht was implemented, which meant that the common defence and security policies were an element the new countries had to accept as well. The EU that they were about to become a member of had changed since their application was handed in. Sweden, Finland and Austria became members in 1995, but Norway turned down the referendum for the second time and Switzerland feared the same result as in Norway and froze their application. Why EU wants enlargement Until the 1990s the European Union at this time known as the European Community, was considered to be “an economic giant, but a political pygmy,” for, although it exercised considerable influence in economic, and particularly commercial matters, its voice did not count for a great deal in political matters, especially concerning defence and security....

Words: 2099 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Ernest Hemiway

...For sixty-two years, being a great journalist, a soldier and a great writer, Hemingway sang the praise of courageous and extoled human values through his visual experience of the Great War. A Farewell to Arms (1929) – The World War I experience For Whom the Bells Toll (1940) – The Spanish Civil War The Oldman and the Sea (1952) – Ernest Hemingway’s war. (Life’s struggle) This paper will focus on three different wars in Ernest Hemingway’s time frame by concentrate his life style and its influence on writing emotion through his way to the Nobel Prize. Body I. Early Life A. Birth Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in the family which father is the doctor and mother is a former opera singer. During his childhood, he loved sports, hunting and fishing at the family’s summer house at Walloon Lake, Michigan. He was a talented writer, even when he was teenager, he always kept note fill with his thought and observation about the world around him. Hemingway fear his mother. As Martha Gellhorn, Hemingway’s third wife wrote “Deep in Ernest, due to his mother, going back to the indestructible first memories of childhood, was mistrust and fear of women” (http://www.salon.com/2006/08/12/gellhorn.html) B. Family His father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, a doctor, and his mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, a former opera performer, lived in Oak Park, Illinois. He is a second child born of family with have two sons and four daughter....

Words: 1507 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Nixon Doctrine of 1969

...The Nixon Doctrine of 1969 Kerri Richards POL 300 November 11, 2012 Revision made 12/9/12 The Nixon Doctrine was an American foreign policy set forth by President Nixon in 1969. It was also known as the Guam Doctrine for the country in which it was announced. The strategy of the Nixon Doctrine allowed Nixon to devise a way for the United States to exit that very unpopular conflict, the Vietnam War. It also stated that the United States would provide aid to its allies in times of need. A reassessment of American foreign policy, and a move to the era of negotiation was a must. Nixon needed to first extricate the country’s forces from Vietnam. Secondly, the country needed to ease the overall tension in Berlin and the Middle East. Thirdly, according to domestic ideological demands, and due to the increasingly threatening possibility of a surprise attack, nuclear arms controls had to be carried out. Removing these problems would remedy the damage done in such a period. The problem was to figure out how. The existent schools of diplomacy did not suggest a favorable method. Nixon’s foreign policy advisors decided not to stick on preceding principles or theories, but adhere to only one basic priority, National Interest....

Words: 2362 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

A Historical Perspective of Government Training

...A Historical Perspective of Government Training in Emergency Management This paper, examination, report, or the section thereof for which I have indicated responsibility, is my own work. Any assistance I received in its preparation is acknowledged within the report or examination, in accordance with academic practice. For any data, ideas, words, diagrams, pictures, or other information from any source, quoted or not, I have cited the sources fully and completely in footnotes and bibliographical entries, as required. Furthermore, I certify that the material was prepared by me specifically for this class and has not been submitted, in whole or significant part, to any other class in this university or elsewhere, or used for any purpose other than satisfying the requirements of this class, except that I am allowed to submit this material to a professional publication, peer reviewed journal, or professional conference. In adding my name following the word 'Signature', I intend that this certification will have the same authority and authenticity as a document executed with my hand-written signature. A Historical Perspective of Government Training in Emergency Management In the field of disaster response when the public demands assistance from emergency providing organizations that maintains various forms of aid and delivers relief, preparation is the critical component that drives the effectiveness of subsequent outcomes. An important aspect of preparation that has a......

Words: 4779 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Bilateral Aid In Japan

...Foreign aid was subject to many changes since the end of the Second World War. The developed countries, especially the ones from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), have started to allocate their ODA through two main channels: the bilateral aid channel and the multilateral aid channel. According to the OECD , bilateral aid “represents flows from official (government) sources directly to official sources in the recipient country” while multilateral aid “represents...

Words: 1622 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Turkey's Foreign Policy

...Since the end of the Cold War, Turkey tried to become an active actor with its own agenda and its own priorities. It is no more a marginal actor in the international scene, especially concerning major conflicts in the Middle-East. To play the role in an efficient way, Turkey built an assertive foreign policy, based on 3 methodological and 5 operational principles. The first methodological principle is to act rather than to react. Those Acts must be consistent with the vision of the world Turkey built, and how it sees itself in this world. The second one is having a consistent view that strengthens its foreign policy. The Third one is making the civil and economic soft spreading power of Turkey their main argument. Those principles led to an operational vision based on five points. The first one is to strike the balance between the security dimension and the liberty dimension in its intern and extern policies. Despite serious neighborhoods problems with security and lack of democracy, Turkey achieved a great constitution revision and has a more and more powerful democracy, where some marginalized parts of the population started to have their voices heard, as Kurds populations. The second one is to have zero problems with the neighbors using a developing economic interdependence between Turkey and its neighbors. It is especially the case with the Arab World were the Turkish goods are more and more present in the market....

Words: 1467 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Kim Dae-Jung Reconciliation

...Korea had to do deal with cold war conflicts, while it still had...

Words: 1774 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Third Image Theory

...Kenneth Waltz offers his interpretation, “War is the external manifestation of the internal class struggle, which...

Words: 2232 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Iuhyiklkj

...[Πληκτρολογήστε το όνομα της εταιρείας] | [Πληκτρολογήστε τον τίτλο του εγγράφου] | [Πληκτρολογήστε τον υπότιτλο του εγγράφου] | user [Επιλογή ημερομηνίας] | Ambassador of the Republic of Cyprus H.E. Joseph Joseph The people of Cyprus are divided into two main ethnic communities, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, who respective motherlands can be put together by geography, supported by the same history, ethnic ties, etc. However, no matter how much affinity they have, it is clear as crystal that the Cyprus problem still lasts. Before the dispute started in 1964 Cyprus was the country of 77% Greek Cypriots, 18% Turkish Cypriots, 5% other nationalities, but time has changed and the neither the Greek Cypriots nor the Turkish Cypriots can stand each other. All these led to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974. De facto partitioned the island into two political areas; the south went to the 99.5% of the Greek Cypriots which is called the Republic of Cyprus. And the north went to the 98.7% of Turkish Cypriots which is known as Northern Cyprus. Greek is predominantly spoken in the South, where the majority is Greek Cypriots and Turkish in the north, where the majority is Turkish Cypriots. In the meantime grew the “Enosis movement”, a movement by the ethnically Greek population of Cyprus. They demanded that the regions with majority Greek should brought together as one Greek state. On the other hand, the Turks wanted separation of states between the Greeks......

Words: 1048 - Pages: 5