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Revolts in Latin America

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Submitted By erice
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Revolts in Latin America

I. Discontent Fans the Fires
• Spanish born peninsulares dominated Latin American political and social life.
• Many creoles resented their second-class status.
• Creoles were European-descended Latin Americans.
• Mestizos were people of Native American and European descent.
• Mulattoes were people of African and European descent.
• Mestizos and Mulattoes were angry because they were being denied the status, wealth and power that the white people had.
• Enslaved Africans that worked on plantations wanted freedom.
• In the 1700s, educated creoles became Enlightened as they watched colonists in North America throw off British rule. However, many creoles were reluctant to do anything.
• Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808 sparked the rebellion in Latin America.

II. Slaves Win Freedom for Haiti
• Revolution had erupted in a French-ruled colony on the island of Hispaniola.
• French planters in Haiti owned very profitable sugar plantations.
• The half a million slaves who worked on these plantations were overworked and underfed
• The rebels were fortunate to find an intelligent and skillful leader in Toussaint L’Ouverture.
• Toussaint L’Ouverture was a self-educated former slave but he was untrained. However, he was a brilliant general and inspiring commander.
• Toussaint’s army faced many enemies like when the mulattoes joined French planters against the rebels.
• Napoleon Bonaparte sent a large army to reconquer the former colony. Toussaint urged his countrymen to take up arms once again to resist the invaders.
• In April 1802 the French agreed to a truce but then they captured Toussaint and carried him to France.
• Toussaint died on a cold mountain prison a year later.
• Haitian leaders fought for power.
• Finally, in 1820, Haiti became a republic

III. Mexico and Central America Revolt
• The slave revolt in Haiti frightened creoles in Spanish America.
• Creoles wanted power, but they did not want to threaten their way of life with economic and social changes.
• Father Hidalgo rang the church bells on September 15, 1810.
• He called the Mexicans to fight for independence.
• Another priest, Father José Morelos, was a mestizo who called for social and political reform.
• He wanted to improve conditions for all Americans.

IV. Revolution Ignites South America
• In the early 1800s, discontent spread across South America.
• Educated creoles admired the French and American revolutions.
• The wars of independence ended by 1824.
• When Napoleon’s armies conquered Portugal, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil.
• Dom Pedro was left to rule crazily after the king returned to Portugal.
• Dom Pedro refused to leave Brazil.
• Instead, he became emperor of an independent Brazil.
• He accepted a constitution that provided for freedom of the press.

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