Premium Essay

Rfid to Prevent Prescription Drug Diversion

In: Business and Management

Submitted By renaton
Words 5857
Pages 24
FREE TRADE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
An evaluation of the American – Peruvian Free Trade Agreement,
5 years after its implementation

Adolfo Neira
Economy (ECON6090)
William Paterson University
10/24/14
Professor Dr. Taghi Ramin

Contents

ABSTRACT 3 INTRODUCTION 4 LITERATURE REVIEW 9 METHODOLOGY 11 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 13 CONCLUSION 17 REFERENCES 20 ANNEX OF FIGURES AND TABLES 22 Figure 1. Peru nominal and real GDP, 1994-2013 and Inflation Rate, 1994-2013 22 Figure 2. Peru Exports (FOB) and Imports (CIF). 1994-2013 22 Figure 3. Peru Trade Openness Index and Contribution of US trade to TOI. 23 Table 1. Trade evolution for Exports, Imports, and Trade Balance, Peru-USA 2009-2013. 23 Figure 4. Trade evolution for Exports, Imports, and Trade Balance, Peru-USA 2009-2013. 24 Figure 5. Peru-USA Trade Exports and Imports per capita. 2009-2013. 24 Figure 6. Peru-USA and Peru-World Net Trade and Balance Trade Comparison. 2009-2013. 25 Figure 7. Peru’s Foreign Direct Investment stock and flow (Equity Capital). 2003-2013. 25

ABSTRACT

Peru has signed a Free Trade Agreement with United States on February 2009, this FTA with the US is a balanced and comprehensive agreement covering all aspects of bilateral economic relationship such as: trade in goods, investment promotion, procurement, border services, and protection of intellectual property. It also includes chapters on labor and environmental protection.
Objectives for the Agreement are of two orders, to increase and guarantee preferential access to Peruvian exports to US economy, diversify exports, and attract Foreign Direct Investment, and on the other hand (and maybe most important in the long term) to strengthen the stability of the Peruvian economic policy reforms and institutions, as well as to contribute to improved international risk classification of Peru, promoting in…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ethics

...justice for the shredding of documents associated with the auditing work that a few of its partners performed for Enron.21 Andersen was forced to relinquish its auditing license. It closed its U.S. offices due to lack of clients, and some 26,000 employees lost their jobs. A coalition of several legal organizations, including the Association of Corporate Counsel, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Manufacturers, the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, and the New York State Association of 9 An Overview of Ethics 10 Criminal Defense Lawyers, argues that organizations should “be able to escape criminal liability if they have acted as responsible corporate citizens, making strong efforts to prevent and detect misconduct in the workplace.”22 One way to do this is to establish effective ethics and compliance programs. Indeed, in 1991, the Department of Justice established sentencing guidelines that suggest more lenient treatment for convicted executives if their companies have ethics programs. Fines for criminal violations can be lowered by up to 80 percent if the organization has implemented an ethics management program and cooperates with authorities.23 Avoiding Unfavorable Publicity The public reputation of a company strongly influences the value of its stock, how consumers regard its products and services, the degree of oversight it receives from government agencies, and the amount of support and cooperation it receives from its...

Words: 204343 - Pages: 818

Premium Essay

Textbook Business and Ethics

...understanding of how human v Law29473_fm_i-xviii.indd Page vi 08/01/13 8:10 PM user-TRVT-065 /Volumes/201/MH01821/Law29473_disk1of1/0078029473/Law29473_pagefiles vi Preface activities affect natural resources is producing a growing understanding that economic growth must be achieved in balance with environmental protection if development is to be sustainable. • Many regions of the world are developing at an extraordinary rate. Yet, the prosperity that accompanies economic growth is not shared equally. Personal income, health care, and educational opportunity are unevenly distributed among and within the world’s nations. The tragic pandemic of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and the threat of a swine or avian flu epidemic have compelled drug makers to rethink their pricing policies and raised troubling questions about the commitment of world trade organizations to patent protection. Many businesses must consider the delicate balance between their intellectual property rights and the urgent demands of public health, particularly in the developing world. • In many nations, legislators have questioned business’s influence on politics. Business has a legitimate role to play in the public policy process, but it has on occasion shaded over into undue influence and even corruption. In the United States, recent court decisions have changed the rules of the game governing how corporations and individuals can contribute to and influence political parties and public......

Words: 318988 - Pages: 1276

Premium Essay

Business and Ethics

...475 Summary 479 Key Terms 480 Discussion Questions 480 End Notes 480 CHAPTER 12 Business Influence on Government and Public Policy 483 Corporate Political Participation 484 Coalition Building 494 Political Action Committees 495 Contents xix Summary 504 Key Terms 505 Discussion Questions 505 End Notes 506 CHAPTER 13 Consumer Stakeholders: Information Issues and Responses 509 The Consumer Movement 510 Product Information Issues 514 The Federal Trade Commission 535 Self-Regulation in Advertising 539 Summary 541 Key Terms 541 Discussion Questions 542 End Notes 542 CHAPTER 14 Consumer Stakeholders: Product and Service Issues 547 Two Central Issues: Quality and Safety 548 Consumer Product Safety Commission 560 Food and Drug Administration 563 Business’s Response to Consumer Stakeholders 566 Total Quality Management Programs 567 Six Sigma 570 Summary 571 Key Terms 572 Discussion Questions 572 End Notes 573 CHAPTER 15 The Natural Environment as Stakeholder 577 The Sustainability Imperative 578 A Brief Introduction to the Natural Environment 579 The Impact of Business upon the Natural Environment 581 Responsibility for Environmental Issues 591 The Role of Governments in Environmental Issues 594 Other Environmental Stakeholders 600 Business Environmentalism 606 The Future of Business: Greening and/or Growing? 613 Summary 614 Key Terms 614 Discussion Questions 615 End Notes 615 xx Contents CHAPTER 16 Business and Community Stakeholders......

Words: 455665 - Pages: 1823

Premium Essay

Dove

...Canon etc. sell their goods directly to large retailers such as Comet, Dixons and Currys which then sell the goods to the final consumers. Channel 3 contains two intermediary levels - a wholesaler and a retailer. A wholesaler typically buys and stores large quantities of several producers goods and then breaks into the bulk deliveries to supply retailers with smaller quantities. For small retailers with limited order quantities, the use of wholesalers makes economic sense. This arrangement tends to work best where the retail channel is fragmented - i.e. not dominated by a small number of large, powerful retailers who have an incentive to cut out the wholesaler. A good example of this channel arrangement in the UK is the distribution of drugs. Chapter 12: Distribution Channels and Logistics Management |What's Ahead | |The Nature of Distribution Channels | |  |Why Are Marketing Intermediaries Used? | |  |Distribution Channel Functions | |  |Number of Channel Levels | |Channel Behavior and Organization | |  |Channel......

Words: 40156 - Pages: 161

Premium Essay

Student

...Skills 83 Affirmative Action Plans 59 DID YOU KNOW?: Suggestions for Recruiting Minorities and Women 60 Adverse Impact 61 Chapter 4 Employee Rights and Discipline 84 What Other Laws Affect Discrimination Practices? 61 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 62 The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 62 Learning Outcomes 84 Introduction 86 JWCL192_fm_i-xxiii.qxd 9/7/09 5:06 PM Page viii Contents viii Employee Rights Legislation and the HRM Implications 86 The Privacy Act of 1974 86 PART 3 STAFFING THE ORGANIZATION The Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1974 87 The Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 87 The Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 88 The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act of 1988 88 Current Issues Regarding Employee Rights 90 Drug Testing 90 DID YOU KNOW?: Why Organizations Conduct Drug Tests 91 Chapter 5 Human Resource Planning and Job Analysis 110 Learning Outcomes 110 Introduction 112 An Organizational Framework 112 Honesty Tests 92 ETHICAL ISSUES IN HRM: Competitive Intelligence 114 Whistle-Blowing 92 Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning 115 Employee Monitoring and Workplace Security 93 DID YOU KNOW?: By the Numbers 93 Workplace Romance 94 The Employment-at-Will Doctrine 95 Exceptions to the Doctrine 96 Contractual Relationship 96 Statutory Considerations 96 Public Policy Violation 96 Implied Employment Contract 96 Breech of Good......

Words: 266802 - Pages: 1068

Premium Essay

Docx

...segmentation process. Marketers engage in market segmentation when they divide the total market into smaller, relatively homogeneous groups or segments that share similar needs, wants, or characteristics. When a marketer selects one or more target markets, he or she identifies one or more segments of individuals, businesses, or institutions toward which the firm’s marketing efforts will be directed. As described in Beyond the Pages 1.3, marketers increasingly use online social networking as a way to target specific markets. Advances in technology have created some interesting changes in the ways that organizations segment and target markets. Marketers can now analyze customerbuying patterns in real time at the point of purchase via barcode or RFID scanning in retail stores, and analyzing clickstream data in online transactions. This allows organizations to target specific segments with product offers or promotional messages.23 Furthermore, technology now gives marketers the ability to target individual customers through direct mail and e-mail campaigns. This saves considerable time and expense by not wasting efforts on potential customers who may not be interested in the organization’s product offering. However, these new opportunities for marketers come at a price: Many potential buyers resent the ability of marketers to reach them individually. Consequently, customers and governmental authorities have raised Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not......

Words: 274334 - Pages: 1098

Premium Essay

Managing Information Technology (7th Edition)

...with transfer rates up to 375 million bytes (megabytes) per second. Gaining popularity in recent years are portable and desktop external hard drives that can be attached to a microcomputer’s USB port. Desktop external hard drives have capacities and costs similar to internal hard drives, as well as similar data transfer rates. These external drives can provide a backup capability as well as a significant addition to internal hard drive capacity. Compared to internal and desktop external hard drives, portable drives typically have a smaller maximum capacity (e.g., 640 gigabytes at a cost of $150) and a slower data transfer rate (i.e., up to 60 megabytes per second). These portable drives, which have a “drop guard” feature to prevent damage from drops, permit the user to back up very large data files and move these large data files from one computer system to another. EMC Corporation, based in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, has become the market leader in storage systems for large computers by devising a way to link together a large number of inexpensive, small hard drives (such as those used in microcomputers) as a substitute for the giant disk drives (containing a stack of disks) that DIRECT ACCESS FILES were previously used. As an example, EMC’s Symmetrix DMX-4 950 model can be configured with from 32 to 360 hard drives, each with a storage capacity from 73 gigabytes up to 1,000 gigabytes (1 terabyte), giving a total storage capacity from 2.3......

Words: 239887 - Pages: 960

Free Essay

Networks

...is not irrelevant, either. Luther’s were not the first disputations nailed to a church door. Print, however, made it practically feasible for more than 300,000 copies of Luther’s publications to be circulated between 1517 and 1520 in a way that earlier disputations could not have been.1 Vernacular reading of the Bible became a feasible form of religious self-direction only when printing these Bibles and making them The Networked Information Economy 31 available to individual households became economically feasible, and not when all copyists were either monks or otherwise dependent on the church. Technology creates feasibility spaces for social practice. Some things become easier and cheaper, others harder and more expensive to do or to prevent under different technological conditions. The interaction between these technological-economic feasibility spaces, and the social responses to these changes—both in terms of institutional changes, like law and regulation, and in terms of changing social practices—define the qualities of a period. The way life is actually lived by people within a given set of interlocking technological, economic, institutional, and social practices is what makes a society attractive or unattractive, what renders its practices laudable or lamentable. A particular confluence of technical and economic changes is now altering the way we produce and exchange information, knowledge, and culture in ways that could redefine basic practices, first in the most......

Words: 214717 - Pages: 859

Premium Essay

Marketing Channel Distribution

...between Coke and Pepsi 112 Vertically Integrating to Deal with Thin Markets 114 Vertically Integrating to Cope with Environmental Uncertainty Vertically Integrating to Reduce Performance Ambiguity 117 Vertically Integrating to Learn from Customers 118 Channel Members Integrating Upstream 119 115 ■ SIDEBAR 4-3 A retailer loses focus by integrating backward 119 Summary: Make-or-Buy Decision Framework 120 N Take-Aways 121 Endnotes 123 Chapter 5 Designing Channel Structures and Strategies 125 Channel Intensity Decisions 127 Downstream Channel Members’ Perspective on Intensive Distribution 127 ■ SIDEBAR 5-1 Royal Canin 130 Upstream Channel Members’ Perspective on Intensive Distribution 131 Channel Competition to Prevent Complacency (Factor 1) 134 Product Category (Factor 2) 135 Brand Strategy: Premium and Niche Positioning (Factor 3) 137 ■ SIDEBAR 5-2 LVMH acquires Donna Karan 138 Channel Influence (Factor 4) 140 Dependence Balancing (Factor 5) 143 Opportunity Cost (Factor 6) 145 Transaction Costs (Factor 7) 146 Other Manufacturers’ Strategies (Factor 8) 147 Channel Type Decisions 149 ■ SIDEBAR 5-3 Tupperware’s retail channels cannibalize the party 150 Dual Distribution Decisions 151 The Demonstration Argument 152 Carrier-Rider Relationships 153 Closing Channel Gaps 154 Closing Service Gaps 154 Closing Cost Gaps 155 Closing Gaps Produced by Environmental or Managerial Bounds 156 Summary: Designing Effective Channel......

Words: 236095 - Pages: 945

Premium Essay

Marketing

...Systems General Electric General Motors General Motors Acceptance Corporation GlaxoSmithKline Hewlett Packard Home Box Office International Business Machines International Paper Johnson & Johnson Lucent Technologies Procter & Gamble Scandinavian Airlines System Texas Instruments Volkswagen AmEx AOL B&N B&L B&D BCG BMS BA Cisco DLJ EDS GE GM GMAC GSK HP HBO IBM IP J&J Lucent P&G SAS TI VW General Business Terms Fast moving consumer goods Chief Executive Officer Chief Financial Officer Chief Marketing Officer Customer Relationship Management Personal computer FMCG CEO CFO CMO CRM PC U.S. Government Departments Consumer Product Safety Commission Department of Justice Environmental Protection Agency Federal Communications Commission Federal Drug Administration Federal Trade Commission National Transportation Safety Board Securities and Exchange Commission CPSC DOJ EPA FCC FDA FTC NTSB SEC Department of Justice – Antitrust Division DOJ-ATD International Organisations European Union International Monetary Fund United Nations United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation United States World Trade Organisation EU IMF UN UNESCO U.S. WTO This file is registered to : fintan.reddy@gmail.com (fintan.reddy@gmail.com) SECTION I MARKETING AND THE FIRM This file is registered to : fintan.reddy@gmail.com (fintan.reddy@gmail.com) This file is registered to : fintan.reddy@gmail.com (fintan.reddy@gmail.com) CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO MANAGING......

Words: 365818 - Pages: 1464

Free Essay

Economic Sectors

...Rural Areas PWD Public Works Department PWSS Piped Water Supply System PYD Programme for Youth Development PYKKA Panchayati Yuva Khel aur Krida Abhiyan R&D Research and Development R&M AND LE Renovation & Modernisation and Life Extension R&R Rehabilitation and Resettlement R/P ratios Reserves-to-Production ratio R–ABDRP Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme RAY Rajiv Awas Yojana RBCs Rural Building Centres RCUES Regional Centres of Urban and Environment Studies RDF Rural Development Flexi-fund RDSO Research Design and Standards Organisation RE bonds Renewable Energy bonds RE Revised Expenditure READY Rural Entrepreneurship & Awareness Development Yojana REC Renewable Energy Certificate RFD Result Framework Document RFID Radio Frequency Identification RGGVY Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana RGNIYD RHF RIA RIDF RIL RIL-KG RIS RITES RKVY RMSA ROB/RUB RoW RPLI RPO RPOLIF RRTS RTE RUDSETIs S&DD S&L SAD SAGES SAMETIs SARDP-NE SAT SAU/SAUs SBD SCCL SCs SCSP SDO SDTV SEB SEBI SECC Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development Rural Housing Fund Regulatory Impact Analysis Rural Infrastructure Development Fund Reliance Industries Limited Reliance Industries Limited-Krishna Godavari Basin River Information System Rail India Techno Economic Services Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan Road Over Bridge/ Road Under Bridge Right of Way Rural Postal Life Insurance Renewable Purchase Obligation Rural Post Office......

Words: 131771 - Pages: 528

Premium Essay

Strategic Management

...project and introducing decision points at multiple stages, where the main options are to delay, modify, scale up, or abandon the project. Merck, an early adopter of option pricing, notes, “When you make an initial investment in a research project, you are paying an entry fee for a right, but you are not obligated to continue that research at a later stage.” 35 Chapter 2 In developing strategy, our main concern is with growth options. These might include: • Platform investments. These are investments in core products or technologies that create a stream of additional business opportunities. 36 3M’s investment in nanotechnology offers the opportunity to create new products across a wide range of its businesses, from dental restoratives and drug-delivery systems to adhesives and protective coatings. Google’s search engine and the huge internet traffic it draws has offered a platform for a large number of initiatives − not just search products but also a wide array of other software products and internet services (e.g., Gmail, Chrome, Android, Google+). 37 • Strategic alliances and joint ventures, which are limited investments that offer options for the creation of whole new strategies. 38 Virgin Group has used joint ventures as the basis for creating a number of new businesses: with Stagecoach to create Virgin Rail, with AMP to create Virgin Money (financial services), with Deutsche Telecom to form Virgin Mobile. Shell has used joint ventures and alliances as a means of......

Words: 357444 - Pages: 1430

Premium Essay

Globel Stratergy

...change an established theory. The reason that certain theories are widely accepted is because of their past success. However, past success does not guarantee future success. Although scientists are supposed to be objective, they are also human. Many scientists may be unwilling to concede the failure of their favorite theories even in the face of repeatedly failed tests. Think about how much resistance from the scientific establishment that Galileo, Copernicus, and Einstein had to face initially. The same holds true for strategists. Bosses were promoted to current positions because of their past success in developing and implementing “old” theories. National heritage, organizational politics, and personal career considerations may prevent many bosses from admitting the evident failure of an existing strategy. Yet, the history of scientific progress suggests that although difficult, it is possible to change established theories. If enough failures in testing are reported and enough researchers raise doubts about certain theories, their views, which may be marginalized initially, gradually drive out failed theories and introduce better ones. The painful process of strategic change in many firms such as Microsoft is similar (see the Closing Case). Usually a group of managers, backed by performance data, challenge the current strategy. They propose a new theory on how to compete more effectively, which initially is often marginalized by top management. But......

Words: 305832 - Pages: 1224

Free Essay

Behavior

...teamwork/collaboration. Another important reason to select on conscientiousness and emotional stability is they are centrally (and negatively) related to intentional harmful behaviors at work, i.e. counter­ productive work behaviors. Evidence was presented at the beginning of the chapter that employers are very interested in hiring employees who are honest, demonstrate integrity, and follow workplace rules. Research demonstrates that personality-based integrity tests are valid predictors of such counterproductive behaviors (Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt, 1993) as “badmouthing” the organization, being belligerent with customers or fellow co-workers, sabotaging equipment or products, stealing goods or money, and even engaging in excessive alcohol or drug abuse, as well as being able also to predict supervisory ratings of overall job performance. As noted above, integrity tests are related primarily to conscientiousness and emotional stability (along with agreeableness). Results of a study by Berry et al. (2007) clari­ fied how emotional stability and conscientiousness predict counterproductive behavior: emo­ tional stability predicts both interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance, whereas conscientiousness predicts organizational deviance. Consequently, the more conscientious and emotionally stable a firm’s employees are, the less likely they are to engage in counterproduc­ tive behaviors at work. Low turnover and absenteeism In addition to positive......

Words: 315993 - Pages: 1264

Free Essay

Organizational Behavior

...teamwork/collaboration. Another important reason to select on conscientiousness and emotional stability is they are centrally (and negatively) related to intentional harmful behaviors at work, i.e. counter­ productive work behaviors. Evidence was presented at the beginning of the chapter that employers are very interested in hiring employees who are honest, demonstrate integrity, and follow workplace rules. Research demonstrates that personality-based integrity tests are valid predictors of such counterproductive behaviors (Ones, Viswesvaran, and Schmidt, 1993) as “badmouthing” the organization, being belligerent with customers or fellow co-workers, sabotaging equipment or products, stealing goods or money, and even engaging in excessive alcohol or drug abuse, as well as being able also to predict supervisory ratings of overall job performance. As noted above, integrity tests are related primarily to conscientiousness and emotional stability (along with agreeableness). Results of a study by Berry et al. (2007) clari­ fied how emotional stability and conscientiousness predict counterproductive behavior: emo­ tional stability predicts both interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance, whereas conscientiousness predicts organizational deviance. Consequently, the more conscientious and emotionally stable a firm’s employees are, the less likely they are to engage in counterproduc­ tive behaviors at work. Low turnover and absenteeism In addition to positive “citizenship”......

Words: 315905 - Pages: 1264