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International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research Vol.1 Issue 8, August 2012, ISSN 2277 3630

SCENARIO OF PRESENT EDUCATION SYSTEM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HARYANA AND ITS NEIGHBOURING STATES
KAMLESH GAKHAR*; HARJEET KOUR**
*Associate Professor, Institute of Management Studies and Research, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India. **Junior Research Fellow, Institute of Management Studies and Research, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

ABSTRACT Education has been made too easy for the students so that more and more students can enter into the scope of education system of the country. The announcements like abolishing compulsory CBSE board exams for class 10th from the session 2010-11, introduction of grading system, the passage of Right of Children to free and Compulsory Education Bill, reservation policies etc. are a few among them. Now the question arises as to what extent such efforts in the field of education have succeeded in different states of the country. Haryana is the state with a contribution of 3.7% in the total GDP of India. This present study will throw light on the education system of Haryana, with a comparative eye on its neighbouring states. An analysis of the educational achievements of these states from different angles will help the experts and the researchers to know how far we have gone in achieving our targets and what needs to be done. Along with this, a comparison of the literacy rates and literates of these states has also been made. This paper is descriptive in nature, based on the data collected from different websites of ministry as well as reports of planning commission. KEYWORDS: Drop-out rate, Education, Gross Enrolment Ratio, Haryana, Literacy Rate. ______________________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION The present day education system in India has come a long way and the age old traditions have undergone a new makeover. Government of India is doing lots of efforts in this field so that the objective of inclusive growth can be achieved very soon by it. A great achievement of the Indian government is a big jump in the literacy rate from 18.3% in 1950-51 to 74.04% in 2010-11. Such an achievement is the result of a lot of efforts by the Indian government in the education sector. The government is improving the country’s education status to enhance the standard of living of the people and also to achieve other goals like, overcoming the problem of poverty and unemployment, social equality, equal income distribution, etc. Education contributes to the individual’s well being as well as the overall development of the country. Education is not only an instrument of enhancing efficiency but is also an effective tool of widening and augmenting www.indianresearchjournals.com 95

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International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research Vol.1 Issue 8, August 2012, ISSN 2277 3630

democratic participation and upgrading the overall quality of individual and societal life (Goel, 2008). Thus, the importance of education can’t be ignored. There has not been any fundamental change in the structure of secondary and higher education in India. If there has been any such change, then only few of the states have been affected. The period since the nineties, especially since last decade, has witnessed growth in response to the demand generated by the expansion of elementary education. Primary as well as higher education sector have also witnessed great attention of the Indian Government. The present paper has made a comparison of elementary education system of Haryana with that of its neighbouring states, like, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi. Major indicators showing the achievements and failures in the education sector have been taken and data has been analysed on the basis of such factors. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the present article are: 1. 2. 3. To compare the education system of Haryana with its neighbouring states on the basis of different indicators To see the impact of achievements in education sector on literacy rates and the number of literates of these states To suggest policy recommendations to improve the education scenario of the Haryana as well as other states under the study.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The present study is descriptive cum exploratory. It is primarily based on secondary data collected from various sources like national reports and economic surveys, websites etc. of state and national level departments of education. The analysis has been done on the basis of different indicators, like Gross Enrolment Ratio, Drop-out rate, Number of schools and colleges, Number of Universities, Number of persons who can read English, etc. Descriptive statistical tools like bar graphs, linear charts, etc. have been used for interpretation of the data. SCENARIO OF EDUCATION SECTOR IN HARYANA AND ITS NEIGHBOURING STATES Haryana has seen a tremendous change in last few decades. Government has done a lot so that more and more children can have access to the education. When compared with its neighbouring states and India as a whole, Haryana has shown a mixed picture. In some areas, it has outperformed India and other states while ii has also lagged behind them in certain areas which will be clearer from the following comparative tables, based on different indicators of education system.

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International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research Vol.1 Issue 8, August 2012, ISSN 2277 3630

GROSS ENROLMENT RATIO The Gross Enrollment Ratio is a statistical measure used in the education sector to determine the number of students enrolled in school at several different grade levels (like elementary, middle school and high school). An elementary formula used by most countries to calculate the Gross Enrollment Ratio is that, the country divides the number of individuals who are actually enrolled in schools by the number of children who are of the corresponding school enrollment age. The following table shows the GER of different states in 2009-10 in different classes: TABLE NO. 1 States/UTs Classes years) Boys Haryana Himachal Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Delhi India 88.56 I-V Girls 92.00 (6-11 Classes VI-VIII (11-14 Classes I-VIII (6-14 yrs) yrs) Total 90.10 Boys 77.34 Girls 80.64 Total 78.86 Boys 84.31 Girls 87.58 Total 85.79

107.71 107.67 107.69 114.62 108.56 107.50 108.09 93.59 119.10 115.05 117.19 95.05 106.59 114.70 110.42 74.29 119.86 122.54 121.10 110.82 115.55 115.39 115.47 84.53

112.08 113.41 89.73 72.75 65.88 91.84 84.38 70.25

110.37 109.38 109.90 102.84 100.60 101.83 109.97 98.71 94.65 96.27 104.63 95.42

106.95 109.01 78.30 81.52

116.31 116.35 116.33 103.75 101.09 102.47 www.indianresearchjournals.com (Source: Abstract of Selected Educational Statistics 2009-10 & Economic Survey 2010-11) In the age group of 6-11 years and in 6-14 years, Delhi is at the top. In the age group of 11-14 years, HP is showing highest GER. Delhi and Rajasthan are far better in the Gross enrolment ratio in each class group. Among all the states under the study, Haryana is at the bottom in all the three age groups. This implies that all the children of this age group are not getting enrolled in the schools. This may be due to the following reasons: 1. Either the parents are not still aware of the education programs in the state, or 2. They are not interested in sending their wards to the schools.

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But so far as GER of girls is concerned, it is more than that of boys in all the categories, especially in case of Haryana unlike Punjab Rajasthan and HP. The GER, higher than 100, may imply that more and more students are coming from outside the state for getting education there. For the purpose of inclusive education, this problem must be addressed by the concerned authorities. Some crucial steps need to be taken by the government because this situation may lead to a fall in literacy rate in the coming years. DROP-OUT RATES Drop-out rate is the proportion of children which cease to remain enrolled in the schooling system. There are a number of methods for estimating dropout rate. One of them, followed in the Selected Education Statistics (SES) of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, is as follows: Gross dropout rates for classes (I-V) = {1-(Enrolment in Class V during the reference year divided by the enrolment in Class I four years ago)} Χ 100. Gross dropout rates for classes (I-VIII) = {1-(Enrolment in Class VIII during the reference year divided by the enrolment in Class I seven years ago)} X 100. The following table shows the different drop-out rates of students in the states under study in the year 2009-10. TABLE NO. 2 States Classes I-V (6-11 years) Boys Haryana -1.13 Girls -2.24 1.17 -10.67 52.11 41.70 Total -1.64 0.74 -18.07 50.51 42.06 Classes VI-VIII (11-14 yrs) Classes I-VIII (6-14 yrs) Boys 19.59 1.42 -24.04 41.19 50.66 Girls 8.10 3.41 -13.43 59.68 55.23 Total 14.37 2.38 -19.12 50.32 52.78 Boys 20.17 22.28 41.23 70.52 29.19 Girls 19.46 18.93 39.45 73.42 15.09 Total 19.84 20.65 40.42 71.64 23.83 www.indianresearchjournals.com Himachal 0.35 Pradesh Punjab -24.59

Rajasthan 49.11 Uttar Pradesh Delhi India 42.38

9.82 30.25

17.07 27.25

13.30 28.86

-32.61 40.59

-21.13 44.39

-27.10 42.39

-5.22 53.38

9.15 51.97

1.97 52.76

(Source: Abstract of Selected Educational Statistics 2009-10)

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Here, Himachal Pradesh is on number one as the drop-out rate in class VI-VIII (age group of 11-14 years) is the lowest in this state. In the age group of 11-14 years, the drop-out rate is lowest in HP followed by Haryana. In Haryana and Punjab, drop-out rate even comes out negative which is largely because of the inconsistent enrolment data or some errors in the data. Rajasthan and Up are again bad performers in this category. Drop-out rate of girls in this category is less than that of boys of the same group in Haryana, while it is reverse in case of HP, Rajasthan and UP. As compared to India as a whole, Haryana has shown better performance in all the categories. Moreover, in class I-VIII, its drop-out rate is lower than Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. This shows that once students get admission into the schools, the tendency to leave schools is low in comparison to other states as well as India as a whole. In the age group of 6-11 years, HP is found to be the best performer as its drop-out rate is the lowest. Drop-out rate is very high in case of Rajasthan and UP, in this category. TOTAL NUMBER OF RECOGNISED EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES 1. SCHOOL EDUCATION INSTITUTES TABLE NO. 3 States Board of Intermediate/ Secondary Education 1 1 1 3 1 3 48 Pre-Degree/ Junior Colleges/ Higher Sec. Schools 3,278 1,674 2,380 6,675 8,547 1,350 66,917 High/ Post Basic Schools 3,493 1,413 2,741 12,460 7,889 474 123,726 Middle/ Primary/ PreSr. Basic Jr. Basic Primary/ Schools Schools Pre Basic Schools 3,439 4,921 9,110 38,889 51,948 583 367,745 13,073 11,301 16,954 49,538 132,403 2,586 823,162 17 14 0 8 www.indianresearchjournals.com Haryana Himachal Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Delhi India

0 50 67,822

Sources: Statistics of School Education- 2009-10; Statistics of Higher and Technical Education2009-10 (Abstract Provisional); Economic Survey 2010-11.

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It is clear from the above statistics that, Haryana is either second or third among the neighbouring states in the school education institutes. A good number of pre-primary schools is there in the state making it second to Delhi. This may be because of the increased number of working mothers in Delhi as well as Haryana. So far as the category of primary schools is concerned, Haryana is far behind all the states except Delhi and HP. The number of schools in the state should be increased so that more and more students can get enrolled in them. In the category of higher secondary schools, UP has the largest number of institutes followed by Rajasthan and Haryana. In case of high schools, Rajasthan is at number one, while UP and Haryana are at 2nd and 3rd position. In the category of middle schools, Haryana is behind all the states except Delhi. UP has highest number of middle schools. In case of primary schools, again UP is at the top and Haryana is on the 4th position. 2. NUMBER OF COLLEGES & POLYTECHNICS Uttar Pradesh is having maximum number of colleges when compared with other states under the study. Haryana is having the highest teacher training colleges, i.e. 447 Colleges. But this figure doesn’t signify that education is being provided at a good scale in the state as there is very less scope of B.Ed. as compared to other courses. Medical colleges are also much enough which shows that the students are more keen to enter into this field. Number of other colleges should also be increased. This has been made clear with the help of table no.4: TABLE NO. 4 States Arts, Fine Arts, Engineering/ Social Work, Technology/ Science & Architecture Commerce 238 377 234 1,135 2,361 89 14,321 154 14 82 96 212 15 2,894 Medical Education/ Others Teacher Training 447 82 48 111 128 2 3,357 113 86 177 214 299 41 3,292 Total Colleges

Haryana Himachal Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Delhi India

50 23 37 54 104 8 2,074

1,002 582 578 1,610 3,104 155 25,938

Sources: Statistics of School Education- 2009-10; Statistics of Higher and Technical Education2009-10 (Abstract Provisional); Economic Survey 2010-11.

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International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research Vol.1 Issue 8, August 2012, ISSN 2277 3630

3. DEGREE AND ABOVE LEVEL COLLEGES Again, Uttar Pradesh is on number one in case of colleges for general education, deemed universities and polytechnics. But, Rajasthan is having the highest number of other colleges including research institutions. Haryana is having maximum colleges for professional education like BBA, MBA, and engineering institutes etc. But this number doesn’t create a good number of opportunities as these colleges lack the required quality. TABLE NO. 5 States College for College for Other General Professionals (Including Education Education Research Institutions) 179 64 231 993 2,050 89 13,381 520 11 229 261 335 40 6,936 50 6 12 214 147 41 2,782 University/ Deemed PolyUniv. / Inst. Of technic National Importance 10 5 12 22 36 18 406 32 26 89 71 163 79 1,956

Haryana Himachal Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Delhi India

Sources: Statistics of School Education- 2009-10; Statistics of Higher and Technical Education2009-10 (Abstract Provisional); Economic Survey 2010-11. It has been seen that a large number of MBA graduates are getting frustrated due to non availability of jobs in the corporate world. Their skills are not as per the requirements of the corporate world. So, there is a need to improve the quality of education rather than just increasing the number. PERFORMANCE OF STATES OF INDIA (RURAL) The performance of the education sector of any state or country can’t be judged until the rural sector is studied on some parameters. The rural students are still not under the cover of full education due to lack of awareness, lack of parental education, poverty, lack of infrastructural facilities, etc. Thus, in this paper the rural parts of these states have also been studied from three www.indianresearchjournals.com 101

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points of views: Children who can read English; Children who can read letters etc.; and Children who can recognise letters etc. or do airthematics. 1. PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN WHO CAN READ ENGLISH Table no. 6 shows that the children in the rural areas of Himachal Pradesh are more capable of reading English. Even they can read English sentences also. Maximum number of children of Haryana (rural) is also on the positive side of this parameter. On all these parameters, Haryana is performing better than the nation as a whole. TABLE NO. 6 States Capital Letters Capital Letters Words or Words or More or More More More STD. I Haryana Himachal Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh All India 65.8 72.5 67.7 34.6 34.8 43.8 STD. II 86.2 92.4 83.4 62.1 58.0 66.2 STD. III 47.3 63.5 39.9 20.9 16.2 28.6 STD. IV 60.5 84.5 58.0 36.1 27.1 44.1 or Sentences STD. V 43.8 63.3 34.5 17.8 14.0 25.7

Source: ASER Reports for 2009: http://asercentre.org www.indianresearchjournals.com 2. PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN WHO CAN READ LANGUAGES TABLE NO. 7 States Letters more STD. I Haryana Himachal Pradesh 76.8 85.0 or Words more STD. II 64.5 75.4 or Std. I level Text Std. I Level Std .II Level or More Text or More Text or More STD. III 55.3 65.7 STD. IV 71.3 86.0 STD. V 65.8 73.2

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Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh All India

85.6 57.1 56.5 68.8

61.0 40.1 41.3 55.2

51.0 34.4 31.4 46.6

75.5 57.2 51.0 67.4

64.3 45.0 37.7 52.8

Source: ASER Reports for 2009: http://asercentre.org There is not much difference in the reading capabilities of rural children of all the states at Std. I level, Std. II level and more. This figure has improved in last few years (ASER Reports 2008). This is a positive sign and the government should try to improve it more and more for a bright future of rural India. Haryana’s position is better as compared to India as a whole but behind HP. 3. PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN WHO CAN DO AIRTHMATIC TABLE NO. 8 States Recognise Nos. Recognise Nos. Add or Subtract or Do 1-9 or do more 11-99 or do more do more do more Division STD. I Haryana Himachal Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh All India 77.4 86.4 82.7 57.2 54.8 69.3 STD. II 66.7 82.5 59.5 39.4 36.0 54.6 STD. III 53.0 66.1 50.9 27.1 20.5 39.0 STD. IV 68.1 84.4 73.3 48.2 36.9 58.8 STD. V 54.9 64.1 48.9 31.5 21.1 38.0 www.indianresearchjournals.com Source: ASER Reports for 2009: http://asercentre.org Haryana is among the three states which are having a higher percentage of children than India in terms of performance of arithmetic. But, a lot needs to be done to make more and more rural children capable of doing airthmatic calculations. Here also Haryana has lagged behind HP.

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LITERACY STATUS OF THE STATES 1. TOTAL NUMBER OF LITERATES (PERSONS) TABLE NO. 9 India/State Haryana Delhi Himachal Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh India Total 16,904,324 12,763,352 5,104,506 18,988,611 38,970,500 118,423,805 778,454,120 Rural 10,393,591 300,539 4,533,373 11,195,395 26,945,543 88,396,557 493,020,878 Urban 6,510,733 12,462,813 571,133 7,793,216 12,024,957 30,027,248 285,433,242

Source: Rural Urban Distribution of Population ‐ India, Census of India 2011 In case of total number of literates, Haryana is far behind UP, Rajasthan and Punjab with 2.17% contribution in total number of literates in India. Such a contribution is approximately equal to its contribution in total Indian population, i.e. 2.09%. This shows that Haryana is in the line with India in number of literates, but this figure is still very low as compared to other states. If Haryana wants to make its place better in terms of literacy, then total number of literates needs to be increased in the coming years. Although total number of literates in rural Haryana is higher than the urban areas, yet the position is quite disappointing in case of rural literates as most of the population of the state still resides in the rural areas. www.indianresearchjournals.com 2. LITERACY RATE LITERACY RATES OF STATES AND INDIA The literacy rate of Haryana in 2011 has come to 76.64 which is more that the Indian literacy rate. It is higher in comparison to Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh too. The literacy rate of UP is lower in comparison to Haryana which clarifies that the total number of literates in this state are more only because of more population.

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FIGURE NO. 1 Source: Rural Urban Distribution of Population ‐ India, Census of India 2011 Highest rate is of Delhi followed by HP and Punjab. In case of the rural literacy rates HP is at the top followed by Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, and UP. Rajasthan is at the bottom of this category. In urban literacy rate also, HP is at the top while UP is at the bottom. Haryana is at the third place among the states under the study. These mixed figures show that Haryana people need to get more education related opportunities. MALE LITERACY RATES OF STATES AND INDIA The male urban literacy rate of Haryana is lower than that of India as a whole. In case of overall male literacy rate, Haryana is far better than Punjab, Rajasthan, UP as well as India as a whole. Again urban literacy rate is impressive as compared to the rural rate which cross checks the above given figures of total number of rural literates in the state. Delhi and HP have higher male literacy rate in general as well as in rural and urban areas as compared to Haryana.

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International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research Vol.1 Issue 8, August 2012, ISSN 2277 3630

FIGURE NO. 2 Source: Rural Urban Distribution of Population ‐ India, Census of India 2011 FEMALE LITERACY RATES OF STATES AND INDIA

FIGURE NO. 3 Source: Rural Urban Distribution of Population ‐ India, Census of India 2011

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International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research Vol.1 Issue 8, August 2012, ISSN 2277 3630

Female literacy rate of Haryana is very low in 2011, making it at number forth in the race of the neighbouring states. But it is again higher than the India as a whole which gives a feeling of satisfaction. Just like male urban literacy rate, female urban literacy rate of Haryana is less than the national average. Female literacy rate is lowest in Rajasthan and its inter-state difference in rural female literacy rate is more significant as compared to the urban female literacy rate. The reasons may be the belief of Rajasthan people that female education is not important and their only duty if to handle their houses. Such misconceptions should be reduced among Indian people so that overall figures can be improved. Delhi is having the highest female literacy rate but in the category of rural and urban female literacy rates, HP has shown better performance. This will be clearer from the figure no. 3: CONCLUSIONS Gross enrolment ratio of Haryana in the age group of 6 to 11 years is 90.10, which is less than this ratio of India as a whole and all the neighbouring states under the study. Gross enrolment ratio of girls is more than that of boys in all age groups in Haryana. In the age group of 6-14 years, except UP and Delhi, GER of girls is less than that of boys. In spite of various schemes of the government of Haryana to provide universal elementary education, the goal has not been achieved. More efforts are needed to make people aware about government schemes for free education and importance of education in everyone’s life. In the age group of 11-14 years, drop-out rate of HP is the lowest and much lesser than that of Haryana. So far as the drop-out rate is concerned in the age group of 6 to 14 years, Haryana’s experience is quite satisfactory because except Delhi, where the drop-out rate is the lowest, all other states and India as a whole have higher drop-out rates than Haryana. But still there is a need to bring down the drop-out rate to zero level if we want to have universal elementary education. In all age groups, drop-out rate of girls is lower than that of boys in case of Haryana. This reveals that the girls are more interested in studies than boys. In the context of number of recognised schools and institutes, Haryana is better than HP, Punjab and Delhi. In spite of large number of institutes, literacy rate is not very high. There is a dire need to upgrade qualitative education rather than emphasising only quantitative aspect of education. It is clear from the above tables and figures that Haryana has made commendable progress in the establishment of colleges and institutes delivering graduate and post-graduate courses. HP and Punjab are far behind Haryana. Regarding the level of education in rural areas, Haryana is above the national average as well as Rajasthan and UP. HP is ahead of Haryana in this case. In the case of percentage of children who can read English as well as other languages and do arithmetic, HP is far ahead of Haryana. This reveals that there is something lacking in educational institutes of Haryana which is necessary for making the learning effective. There is a need for sincere and dedicated teachers to make learning effective. The literacy rate of Haryana was less than the national average at the time of its origin (population census- 1961) but now it has become greater than the national average. This is a matter of satisfaction for the state. It is more than the literacy rates in Punjab, Rajasthan and UP.

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Literacy rate of Delhi and HP is higher than that of India. Delhi, HP and Punjab are ahead of Haryana in the female literacy rate also. Female education is rather more important than the education of the men as one female can make the whole family literate. Thus, steps should be taken in this direction to improve the status of literacy rate among women, especially in the rural areas of the state. SCOPE OF FURTHER RESEARCH There is a need for further research to know the actual reasons for drop-outs, lower female literacy rates, less rural education level and low gross enrolment ratio in the Haryana as well as India so that remedial measures can be taken according to the requirements and level of education can be upgraded. REFERENCES ARTICLES Goel, P. Vijay (2008), “Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) System in India for Sustainable Development” available at REPORTS Ernst & Young “40 million by 2020: Preparing for a new paradigm in Indian Higher Education”, EDGE 2011 report Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of School Education & Literacy, (2007) “Chapter on Elementary Education (SSA & Girls Education) for the XIth Plan Working Group Report” Planning Commission of India (2012) “Data for use of Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission” available at http://planningcommission.nic.in/data/datatable/1705/databook_dch_160511.pdf www.indianresearchjournals.com Planning Commission of India, (2011) “Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012), Social Sector”, Volume II, 2011 WEBSITES http://www.unevoc.unesco.org/up/India_Country_Paper.pdf http://www.indiaedu.com/haryana/ http://censusindia.gov.in/ http://www.asercentre.org/

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http://unidow.com/india%20home%20eng/statewise_gdp.html http://www.pratham.org/ http://indiabudget.nic.in

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ANNEXURE LITERACY RATES India/State Persons Total Haryana Delhi Himachal Pradesh Punjab Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh India 76.64 86.34 83.78 76.68 67.06 69.72 74.04 Rural 72.74 82.67 82.91 72.45 62.34 67.55 68.91 Urban 83.83 86.43 91.39 83.70 80.73 77.01 84.98 Males Total 85.38 91.03 90.83 81.48 80.51 79.24 82.14 Rural 83.20 90.04 90.48 77.92 77.49 78.48 78.57 Urban 89.37 91.05 93.72 87.28 89.16 81.75 89.67 Females Total 66.77 80.93 76.60 71.34 52.66 59.26 65.46 Rural 60.97 74.03 75.33 66.47 46.25 55.61 58.75 Urban 77.51 81.10 88.66 79.62 71.53 71.68 79.92

Source: Rural Urban Distribution of Population ‐ India, Census of India 2011

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...Korea already lead the way in having multi-purpose mobile phones. So, we all say Thanks to science and technology for the convenience it has brought to our lives which is still continuing. Thanks again. ……… Education is the fundamental human right; every child is entitled to it. It is critical to our development as individuals and as societies, and it helps pave the way to the successful and productive future. When we ensure that children have access to a rights-based quality education that is rooted in it, gender, equality, we create a ripple effect of opportunity that impacts generations to come. Too many of world’s children are rot of school or receive spotty-par education. Each one of these children has dreams that may never be fulfilled, potential that may never be realized. By ensuring that every child has access to quality fearing, we lay the foundation for growth, transformation, innovation, opportunity and equality. Whether in times of crises or periods of peace, in cities or remote villages, we are committed to realizing a fundamental, non-negotiable goal that is quality education for all. Education enhances lives. It ends generational cycles of poverty and disease and provides a foundation for sustainable development. A quality based education better equips girls and boys with the knowledge and skills necessary to adopt healthy lifestyles, protect themselves from diseases- that is , they say “ prevention is better than cure” so they will be able to......

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Human Right: Education

...Human Right: Education Every man, woman, or child should be granted the rights to an education. For one, education is an essential human right that should be enforced globally because it is a key to understanding all other human rights. When one talks about education, the significance of education is considered. An education plays an important part in the society; it is evolving rapidly and better still creating a world where people can understand each other without conflicts. The purpose of education is to provide students with the opportunity to critically think about the world in such a way that it shape how they live.  Education explores new ideas and teaches students how to think critically about the world. As students are introduced to new concepts their worldview changes and expands. Students look at the starry night differently after learning about constellations and the galaxies. The meaning and possibilities of what is before their eyes have expanded. The media is bursting with propaganda and prejudices. Education at its best, teaches students not to merely memorize and accept information, but to examine and see many sides of an issue. It is important to be able to question your own and other peoples positions in the process of making a decision. This enables people to see through discriminations and biases in media and in the world around them. We are all entitled to an education and because a family does not have enough money for school or because there are...

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Human Rights and Value Education

... Human rights education is all learning that develops the knowledge, skills, and values of human rights. The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has defined Human Rights Education as "training, dissemination, and information efforts aimed at the building of a universal culture of human rights through the imparting of knowledge and skills and the moulding of attitudes which are directed to: (a) The strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; (b) The full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity; (c) The promotion of understanding, respect, gender equality, and friendship among all nations, indigenous peoples and racial, national, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups; (d) The enabling of all persons to participate effectively in a free society; (e) The furtherance of the activities of the United Nations for the Maintenance of Peace." (Adapted from the Plan of Action of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), paragraph 2) During this Decade, the UN is urging and supporting all member states to make knowledge about human rights available to everyone through both the formal school system and through popular and adult education. Human rights education teaches both about human rights and for human rights. Its goal is to help people understand human rights, value human rights, and take responsibility for respecting, defending, and promoting human rights. An important......

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Rights to Education Act

...Rights to Edcuation The importance of learning is to enable the individual to put his potentials to optimal use. Education makes man a right thinker and a correct decision-maker. It achieves this by bringing him knowledge from the external world, teaching him to reason and acquainting him with past history, so that he can be a better judge of the present. With education, he finds himself in a room with all its windows open to the outside world. A well educated man is a more dependable worker, a better citizen, a centre of wholesome influence, pride to his community and honour to his country. A nation is great only in proportion of its advancement in education. Over the years, the demand for children’s education has grown by leaps and bounds. Everybody from the poorest of the poor to the well off acknowledges the value of education in the overall development of children. Basically, the object of education is threefold i.e. physical, mental and spiritual. A perfect system of education must do full justice to all those three above. If we take a look at the Education Structure existing in India, we would find that, it is divided broadly in five stages: Pre-primary, Primary, Upper Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary. Schooling in India follows the “10+2 pattern”. Moreover, if we take into consideration the Indian Education Scenario, we would find that, in the post-independence period, the pace of educational development has been unprecedented by any standards. The Govt.......

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Assess the New Right Theory for Education

...Assess the New Right theory of Education New Right believe that the role of education is to encourage and inspire young people towards drive, initiative and enterprise. The New Right believe this will arise through competition between schools and colleges as this would motivate teachers to improve their standards. It would also allow parents and students to have a choice in which schools they would like to send their children. This would be through analysing league tables and discussing OFSTED reports from different schools. New right assert that important institutions in society are becoming dysfunctional because of left wing social policy and are need of protection and reform. For example, the welfare state stops the stratification system from fulfilling the function of incentivising people to work, as diversity and divorce are destroying the nuclear family. New right also believe that education can only perform its role effectively if it’s organised on market principles rather than the state. As marketization will increase competition, ensure choice and raise standards. New right support maintains the traditional standards of learning and teaching reading writing and arithmetic. In this essay the following topics will be discussed, 1988 Education Act, Traditional Education and Stronger links between the workplace and education. Before the 1988 Education Act, if students didn’t do well then it wouldn’t of mattered as there was many different stereotypes based upon a......

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...Yes children should have a moral right to an education free of commercial indoctrination. Unfortunately, everything is based on making money. Businesses will do anything to make money. One of their targets is children. They target young children because they are more vulnerable. Just recently I purchased $70 worth of candies from my nieces and nephews. There teachers give them to sell for a company, not sure what the teachers will achieve from this. The candies did not even worth $20, but just to support my nieces and nephew I purchase them. At first we told them they were too expensive, but we still purchased them. These children think they are a failure or worthless if they cannot get the candies to sell. These company know that the children do not want to let down there teachers. Parents, family and friends of these children do not want them to looks like a failure. So we support the children’s. Companies have all different types of market strategy and they will do anything to market their product, whether it is ethical are not. B) What are some of the ethical issues relevant to this case? Why? Some of the ethical issue is trust, credibility and bias. An example is the marketing of the drugs spice. Spice is selling in a packet, that would entice any teenager are young adult to purchase. The packets have children friendly pictures eg, cartoon characters, humor, teddy bears, hearts and butterflies. This packet will attract the attention to young teenagers. This is a...

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Examine the New Right View of the Role of Education

...Examine the New Right view of the role of education. (20 marks) The New Right perspective have a more political view on education which could be named as old fashioned compared to functionalists. They believed that education is for socialising and preparing young children for the world of work however they say that the state cannot meet peoples needs. The New Right are similar in many ways to functionalists as they believe that some people are naturally more talented than others. They believe that education should socialise pupils into shared values, such as competition so the most talented people can get the best jobs and instil a sense of national identity. They broadly favour an education system run on meritocratic principles of open competition, and one that serves the needs of the economy by preparing young people for work. However, unlike functionalists, the New Right do not believe that the current education system is achieving these goals as according to New Right, the reason for their failure is that its run by state and that instead we should be encouraging competition through different forms of private education.   A central principle of the New Right is the belief that the state cannot meet people’s needs and that people are best left to meet their own needs and that people are best left to meet their own needs through the free market. A number of the principles of the New Right are based on the theories of market forces. They felt that the British economy was...

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Outline the New Right View of the Role of Education

...The New Right perspective have a more political view on education which could be named as old fashioned compared to functionalists. They believed that education is for socialising and preparing young children for the world of work however they say that the state cannot meet peoples needs. The New Right are similar in many ways to functionalists as they believe that some people are naturally more talented than others. They believe that education should socialise pupils into shared values, such as competition so the most talented people can get the best jobs and instil a sense of national identity. They broadly favour an education system run on meritocratic principles of open competition, and one that serves the needs of the economy by preparing young people for work. However, unlike functionalists, the New Right do not believe that the current education system is achieving these goals as according to New Right, the reason for their failure is that its run by state and that instead we should be encouraging competition through different forms of private education. A central principle of the New Right is the belief that the state cannot meet people’s needs and that people are best left to meet their own needs and that people are best left to meet their own needs through the free market. A number of the principles of the New Right are based on the theories of market forces. They felt that the British economy was in decline and something needed to be done to change the......

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Right to Education

...done so already. For further details on the University please contact: "Techno India University, EM 4, Salt Lake Sector - V, Kolkata - 700091 West Bengal" Telephone No: Admission Helpline (SMS Only) +91-98365-44418 / +91-98365-44419 Fax No: +91-33-2357 2450, e-mail: info@technoindiauniversity.ac.in Admission e-mail: admission@technoindiauniversity.ac.in Website: www.technoindiauniversity.ac.in Contact Person: Suman Chatterjee Registrar Techno India University, West Bengal Phone: +91-98300 36796 Address: CSAB Headquarters, National Institute of Technology Rourkela Rourkela - 769008, Odisha, India. Phone: 0661-2462976, 0661-2470500 Fax: 0661-2462977, 0661-2470600 Email: csab2013@nitrkl.ac.in, csabnitrkl2013@gmail.com Copyright © 2013 All Rights Reserved. This site is designed, hosted and maintained by CDAC(www.cdac.in) Disclaimer - CDAC is not responsible for any kind of data inconsistency found in candidate's record. 2 of 2 21-10-2013 15:12 ...

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...Education is an elemental human right and essential for all other human rights. It is a powerful tool by which socially and economically marginalized children and adults can lift themselves out of poverty. It also consists of the right to freedom of education. Freedom education is the right given to human beings to have access to the education of their preference without any constrictions. Right to education is a human right recognized by the United States. It includes the entire compulsion to eliminate inequity at all levels of the educational system. What is right to education? Education is the most important thing in life, it makes sense, it effect on mind, it change the character. The right to education is an inherent right. Right to education is the right which deals with the right to know and right to change their life and life style. The various types of right to education are primary education, secondary education, vocational education and higher education. “Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit”. Education shall be free for development of human personality. The human rights are developing of understanding, gender quality and make a friendship among all nations. Human rights education is provided......

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Udhr

...Declaration of Human Rights Article XXVI: Right to Education The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was drafted in 1948 and one of the articles, article XXVI deals with protection of the fundamental rights, right to education: (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. The right to education is a universal right and is recognized as a human right. It includes the right to free, non biased and non political primary education for everyone, to make secondary education at least accessible to everyone and make access to higher education. The right to education also provides the obligation to avoid discrimination at all educational levels and to improve quality of education. Furthermore, the European Court of Human Rights defined „education as......

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Cashflow Timelines

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