Free Essay

Right to Form Association & Reasonable Restriction on It

In: Other Topics

Submitted By ebadkhan
Words 3375
Pages 14

College of legal studies

Project :- right to form association & reasonable
Restriction on it

submitted to :-

Mr. Aravindan Anandan

submitted by :-

Ebad khan
Sec a

The success and final outcome of this project required a lot of guidance and assistance from many people and I am extremely fortunate to have got this all along the completion of my project work.
I respect and thank Mr. Aravindan Anandan , for giving me an opportunity to do the project work on “RIGHT TO FORM ASSOCIATION
& REASONABLE RESTRICTION ON IT” and providing support and guidance which made me complete the project on time. I am extremely grateful to him for providing such a nice support and guidance though he is having a busy schedule in managing the college affairs.
I would not forget to remember Mr. ANURAG PANDEY , my senior who gave constructive ideas for the project and helped me with the presentation part of the project.
I am thankful to and fortunate enough to get constant encouragement, support and guidance from my parents who helped me in successfully completing our project work. Also, I would like to extend our sincere regards to the staff of department of library for their timely support.













Introduction :-

RIGHT TO FORM ASSOCIATION :- It is a fundamental Right given in the
Constitution Of India under Article 19 (1)(c) , It proclaims that all citizens shall have the freedom to form associations or unions . The right to form associations or unions has a very wide and varied scope including all types of associations political parties , clubs, soceities organizations , trade unions and indeed every body of persons . The right to form associations indicates that several individuals get together and form voluntarily an association with a common aim, legitimate purpose and having a community of interest and this Right extends inter alia to the formation of an association or union1 .
This Right implies that the persons making an association have the right to continue to be associated with only those whom they voluntarily admitted in the association . It was decided in Damayanti v. union of india2 that any law by which members are introduced in the voluntary association without any option being given to the members to keep them out will be a law violating the Right to form an association . In this case the Court did not approve the taking over of
Hindi Sahitya Sammelan by the State and introduction of some members without

SINGH MAHENDRA P. , CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, eastern book company ( ELEVENTH EDITION, 2010 ). p. 147
AIR 1971 SC 966

the consent of existing members . It was held to be an unconstitutional interference with the guaranteed freedom of association. When the Government of Assam
Rastrabhasa Prachar Samity by a notification , the supreme court quashed it as illegal and unconstitutional being violative of Article 19(1)(c) 3 . Governement cannot take over an association completely , depriving its members and office bearers to hold on to association , which they formed to carry on the goals and objectives .
The right to form associations does not involve or carry with the concomitant right that such union should be able to attain the objects which might be supposed to underline the formation of an association . thus , to illustrate the right to form trade unions should not lead to the conclusion that trade unions have a guaranteed right to an effective collective bargaining or to strike either as a part of collective bargaining or otherwise4 . The Right to strike or the right to declare a lock – out may be controlled or restricted by an appropriate industrial legislation and the validity of such legislation would have to be tested not with refrence to the criteria laid down in clause (4) of article 19 , but by totally different considerations . The court has reaffirmed this position in several decisions upholding the laws that took over an activity or institution run by an association or registered society and vested it in statutory bodies . such taking over and vesting , the court held , may be

Asom Rashtrabhasa Prachar Samity v. State of Assam AIR 1989 SC 2127
SINGH MAHENDRA P. , CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, eastern book company ( ELEVENTH EDITION, 2010 ). p. 149

examined with refrence to other provisions of the Constitution but not under
Article 19(1)(c) because the right under Article 19(1)(c) is exhausted on the formation and continuation of the association or union . Any restrictions on its formation and continuation will however, be judged under article 19(4) and will have to satisfy its requirement.

In P.Balakotaiah Vs Union of India5 raised the question whether Rules 3 and 7,
Railway Service (Safeguarding of National Security) Rules, 1949 violated Article
19(1)(c). The appellants contended that their services were terminated because they were communists and trade unionists and consequently the orders terminating their services under Rule 3 amounted in substance to denial to them of the freedom to form associations. The appellants were informed that they had carried on agitation among the Railway workers for a general strike with a view to paralyse communications and the movement of essential supplies and thereby create disorder and confusion in the country. As their services were terminated the appellant’s fist moved the High Court under Article 226 of the Constitution. Their

AIR 1958, SC 232

contention was that Railway Services (Safeguarding National Security) Rules,
1949 contravened Articles 14, 19(1)(c) and 311 of the Constitution and as such the orders terminating their services were void.
Their petitions were dismissed by the High Court. Their appeals were also dismissed by the Supreme Court which held that the charge shows that action was taken against the appellants not because they were communists or trade unionists but because they were engaged in subversive activities. The orders terminating their services did not contravene Article 19(1)(c) as they did not infringe any of the rights of the appellants guaranteed by that Article which remained precisely what they were before. The appellants had a fundamental right to form association but they had no fundamental right to be continued in Government service. The order did not prevent from continuing to be in the Communist Party or being trade unionists. RIGHT OF ASSOCIATION & ARMED FORCES :CASE :
In O.K.A. Nair v. Union of India6 an important question arose whether "civilian" employees. designated as non-combatants such as cooks, chowkidars, laskers, barbers, mechanics, boot-makers, tailors, etc., attached to the Defence

AIR 1976 SC 1179

Establishments have a right to form associations or unions. The appellants were members of the civil employees unions in the various centres of the Defence
Establishment. The Commandant declared their unions as unlawful associations.
They challenged that the impugned action was violative of their fundamental right to form associations or unions under Article 19(1)(c) of the Constitution. They contended that the members of the unions, though attached to the Defence
Establishments were civilians and their service conditions were regulated by Civil
Service Rules and therefore they could not be called "members of the Armed
Forces" within the meaning of Article 33 of the Constitution. The Supreme Court rejected the plea of appellants and held that the civilian employees of the Defence
Establishments answer the description of the members of the Armed Forces within the meaning of Article 33 and therefore, were not entitled to form trade unions. It is their duty to follow or accompany the Armed Personnel on active service or in camp or on march. Although they are non-combatants and in some matters governed by the Civil Service Rules, yet they are integral to Armed Forces.
Consequently, under Army Act the Central Government was competent to make rules restricting or curtailing their fundamental right under Article 19(1)(c).


Article 19(1)(c) guaranteed the

right to form association , this does not mean that any one could claim a right to

hold office for life as an integral part of this fundamental right . Neither the association nor the members can claim such right is fundamental . Legislature cannot impose more limitations than prescribed under these provisions .
Essential elements of these Restrictions Are as Follows :
1. Restriction can be imposed only by or under the authority of law. It cannot be imposed by the Executive action without legal authority.
2. The Restriction must be Reasonable .
3. Restriction must be related to the purpose specifically mentioned in the clause. 4. The Judiciary has the power to test the validity of these restrictions on two grounds . firstly – whether the restriction is reasonable or secondly whether it is for the purpose mentioned in the clause under which the restriction is being imposed ? Legislative determination as to reasonableness is not final
And it is subjected to Judicial scrunity.
Like any other Fundamental Right under Article 19 , this right to association is also not absolute and is subjected to regulation in social interest . Article 19(4) specifically empowers the state to make any law to fetter , abridge or abrogate any of the rights under Article 19(1)(c). Clause (4) empowers the state to impose reasonable restrictions on the exercise of Right to Form Association , in the interest

of the sovereignty and integrity of India, Public order and Morality , Here Public order means Public peace , safety and Tranquility .
In Ramakrishna v. the President district Board , Nellore7 the Madras High Court held that the restriction that the teachers should join only an officially approved association was an unreasonable and hence unconstitutional restriction by the
Government .
In L.N. Mishra Institute of Social Changes v. State of Bihar8 , the Supreme
Court held taking over the institution by making law called Bihar Private
Educational Institution ( Taking Over ) Act, 1987 , the Government did not infringe the right to form association , as there was no restriction on the functioning of the society , right of the society remained unimpaired and uinterfered by the Act . It is true that the society has lost its Right of management of the institute and its control but that was the consequence of all taking over.
To impose Reasonable Restriction on Freedom It should be the last Remedy.


AIR 1952 Mad 253
AIR 1988 SC 1145

GROUNDS ON WHICH Art 19(1)(c) gets Restricted :The right of association like other individual freedom is not unrestricted. Clause
(4) of Article 19 empowers the State to impose reasonable restrictions on the right of freedom of association and union in the interest of "Public Order" or
"Morality" or "Sovereignty or Integrity" of India. It saves existing laws in so far as they are not inconsistent with fundamental right of association. These are the
Three Grounds on which Right to form get Restricted.

1. SOVEREIGNTY OR INTEGRITY OF INDIA :- This Ground has been added by the Constitution (16th Ammendment ) Act, 1963. To safeguard the
Sovereignty & integrity of India Right to form Association can be
Restricted. Thus, it will be legitimate for Parliament under this clause to
Restrict the Right to Form Association if it preaches secession of any part of the territory of India from the Union . It may be noted that the Restriction is with respect to the territorial integrity of India and not about the preservation of the territorial integrity of the constituent states9.


BAKSHI P.M. , CONSTITUTION OF INDIA , Universal law publication , ( TENTH EDITION 2010 ). pp. 35-36

2. PUBLIC ORDER :- The Expression “Public Order” is synonymous with
Public Peace , safety, and Tranquility It signifies absence of disorder involving breaches of local significance in contradiction to National upheavals such as revolution , civil strife of war , affecting the security of the state . To illustrate , the state may , in the interest of public order, prohibit and punish the causing of loud and raucous noise in streets and public places by means of sound amplifying instruments ; regulate the hours and place of public discussions and the use of public streets for the purpose of exercising freedom ; provide for expulsion of hecklers from meetings and assemblies ; punish utterances tending to incite breach of the peace or riot and use of threatening , abusive or insulting words or behavior in any public place or at any public meeting with intent to cause a breach of the peace or whereby breach of the peace is likely to be caused , and all such Acts as would endanger public safety.
It is necessary that there must be reasonable and proper nexus or relationship between the restriction and the achievement of Public order . If the
Restriction has no proximate relationship to the achievement of


order, it cannot be sustained on that ground . The Restriction must not be far- fetched , hypothetical or problematic or too remote in the chain of its relation with Public Order.


Morality is another Ground on which this Freedom may

be Reasonably Restricted . Morality is the Lack of Obscenity . Obscenity becomes a subject of Constitutional interest since it illustrates well the clash between the Right of the individual or association to freely express his opinions and the duty of the state to safeguard the Morals.

As Clause (4) empowers the state to impose reasonable restrictions on the exercise of Right to Form Association , in the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India, Public order and Morality and Judiciary has the power to test the validity of these restrictions on two grounds . firstly – whether the restriction is reasonable or secondly whether it is for the purpose mentioned in the clause under which the restriction is being imposed if These two conditions not fulfilled then Restiction can not be imposed .

CASE :- The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 1908, as amended by the
Madras Act, 1950, provides that if the State Government is of opinion that any association interferes with the administration of law or with the maintenance of law and order or that it constitutes a danger to the public peace it may, by notification in the Official Gazette declare such association

to be unlawful. Such a notification was to be placed before an Advisory
Board. Representation against such a notification could be made. If the
Advisory Board was of opinion that the association was not unlawful the
Government was to cancel the notification.
The validity of the above Act was challenged in the case of State of v. V.G.
Rao Madras10, The Supreme Court held that the restrictions imposed by
Section 15(2)(b) of the Act were unreasonable, The test under it was subjective satisfaction of the Government and the factual existence of the grounds was not a justiciable issue. Therefore, the vesting of power in the
Government to impose restriction on this right, without allowing the grounds tested in a judicial enquiry, was a strong element to be taken into consideration in judging the reasonableness of the restrictions on the right to form association or union. The existence of an Advisory Board could not be a substitute for judicial inquiry.
But a Government order requiring municipal teachers not to join unions other than those officially approved was held to impose prior restraint on the right to form association and union, which was in the nature of administrative censorship, and hence invalid .


AIR (1952) SC 196

The Constitution Of India has Guaranteed Freedoms under Article 19. All the
Freedoms guaranteed under Article 19 does not confer an absolute Right to do what is mentioned in their respective Articles because if they will be absolute then it will create many Problems related to the working and functioning of the
Government like in case of Emergencies, maintaining Friendly relations with
Foreign countries, Public order, morality etc. and thus will create many Hurdles.
So, by putting Reasonable Restriction on it all the Problems and Hurdles will be sorted out easily.
The Right to form Association is a Freedom given in Article 19(1)(c) if we do not have any Restriction on this freedom then many problems might arise like:
(1). Many kinds of association would form and they can be terrorist association or any other type of association and Government would not be able to ban these associations as it is a freedom Guaranteed by the Constitution.
(2). As Association is Formed they will have oneness among themselves so they can do Hartals or can even do protest for anything or for what they want, so
Government will have to face many problems as they can’t do anything like if there is a Labour association and their salaries are not increased so they would

announce one day of Bandh , Government cannot do anything and because of that a lot of loss has to be faced .
(3). In case of Emergencies ,it is Proclaimed when there is War , external aggression , armed rebellion or in case of Failure of Constitutional machinery in a state or if there is Financial stability and in all these situations if every citizen has the Right to use their Freedom given then The whole mechanism of the
Government or the functioning Machinery of the Government cannot run , or we can say that Government cannot run the Country11.
Hence , Reasonable Restriction is needed because if it is not there then no
Government can run a country ,as in its absence these freedoms become Absolute
Rights , and absolute means which cannot be challenged , so these freedoms would also be not challanged . So, Reasonable Restriction is Important , if Constitution is
Providing such type of freedoms.


BAKSHI P.M. , CONSTITUTION OF INDIA , Universal law publication , ( TENTH EDITION 2010 ). pp. 38-39


The procedure to impose Restriction is very simple , if The Right to Form
Association Guaranteed under Article 19(1)(c) is creating any Problem related to
Sovereignty or integrity of India, Public Order or Morality Then Legislature can pass law which must be Reasonable and achieving the Purpose specifically mentioned in Clause 4 of the Constitution of India to restrict the freedom . The restriction cannot be imposed by the Executive action without Legal authority and the Judiciary has the power to test the validity of these restrictions on two grounds. firstly – whether the restriction is reasonable or secondly whether it is for the purpose mentioned in the clause under which the restriction is being imposed .
When all these conditions are fulfilled then only Restriction could be imposed on this freedom otherwise it cannot.
The Legislative determination as to reasonableness is not final And it is subjected to Judicial scrunity, It means whether the restriction is reasonable or not is the duty of Judiciary.
Hence to test the validity of Restriction Judiciary has the only power and if
Judiciary claims it to be reasonable or valid then such restriction is valid .

Conclusion :-

Reasonable Restriction is very important because The Freedom Right to form association Given in The Constitution can create many problems because if restriction is not there it will be absolute then it will create many Problems related to the working and functioning of the Government like in case of Emergencies, maintaining Friendly relations with Foreign countries, Public order, morality etc. and thus will create many Hurdles. So, by putting Reasonable Restriction on it all the Problems and Hurdles can be sorted out easily.
But Government should look that the Restrictions which they are making must be reasonable and not just for their own cause. Judiciary plays an important role because they have the only power to test the validity of restriction, Thus we can say that Reasonable Restriction is important and is needed to run a country.

BIBLIOGRAPHY : BAKSHI P.M. , CONSTITUTION OF INDIA , Universal law publication ,


 Right to form Association Detailed essay available at  Reasonable Restriction Grounds Available at tml

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...SCHEDULE 1 The Articles PART I The Convention Rights and Freedoms Article 2 Right to life 1 Everyone’s right to life shall be protected by law. No one shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in the execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a crime for which this penalty is provided by law. 2 Deprivation of life shall not be regarded as inflicted in contravention of this Article when it results from the use of force which is no more than absolutely necessary: (a) in defence of any person from unlawful violence; (b) in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained; (c) in action lawfully taken for the purpose of quelling a riot or insurrection. Article 3 Prohibition of torture No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 4 Prohibition of slavery and forced labour 1 No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. 2 No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour. 3 For the purpose of this Article the term “forced or compulsory labour” shall not include: (a) any work required to be done in the ordinary course of detention imposed according to the provisions of Article 5 of this Convention or during conditional release from such detention; (b) any service of a military character or, in case of conscientious objectors in countries where they are recognised, service exacted instead of compulsory military......

Words: 1950 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Ramlila Maidan Incident

...Constitution of India confers upon India the status of Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic. It allows us to elect our representatives and to form a government to makes laws and enforce them. The Constitution of India guarantees to the people certain basic human rights and freedoms, such as, equal protection of laws, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship and religion, freedom of assembly and association, freedom to move freely and to reside and settle anywhere in India, freedom to follow any occupation, trade or business, freedom of person, freedom against double jeopardy and against ex post facto laws. These rights are knows as Fundamental Rights and are envisaged in Part III of the Constitution of India. A person can claim Fundamental Rights against the state subject to the state imposing some permissible restrictions in the interest of social control. The grounds for imposing these restrictions on Fundamental Rights are expressly mentioned in the Constitution itself and, therefore, these rights can be abridged only to the extent laid down. The Ramlila Incident was a very unfortunate event. The Supreme Court of India took suo moto cognizance of the case and gave a new dimension to the Fundamental Rights stating that the right to sleep peacefully was a part was Article 21 and thus a Fundamental Right. The brief facts concerning the incident are that Baba Ramdev wanted the government to bring all the...

Words: 3712 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Law Course

...of Law 8. American Realism 9. Scandinavian Realism 10. Historical and Anthropological Jurisprudence 11. Marxist Theories of Law and State 12. Feminist Jurisprudence 13. Postmodernist Jurisprudence 12 SUGGESTED READINGS 1. Lloyd's introduction to jurisprudence 2. Jurisprudence by Dias 3. Jurisprudence by Mahajan 4. Jurisprudence by Bodenheimer 5. Jurisprudence by Wayne Morrison 6. Concept of Law H.L.A. Hart 7. Social Dimension of law by Julius Stone 8. Law in the Changing Society by Friedman 9. Law in the making by C.IZ. Allen 10. 1300ks on Constitutional Law in India and Constitutional JUrispruden:] \/ --CONSTITUTIONAL LAW-l 1. Preamble - Importance- amenability 2. Fundamental Rights -concept -Nature -Necessity and justification -Fundamental rights under Indian Constitution. 3. Definition of State -Other authorities -Application of ejusdem gencrisInstrumentality of Govt. -Private...

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...from one place to another in return for a payment is known as a contract of carriage. The party who undertakes to carry the goods or people for payment is called the carrier. Classification of carrier Carrier are classified into two categories 1. Common carrier : A common carrier as a person including any association or body of person whether incorporated or not engaged in the business of transporting for hire property from place to place by land or inland navigation for all person indiscriminately. Features of common carrier May be an individual, a firm, an association of person or body corporate. Is one is engaged in the business of transporting goods for hire. The carriage must be by land or inland navigation. Is one who is bound to carry the goods of any person. Exception: A common carrier can lawfully refuse to carry the goods under the following circumstance. If there is no space in his vehicle. If the goods are not of the type he usually professes to carry. If the goods are of dangerous nature and subject him to some extra ordinary risk. Destination is not on his normal route. Reasonable charges are not paid. For improper packaging. 2. Private carrier: A private carrier is one who makes no general offer but carriage goods as a casual occupation and not as business and for particular...

Words: 1261 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Uk Trade Union in 21 Century

...THE TRADE UNIONS IN UK INTRODUCTION Historically, trade unions in the United Kingdom have been viewed as: (1) collective employee organisations established to protect employees from arbitrary actions by employers in matters of pay and working conditions, and (2) as promoters of the legitimate interests of people at work. In practice, they have also played an important role in the political life of the nation, and, to a lesser extent, in its social affairs. The ability of trade unions to exercise power and influence over users of their service depends on the relative demand for that service. Thus, when demands for skilled labour in the economy are high trade unions are in a relatively powerful position to negotiate a high price for the use of labour. They are also able in such circumstances to employ a wide range of sanctions against employers (and even governments). When demand for labour is slack and unemployment begins to rise, trade union power to influence events becomes more limited. In Britain the boom period for trade unions was during the 1970s when membership reached a peak of 13.2 million (1979). At that time the demand for labour was high, many skills where in short supply and there were few legal controls over collective action by unions. By 1990 the situation had changed dramatically with a deep recession, record levels of unemployment, changes In working practices brought about by new technology and last but not least, a substantial framework of labour......

Words: 4631 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Kairotic Moment of Gun Control

...attention, rushing people into pro and con camps. The controversy around the issue is whether it is better to strengthen the laws for gun control or not. Major media around the world have made extensive covers and reports of the Denver shooting case; they also joined the discussion of gun control because it has significant effects for people’s lives and safety. There are three articles from different media responses to the hot topic. The article titled “Gun-control, gun-rights groups’ ready for renewed debate after Colorado shooting” by Michael Martinez was published on CNN.COM. CNN is one of the most influential global media and authoritative news sites, which can be seen or read by over 100 million U.S households and viewers in over 212 countries. This article notes that both sides were engaged in a renewed debate about the issue of gun control in the aftermath of the shooting tragedy that happened at a Colorado movie theater. In this debate, an appeal is being continually made for placing strict restrictions on gun control by Dan Gross, the President of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. He claimed that elected leaders ought to act immediately to protect American people from life-threatening problems. In the opposition camp, the director of Gun Owners of America,...

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Agreement in Restraint of Trade

...------------------------------------------------- AGREEMENT IN RESTRAINT OF TRADE CONTRACTS TABLE OF CONTENT * INTRODUCTION * TYPICAL RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE * KINDS OF RESTRAINT * RESTRAINT OF TRADE UNDER THE COMMON LAW * EMPLOYER MUST HAVE A VALID INTEREST * RESTRAINT MUST BE REASONABLE * EXCEPTION * CONTRACTS OF EXCLUSIVE DEALING * RESTRAINTS ON SONGWRITERS AND OTHER ENTERTAINERS * IS RESTRAINT GOOD OR BAD FOR HEALTHY BUSINESS? * CONCLUSION ABSTRACT Agreement in restraint of trade is defined as the one in which a party agrees with any other party to restrict his liberty in the present or the future to carry on a specified trade or profession with other persons not parties to the contract without the express permission of the latter party in such a manner as he chooses. In other words “one in which a party agrees with any other party to restrict his liberty in the future to carry on trade with other persons who are not parties to the contract in such a manner as he chooses”. INTRODUCTION This research work deals with an area of law which under classical contract theory brought two principles into direct conflict. On the one hand, classical theory endeavoured to promote ‘freedom of contract’ – it is the parties who determine their......

Words: 7193 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

Case Study 1

...objectives and policies; • appointing senior management; • accounting for the company’s activities to relevant parties, e.g. shareholders. The managing director/chief executive is responsible for the performance of the company, as dictated by the board’s overall strategy. He or she reports to the chairman or board of directors. APPOINTMENT The first directors of a company are appointed at the time of its registration. On registration, the persons named in form IN01 will be deemed to have been appointed as the first directors. Subsequent appointments (which are made on form AP01) are governed by the company’s articles of association but any Shareholders Agreement should also be checked. Typically the articles will provide for the board of directors to fill any casual vacancies or to appoint additional directors up to the maximum number specified by the articles. On appointment a new director will be asked to provide certain personal information (i.e. full name, address, date of birth and business occupation) to be included in the relevant form which he/she will be required to sign to signify consent to act as a director. It is possible for a director to file a service address at Companies House as well as his or her home address. It will be the service address (which can be the registered office of the company) that appears on the public record. The director will be reminded to acquire the share qualification (if any) specified in the articles. Additionally, the director will......

Words: 1819 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Ibl and How to Be

...human right “The UK condemns all instances where individuals are persecuted because of their faith or belief, wherever this happens and whatever the religion of the individual or group concerned.”1 SUMMARY Freedom of religion or belief is a human right whose enjoyment is important to achieving the UK’s strategic priorities, particularly as regards conflict prevention and resolution. It is a sensitive issue in many countries. These guidelines, elaborated with the help of specialist stakeholders, aim to provide a simple introduction to the issues for FCO posts and desks, an analytical matrix to identify problems, some general responses to frequently raised issues, and other resources for those who wish to go deeper into the subject. 1 FCO Human Rights Annual Report 2007, p. 106 1 CONTENTS What is freedom of religion or belief? Paras 2-9 Why is freedom of religion or belief important to the UK? Paras 10-11 What is needed to achieve freedom of religion? Para 12 Vulnerable groups and freedom of religion Para 13 Children and freedom of religion Para 14 Freedom of religion and freedom of expression Paras 15-19 Restrictions on freedom of religion Paras 20 – 25 What problems are Posts most likely to encounter? Paras 26 – 32 How can Posts help to promote freedom of religion? Paras 33 – 38 Regional mechanisms Para 39 Some basic issues and answers Pages 12-15 Annex One – Analysis of right to......

Words: 10059 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Marketing Research Paper

...dairy products, and wine. The company mission is to offer each customer a delightful and pleasing shopping outing. The staff is helpful and knowledgeable and will go to extensive lengths to ensure that Kudler Fine Foods is the purveyor of choice for customers aspiring to purchase the finest delights. Kudler Fine Foods shops around the world to offer fines foods with reasonable budgets for consumers. Kudler Fine Foods will continue to be successful by understanding the importance of market research, identifying areas where additional market research is needed, and analyzing the importance of competitive intelligence and analysis regarding the development of the company’s marketing strategy and tactics. Importance of Marketing Research The importance of marketing research is a process to define a marketing problem and opportunity to resolve the issue. Marketing research systematically collects and analyzes data, and recommends actions to the organization. The purpose for marketers is to help the organization to reduce the company’s risk, discovering consumers taste, set the price for products and make reasonable estimates about what consumers want and will buy. Kerin (2011), discusses a five-step marketing research approach consisting of defining the problem, developing the research plan, collecting relevant information, developing findings, and taking marketing actions. Five-Step...

Words: 1205 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ramlila Maidan Case

...Singh Chauhan, JJ. Counsels: For Appearing Parties: P.P. Malhotra, ASG, Rajeev Dhavan, Amicus Curiae, Ram Jethmalani, P.H. Parekh, Sr. Advs., Udita Singh, L.R. Singh, Shubhranshu Pedhi, Anil Katiyar, Lata Krishnamurti, Balajji Subramanian, Manu Sharma, Karan Kalia, Pranav Diesh, Sanjay Jain, Vikas Garg, B.K. Prasad, Siddhartha Dave, Shailender Sharma, S.N. Terdal, D.P. Mohanty, Subhasree Chatterjee, Anand Shankar Jha, Ekansh Misra, Advs. for Parekh and Co., Kamini Jaiswal, Shomila Bakshi, Abhimanyu Shrestha and Kumud L. Das, Advs. Subject: Constitution Subject: Criminal Acts/Rules/Orders: Constitution of India (44th Amendment) Act, 1979; Constitution of India (First Amendment) Act, 1951; Constitution of India (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963; Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2010; Constitution of India (Forty-Second Amendment) Act, 1976; Bombay Police Act, 1951 - Section 33(1); Delhi Police Act, 1978 - Section 17(1), Delhi Police Act, 1978 - Section 28, Delhi Police Act, 1978 - Section 29, Delhi Police Act, 1978 - Section 31, Delhi Police Act, 1978 - Section 36, Delhi Police Act, 1978 - Section 47, Delhi Police Act, 1978 - Section 65; Motor Vehicles Act; Uttar Pradesh Urban Planning and Development Act, 1973 - Section 25, Uttar Pradesh Urban Planning and Development Act, 1973 - Section 42; Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (CrPC) - Section 91, Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (CrPC)...

Words: 56244 - Pages: 225

Premium Essay

Criminal Justice System

...officers serve an important function in society; they protect the property and lives of the people they serve. Police officers pursue and apprehend people who break the law and then cite or arrest those people. Police officers on all levels, local, state, or federal enforce laws ensure the safety of citizens. In the course of their jobs law enforcement personnel deal with a wide range of issues, laws, and restrictions. One of the most basic concepts that affect a police officer’s performance of his or her duties is probable cause (Vila & Morris, 1999). According to American Bar Association (2011), " Probable cause is defined as facts sufficient to support a reasonable belief that criminal activity is probably taking place or knowledge of circumstances indicating a fair probability that evidence of crime will be found. It requires more than a mere "hunch," but less than proof beyond a reasonable doubt.” (What is probable cause?, para. 1). Before a warrant, such as an arrest or search warrant, can be issued law enforcement officers must demonstrate probable cause in the form of a written document. This document must be submitted to a magistrate (low level judge) who is responsible for ensuring probable cause standards are met in order for a warrant to be issued. Once the magistrate is satisfied and the warrant is issued the officers can go ahead with the search or arrest. Police must be careful to ensue their observations and conclusions of the facts of a case are correct......

Words: 1133 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Oecd Guidlines co-operation in this field should extend to all countries. 3. A precise definition of multinational enterprises is not required for the purposes of the Guidelines. These usually comprise companies or other entities established in more than one country and so linked that they may co-ordinate their operations in various ways. While one or more of these entities may be able to exercise a significant influence over the activities of others, their degree of autonomy within the enterprise may vary widely from one multinational enterprise to another. II. General Policies Enterprises should: 1. Contribute to economic, social and environmental progress with a view to achieving sustainable development. 2. Respect the human rights of those affected by their activities consistent with the host government’s international obligations and commitments. 3. Encourage local capacity building through close co-operation with the local community, including...

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Advocare Law Office FINLAND Finland Patrick Lindgren Advocare Law Office Overview 1 What forms of business entities are relevant to the typical franchisor? The franchisor will probably choose business entities that allow it to limit its liability. These include a corporation that in Finland is simply a limited liability company (whether private or public); a partnership, subject to it being owned by a limited liability company; and a foundation. The typical franchisor is likely to choose the private limited liability company (the limited company) because of the simplicity of incorporation, low capital requirements, and wellregulated administration as well as the fact that shares are easily transferable. With this in mind, this work focuses on the limited company. 2 What laws and agencies govern the formation of business entities? keeping a register of all shareholders and shares issued and filing the annual report and auditor’s report with the Companies Register, which will thereby be subject to public scrutiny. In addition, for the purposes of VAT, the tax authorities shall expect the company to submit monthly tax return filings and make tax account payments as well as filing annual tax returns. Employers also have to pay payroll taxes. A business entity does not require the owner’s physical presence; the incorporation in itself constitutes a permanent establishment for the purpose of any tax treaty. However, if the employer wishes to employ staff, it is a......

Words: 6263 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Buseness Management

...Regional Express Value Statement • Directors’ report • Corporate governance statement Commitment of REX REX on the principal market primarily consists of transport Airline Company with strong financial possessions, looking to make good use of their fleet and continuously track growth of their organization which seems to be a key component of their business strategy. They subsequently identify right aircraft on the main market and take them to right destination. Various years of this business strategy has given them key position on the aviation market. In other words, the economic potency of REX is increasing along this chain of organization growth. Having going ahead out as slightly diminutive operation, REX have continuously mature into their present place, currently, they account for more than a third of the general fleet of passenger airlines in the Australian market. As already mentioned, REX have played a key role in ensuring that the break for market entry which arise from mid market was captured rightly and this could be the right phase to make right decision in bringing in more change in the organization. 2nd Part Regional Express Value: Aviation is frequently treated as a open service in contrast to other methods of transportation such as every day trips to occupation, which leads to unpredictability and seasonality of insist. though airlines do make available mobility which is exclusive in longer drag marketplace and cover a great deal business......

Words: 1280 - Pages: 6