Free Essay

Robert the Bruce

In: People

Submitted By swyman78
Words 1030
Pages 5
Robert I, the Bruce
Born on July 11, 1274, at Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire Scotland, Robert Bruce also known as Robert the Bruce is known as Scotland’s greatest hero. Yet, the movie Brave Heart would have you think William Wallace takes that title, making Bruce out to be nothing more than a self-serving opportunist. History however, shows us that Robert Bruce was the patient and cunning leader that Scotland needed to face the King of England Edward I, and later his son Edward II, to win Scottish independence from England.
Family Background
Robert’s father was known as Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale, descendent of David I with a distant connection to Scottish royalty. His mother was Marjory Countess of Carrick a lady of Gaelic decent. Robert the Bruce was married to Isabella of Mar in 1295 and later Elizabeth de Burgh in 1302. He fathered five legitimate children and several bastard children between the two marriages.
Early life of Robert the Bruce
The struggle for control of Scotland began in 1286 when Alexander III died leaving his infant grandchild Margaret to rule. In 1292, John Balliol was selected by some Scottish auditors to be King of Scotland. This caused a dispute on who should rule and King Edward I of England was asked to settle the dispute. John Balliol was Robert the Bruce’s rival to the throne. In 1292, at the age of 18, Robert the Bruce and his father pledged loyalty to Edward I at Berwick upon Tweed. Robert the Bruce’s lands and titles in Scotland were stripped by John Balliol for treason, and given to his brother-in-law John Comyn. Edward demanded feudal superiority of Scotland, judicial superiority over the Scottish king, and military support against France when called upon. John Balliol declared himself rightful king and signed a treaty with France. He was later defeated, in 1296, by Edward I and his own Scottish nobles including Robert the Bruce. This left Scotland without a monarch and gave rule to Edward I for 10 years. His siding with Edward I is a great example of Robert the Bruce knowing when to follow and learn how to lead later.
The Scottish uprising
In 1297, a rebellion was developing with William Wallace emerging as the leader. Robert the Bruce eventually decided to break his loyalty and joined the Scottish uprising. His famous words were “No man holds his flesh and blood in hatred, and I am no exception. I must join my own people and the nation in whom I was born.” They won a victory at Stirling Bridge in 1297 and Wallace proclaimed himself Guardian of Scotland. Wallace was later defeated at Falkirk the following year and went underground. After the defeat, Robert the Bruce again signed a pledge of loyalty with the English king so he could keep his lands and titles. This is a leader knowing when he’s picked the wrong solution and developing a different strategy to fix a problem. Robert the Bruce along with John Comyn, Balliol’s nephew was named by Edward I as Guardians of Scotland creating a bitter rivalry between Bruce and Comyn.
Taking the Throne
With Wallace underground, later captured and hung in 1305, Robert decided to make some changes to leadership. In 1306, at a church in Dumfries, Robert the Bruce accused Comyn of treason during an argument and ended up stabbing him which resulted in Comyn’s death. Robert the Bruce was excommunicated by the Pope and Edward outlawed his rule. Talk about stirring up the management. With the choice of being an outlaw or claiming the Scottish throne, he decided to declare his kingship and was backed by the Scottish Church. The crowning took place at Scone Abbey on March 25, 1306. This did not sit well with Edward I and his men attacked Scotland resulting in Robert’s defeat and escape to Northern Ireland.
Guerrilla Warfare
After spending the winter in Ireland, he returned to Scotland and led a successful guerrilla campaign against the English army. He demonstrated a great ability to use limited resources to overcome an overwhelming task. Edward I did not trust his son to take on Robert the Bruce, so with ailing health he decided to finish the task himself. This demonstrated how well respected Robert was by another leader. Edward I fell ill leading a campaign against Robert and later passed away on July 7, 1307. With his adversary dead and the incompetent son in charge, Robert removed the English from Scotland by 1314 with the overall victory being the Battle of Bannockburn in June of 1314.
Declaration
In the Year 1320 Scottish Nobles with the backing of Robert issued the Declaration of Arbroath. These words were spoken in the declaration “For as longs as one hundred of us shall remain alive we shall never in any wise consent to submit to the rule of the English, for it is not for glory that we fight … but for freedom alone.” The declaration did not halt hostilities with the English until Edward II was deposed of in 1327.
Treaty and Peace
In May of 1328 Edward III recognized Scotland’s independence with the signing of The Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton ending the 30 years of War for Independence. With Scotland finally free, Robert died at Manor of Cardross near Dumbarton on June 7, 1329. He requested his heart be taken to the Holy lands. The thought behind this was to make up for the murder of Comyn in a church, his lack of going on a Crusade, and any other sins. He was succeeded by his eldest and only surviving son David II.
References:

1. Robert the Bruce Biography [online], available at: http://www.biographyonline.net/military/robert-the-bruce.html
2. Robert the Bruce (1274 – 1329) [online], available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bruce_robert_the.shtml
3. Britannia Biographies Robert I, the Bruce [online], available at: http://www.britannia.com/bios/robertbruce.html
4. King Robert the Bruce of Scotland [online], available at: http://www.britroyals.com/scots.asp?id=robert1
5. The Death of Edward I [online], available at: http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/scotlandshistory/warsofindependence/deathofedwardi/index.asp

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Try Try Try Again

..."If at first you don't succeed try, try and try again." Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland, is meant to have told his troops this shortly before walloping the English at Bannockburn in 1314. The idiom, said to have been inspired by a humble spider stoically weaving his web as Bruce hid from his English pursuers in a cave, is particularly appropriate too for the modern residents of Annan, ancestral home of the Bruce lineage, who have erected a statue of the king – after a 130-year delay. When the town hall was constructed on Annan's high street in the 19th century, a plinth was placed above the entrance for a planned statue of Bruce, Lord of Annandale. But financial problems meant it was never commissioned. Two years ago a local committee began fundraising and a £2m bronze likeness has been put in place. A dedication service will be staged on Friday. Some £40,000 was raised to help complete the 250kg statue. Committee secretary Roderick McCallum said he was pleased the town had recognised the role of the king. "The Bruces became Lords of Annandale having been gifted this land by a previous king – basically, I think, to help to pacify the natives," he said. Their first castle was also built in Annan, near to where the town hall stands. Mr McCallum added that erecting the statue would "correct the deficit" from more than a century ago. The statue was produced by artist Andrew Brown, originally from Port William, who said the work presented a number of......

Words: 371 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Winner

...Student’s essay A famous author once remarked that ” Winners never quit and quitters never win”. People who see their ideas through, however unpragmatic it may be considered by others are the ones who have truly made a difference. History is replete with examples of people who were perceived as crazy, illogical and even insane by laymen, yet when their ideas were sedulously worked upon, by the creator , day after day, combined with long hours of toil, the result was nothing, short of marvelous. Lets’s take the example of the Indian freedom struggle fought by Gandhiji on the basis of Satyagraha. It was very difficult for the Britishers to assume that India would be freed one day under the leadership of a loin cloth covered ordinary looking man without the use of weapons or bloodshed. The reason that Indian freedom could be achieved was the unflagging determination of Gandhiji and the uncommon methodology used of winning freedom by peace and not bloodshed. Looking not far, I can recall the example of Galileo who was reviled and persecuted by the Church authorities for challenging the existing norms that pervaded the society that time. Galileo ‘s fierce determination , not to give up on his ideas even during harsh criticism paved the way for modern space research. Another convincing example is of the Wright Brothers. Who would have ever imagined that it is indeed possible to fly like a bird and traverse different parts of the globe. I am sure that the Wright brothers were......

Words: 1370 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Heart of Darkness

...But is this reading accurate? And if so, what stylistic devices does Conrad use in order to convey this position of ‘uncertainty’? Heart of Darkness uses an oblique narrative style, that is to say, t hat an unnamed narrator relates the narrative as it is in turn rel ated to him by Marlow, Conrad’s main protagonist in the novella. It is thus we can be to ld that for Marlow: ‘the meaning of an episode was not inside like a ke rnel but outside, enveloping the tale which brought it out only as a glow brings out a haze, in the likeness of one of those misty halos t hat are sometimes made visible by the spectral illumination of moonsh ine.’ 2 1 Ian Watt, Impressionism and Symbolism in Heart of Darkness in Robert Kimbrough, ed. Heart of Darkness: A Norton Critical Edition , 3 rd ed. (New York: Norton, 1988) p. 316 2 Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness , ed....

Words: 1472 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Assignment of Braveheart

...CHAPTER ONE CONVERSATION 1. Conversation is the essence of interpersonal communication. In many scholarly views they are equivalent and among no scholars the words conversation and interpersonal communication often men the same thing. Conversation occurs when two or three people exchange messages , weather face to face ,over the telephone, through apartment walls, or on internet. STAGES OF CONVERSATION PROCESS 2. There are five stages of conversation process Opening Feedback Feed forward Opening Closing 3. The opening. The first step is to open the conversation, usually with some kind of greeting. Greetings can be verbal or nonverbal and are usually both. Verbal greetings include, for example, verbal salutes ("Hi," "Hello"), initiation of the topic (The reason I called ") making reference to the other ("Hey, Joe, what's up?"), and personal inquiries ("What’s new?" " How are you doing?") Openings are also generally consistent in tone with the main part of the conversation, a cheery "How ya doing today, big guy?" is not normally followed by news of a family death. In opening a conversation, consider two general guidelines. Fist, be positive. Lead off with something positive rather than something negative. Say, for example, "I really enjoy coming here" instead of "Don't you just hate this place?" Second, don't be......

Words: 12961 - Pages: 52

Free Essay

Assignment

...CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. Improving of effective communication skills help us better understand a person or situation and enable us to resolve differences, build trust and respect, and create environments where creative ideas, problem solving, affection, and caring can flourish. As simple as communication seems, much of what we try to communicate to others and what others try to communicate to us, gets misunderstood, which can cause conflict and frustration in personal and professional relationships. By learning these effective communication skills, you can better connect with your spouse, kids, friends, and coworkers. In simply, its activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings or of giving peoples information. The successful communication include, basic four skills such as Listing, speaking Reading and writing. 2. As officers in security forces and police department, it is necessary to enhance abovementioned communication skills for betterment of our self and others. From the above mentioned skills conversation skills is important to work in any environment. There for learning of conversation skills very important as we communicate with each verbally and non-verbally. CONVERSATION 3. Conversation is the essence of interpersonal communication. In many scholarly views they are equivalent and among no scholars the words......

Words: 13521 - Pages: 55

Free Essay

Final Essay Assignment

...types of bias mentioned in our text books. In their book, “Analyzing Intelligence” Bruce and Bennett discuss the denial and deception (D&D) bias traps than an analyst can fall into. They mention that there are three major categories: 1) Cultural and personal bias; 2) Organizational bias; & 3) Cognitive heuristics bias. Such biases can taint the analysts opinions based on their type of biases. (George & Bruce. 2008, 127-130) Cultural and personal bias may allow the perception of the intelligence to be tainted by personal beliefs and pre-conceptions that the analyst has developed over his lifetime. This type of bias also may be influenced by personal experiences, morals, customs, habits, and social environments. Organizational bias is “generally associated with the limitations and weaknesses of large bureaucratic organizations”. This type of bias is the result of actual or perceived goals, policies, and traditions of an organization. Bruce also says that the differences are even more extreme when “classified information” is involved. Cognitive heuristics bias is the inability to properly perceive or understand the world around them. This type of bias makes the analysts vulnerable to optical illusions, magician’s tricks, political and military deception just to name a few. This bias may cause the analyst to believe that there is more going on than was actually is happening or as Bruce says “too much from too...

Words: 2232 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Essentials of a True Hero

...Longshanks. His claim over the Scottish throne cause great suffering for his Scottish subjects, due to his cruelty and brutality. After a series of tragic events, which includes William Wallace losing his father and wife, Wallace seeks revenge. In the form of rebellion, Wallace begins leading a series of uprisings against Longshanks in order to free Scotland from its current tyranny. He receives intellect from the princess of Wales and meets with the Scottish nobility, where he seeks the assistance of Robert the Bruce to unite the clans. The Scots are confronted by Longshanks at the Battle of Falkirk, where Wallace is betrayed by Robert the Bruce himself. Regretful of his actions, Robert helps an injured Wallace escape from the English. Wallace takes revenge on Mornay and Lochlan, who abandon him during the battle, leaving the Scottish nobles in fear for their lives. Furthermore, Robert discovers his own father conspiring with the other nobles to trap Wallace. Learning of all his deceit, Robert disowns his father. Meanwhile, Wallace is captured, brought...

Words: 1162 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Ethics

...held bank and a used car dealership. In this part, this article also demonstrates how to use the bookmark function concerning the “New Affiliate Rules” [ET 1.224.010] PART 2: Independence Rules for Partners and Professional Staff You email the other partners and professional staff and then you find out: 1. Bruce, a tax partner, leased a Ranger Rover from that dealership for his 18-year-old daughter. 2. Samantha, and audit partner, has her home mortgage with the bank. She has 5 years left on this 20-years loan. 3. Robert, a manager, has a checking account, saving account and 3 certificate of deposit with the bank. 4. Kathleen, manager, has a brother, Thomas, who is a salesman at the used car dealership. Using the online searching function, you find out as long as Bruce got the car lease under “Normal lending procedures”, he complies and the car is the collateral for the lease, he is fine. For Samantha, as long as she got the mortgage under the same procedures as Bruce, and also she doesn’t change the terms of mortgage and is current on all the terms of the mortgage, and the collateral is above water, her mortgage shouldn’t present a problem. Robert and Kathleen are managers but they refer to the new feature in the code called “Partner Equivalent” so they are subject to the same independence rules relevant to partners. PART 3: AICPA Code of Professional...

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Certification Cia

...Fisher, William Ury, and Bruce Patton Ron A. Weber Kurt F. Reding, Paul J. Sobel, Urton L. Anderson, Michael J. Head, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Mark Salamasick, Cris Riddle Year Published 2011 Revision 10 Publisher Wiley Text Books URL http://www.amazon.com/Accounting-Principles-Jerry-JWeygandt/dp/0470534796/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=13486 77243&sr=8-1&keywords=accounting+principles Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors Enterprise Risk Management Integrated Framework Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In Information Systems Control and Audit Internal Auditing: Assurance & Consulting Services 0 2004 The Free Press http://www.theiia.org/bookstore/product/enterprise-riskmanagement-integrated-framework-1178.cfm 2 Penguin USA Prentice Hall 2 The Institute of Internal Auditors Research Foundation http://www.theiia.org/bookstore/product/internal-auditingassurance-and-consulting-services-2nd-edition-1432.cfm 1991 1998 2009 Internal Control Integrated Framework The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants International Business with Global Resource Charles W. L. Hill CD, PowerWeb and World Map International Financial Management Cheol S. Eun, Bruce G. Resnick, and David Percy Rooke International Financial Reporting Standards International Accounting Standards Board (IFRS) (IASB) International Professional Practices The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc. Framework (IPPF) Management Robert Kreitner......

Words: 372 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Appendix E

...Keyword search: Effective personal goal setting. Title: Setting, elaborating, and reflecting on personal goals improves academic performance. Author: Dominique Morisano, Jacob B. Hirsh, Jordan B. Peterson, Robert O. Pihl, Bruce M. Shore. Published: March, 2010 Peer-reviewed: No Database: EBSCOhost This article investigates whether an intensive, online, written, goal-setting program for struggling students would have positive effects on academic achievement. I chose this article because I personally wanted to read this one. With me having three kids and working eight to twelve hour days, learning how to personally set goals would be a plus for me. Dominique Morisano, Jacob B. Hirsh, Jordan B. Peterson, Robert O. Pihl, Bruce M. Shore.(2010). Setting, elaborating, and reflecting on personal goals improves academic performance.. Retrieved from https://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/detail?vid=2&hid=103&sid=66cae38d-1ab7-45f5-853b-d35c4575d272%40sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=pdh&AN=apl-95-2-255 Keyword search: Distance learning Title: Evaluation of distance education components: A case study of associate degree programs Author: Tuqba Altintas, Ali Gunes Published: September, 2012 Peer-reviewed: Yes Database: Gale PowerSearch In this article, the authors did surveys to measure and analyze the effectiveness of components within the Programs, a survey that also compared the Programs to others to determine the results obtained. I chose this article......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Management of Organizarional Behavior

...Bruce Cannon is the owner of a small plastics company that was established five years ago. Bruce has three managers that head up various departments of his company. In the case study of Jim Day, Beth Edwards and Steve Lynch there is a wide array of readiness levels, motivators and leadership styles. One of the first items to address in situational leadership is the readiness level of each employee. Each employee has a different readiness level as well as motivators and need to be led individually to meet their full potential. Jim heads up the engineering crew. Jim is an R4 in the continuum of performance readiness. He is not only confident in his ability to complete the job well; he also is very willing to work hard. He has twenty years of previous engineering background and was hired due to his ability and experience. Jim is committed to his work as he has spent his career building his skills. Jim is motivated because of the time he has invested in his skills. He is truly interested and motivated about making the company successful. He is developing a creative model for making decisions about future expenditures for materials, equipment plant development and personnel. He is truly invested in the company. McClelland’s concept of achievement motivation stated in (Hersey, 2007) fits perfectly with Jim’s determination. The job itself is what motivates Jim. Beth leads the sales force of Bruce’s plastics company. She is the most recent hire in the company......

Words: 1422 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Mending Walls

...“Mending Wall” by Robert Frost The harsh reality of life is that many of us put up walls for no reason other than we were told by someone, or it was passed down from generation to generation without question. We will erect walls around types of people, places, religion, and things without understanding why we even do it. “Mending Wall” by Robert Frost portrays a view that we are seeing today around the world. So many groups of people all walled off from each other, and it does not allow them to become friends or to understand each other’s culture. When the wall comes down, people figure out that all of us want the same things out of life. Robert Frost’s “Mending Wall” is about walls that people set up for no reason whatsoever. Frosty shows quickly that there is something wrong when he begins the point with “something there is that does not love a wall” (563). The poem tells the story of two landowners who appear to be following a tradition that has been passed down from father to son. They never discuss the importance of the wall; however, they meet every year to walk their respective sides of the wall and attempt to repair it. The poem leads the reader to believe that they repair this wall only once a year after each winter. The leakage from either side of the wall is not the entire reason for the task. The speaker goes as far as to say to the stones themselves “stay where you are until our backs are turned” (563); this would lead you to believe that there is......

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Anthrax Letters

...September 11 attacks occurred. “From mid-September to November 2001, a number of anthrax-laced letters were mailed to news media offices on the U.S. east coast and to the U.S. Congress. A total of 22 individuals contracted either cutaneous anthrax (11 cases) or inhalation anthrax (11 cases), and 5 died (all from inhalation anthrax). Anthrax cases included individuals at targeted locations (9 cases), postal service employees (9 cases), individuals who handle cross-contaminated mail (2 cases), and individuals with unpinpointed exposures (2 cases). An additional case of cutaneous anthrax occurred in March 2002 due to laboratory exposure to collected samples.” (Johnson, 2005. P.1). One of the first victims of the anthrax letters was Robert Stevens who worked at the Sun he died four days after getting exposed to the anthrax, he went to a hospital with unknown symptoms that included vomiting and shortness of breath. Two other letters where sent to Senators Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy. The letter that went to Daschle was opened by an aid and after opening it the government postal service was closed. The other letter addressed to Leahy was never opened and it was found in an impounded mail bag around November. One of the reasons the letter took so long to find was that its zip code was misread but even with the misdirection the letter still contaminated David Hose through inhalation anthrax. Other letters where sent to ABC, CBS, New York Post and the National......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Acc 401 Quiz 1

...Which of the following results in an increase in the investment account when applying the equity method? Sale of a portion of the investment during the current year. Unrealized gain on intra-entity inventory transfers for the current year. Dividends paid by the investor. Dividends paid by the investee. Unrealized gain on intra-entity inventory transfers for the prior year. In a situation where the investor exercises significant influence over the investee, which of the following entries is not actually posted to the books of the investor? 1) Debit to the Investment account, and a Credit to the Equity in Investee Income account. 2) Debit to Cash (for dividends received from the investee), and a Credit to Dividend Revenue. 3) Debit to Cash (for dividends received from the investee), and a Credit to the Investment account. Entries 2 and 3. Entry 1 only. Entry 3 only. Entry 2 only. Entries 1 and 2. Which statement is true concerning unrealized profits in intra-entity inventory transfers when an investor uses the equity method? Different adjustments are made for upstream and downstream transfers. Adjustments will be made only when profits are known upon sale to outsiders. The same adjustments are made for upstream and downstream transfers. The investor and investee make reciprocal entries to defer and realize inventory profits. No adjustments are necessary. Acker Inc. bought 40% of Howell Co. on......

Words: 1014 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Use of Mobile Phones in Bangladesh

...were surprised by the results. While big stars like George Clooney, Tom Hanks, and Morgan Freeman are well-represented on the list with three films each, it's acclaimed actress Catherine Keener who appears in the most movies. By working in both independent films like "Being John Malkovich" and studio productions like "The 40-Year-Old Virgin," she personifies the best of the era. Look through the list below to see our choices for the top movies made in the last twenty years. Click on a title to add your comments about that particular choice. And take a look at the original "100 Movies to See Before You Die" to see the seventeen films that appear on both lists. 1990 [pic] Goodfellas DIRECTED BY: Martin Scorsese STARRING: Ray Liotta, Robert De Niro, Joe Pesci WHY YOU SHOULD SEE IT Misery DIRECTED BY: Rob Reiner STARRING: James Caan, Kathy Bates 1991 Beauty and the Beast DIRECTED BY: Kirk Wise, Gary Trousdale STARRING: Paige O'Hara, Robbie Benson [pic] The Silence of the Lambs DIRECTED BY: Jonathan Demme STARRING: Jodie...

Words: 1888 - Pages: 8