Free Essay


In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By manaviprabhu
Words 2376
Pages 10
Prashant Chandak, Shobhan Mankad, Siddhi Tatiya G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering and Management, Wagholi, Pune.
Some forms of Humanoid Robots may model only the part of body, for example, from the waist up. Some may have ‘Face’, with ‘eyes’ and ‘mouth’. While on the other hand, some Humanoid Robots are built to resemble a human body exactly. Such robots are called as “Androids.” Given below is an Android robot showing replica as that of a female body:

Abstract- This paper presents Humanoid Robots, one of the applications of electronics engineering. Humanoid Robots are basically the robots with their overall appearance similar to that of a normal human body, which allows it to interact with the tools made for human or its environment. In general humanoid robots have a structure same as that of a normal human body consisting of one face, two hands, two legs, etc.

Index Terms- Humanoid Robots, Robotic Components, Robotics, Types of Humanoid robots.



A humanoid robot is an automatically working robot because it can adapt according to changes in its environment or itself and continue to reach its goal. This is the main difference between humanoid and other kinds of robots.



Some of the capabilities of a humanoid robot that include are:

 

Self recharge- Humanoid robot have a unique and special ability to recharge itself automatically. Autonomous learning- It learns or gains new capabilities without outside assistance adjust strategies based on the surroundings and adapt to new situations. Avoiding harmful situations affecting humans, property & itself. Safe interacting with the human beings and environment.

Some of the robots may have the human parts, but not the exact replica of it, as shown in figure above.




Hierarchical paradigm-

a) Initial aim of humanoid research was to develop better orthosis1 and prosthesis2 for humans. b) Besides the research, humanoid robots are being developed to perform human tasks like personal assistance, where they should be able to assist the sick and elderly, and dirty or dangerous jobs. Regular jobs like being a receptionist or a worker of an automotive manufacturing line are also suitable for humanoids.

Hierarchical paradigm scheme


A robot works by sensing the object, plans its movement and acts accordingly. It plans its next move on each step.

d) In essence, since they can use tools and operate equipment and vehicles designed for the human form, humanoids could theoretically perform any task a human being can, so long as they have the proper software. However, the complexity of doing so is deceptively great. e) They are also becoming increasingly popular for entertainment too. Humanoid robots, especially with artificial intelligence algorithms, could be useful for future dangerous and/or distant space exploration missions, without having the need to turn back around again and return to Earth once the mission is completed.


Reactive paradigm-


Reactive paradigm scheme   Humanoid robots have sense-act type of organization. The robot has multiple instances of sense-act couplings. These couplings are concurrent processes, called behaviors, which take the local sensing data and compute the best action to take independently of what the other processes are doing. The robot will do a combination of behaviors.



A robot is built by the interrelationship of the three main things namely:    SENSE ACT PLAN

There are three main types of paradigms given as follows:


Hybrid deliberately / reactive paradigm-

Orthosis is a profession that deals with design, fitting manufacturing of devices that support or correct musculoskeletal normalities or abnormalities.
1 2

Prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing body or part of it. Hybrid deliberately / reactive paradigm scheme

The robot first plans that how to break its task into simpler subtasks, this is called as mission planning. Then it decides the suitable behavior to complete the task. According to the reactive paradigm, it starts executing the task. Sensing organization is also a mixture of hierarchical and reactive styles, sensor data gets routed to each behavior that needs the sensor, but it is also available to the planer for construction of the task oriented global world model.

 

Tilt sensors to measure inclination; Force sensors placed in robots hands and feet to measure contact with environment Position sensors that indicate the actual position of the robot or even speed sensors.


Exteroceptive Sensors:

Exteroceptive sensors allow the robot to interact with the external world by informing it about the surrounding environment. They can be classified on the basis of their functionality. Proximity sensors are used to calculate the distance between the sensor and objects in the environment. They perform the same task that is performed by vision senses in human. There are other kinds of proximity measurements, like laser ranging, the usage of stereo cameras, or the projection of a colored line, grid or pattern of dots to observe how the pattern is distorted by the environment. To sense proximity, humanoid robots can use sonars and infrared sensors, or tactile sensors like bump sensors, whiskers (or feelers), capacitive and piezoresistive sensors. Sound sensors allow humanoid robots to hear speech and environmental sounds, and perform as the ears of the human being. Microphones are usually used for this task.



Humanoid Robots have basically two components: 1) Sensors 



1) SENSORS: A sensor is an instrument used to sense the external environment around it. Sensing is one of the most important part of robotic paradigms. Sensors can be classified on the basis of physical process with which they work or on the basis of type measurement of information that they give as the output. Given below are the few types of sensors:


Proprioceptive sensors: 2) ACTUATORS:

Proprioceptive sensors are used to sense the postion, the orientation and the speed of the humanized body and joints. Humanoid robots use accelerometers to measure the acceleration, from which velocity can be calculated by integration;


An actuator is a mechanical device used for moving or controlling a mechanism or system, which takes energy and transported usually by air, electric current, or liquid and converts that into some kind of motion. Actuators are the motors responsible for motion in the robot.


Proprioception is the sense of the relative position of

neighboring parts of the body.

They can be of electric, pneumatic, hydraulic, ultrasonic, piezoelectric based working motors. Electric actuators are best suitable for high speed and low load applications. Hydraulic actuators are best suitable for low speed and high load applications. Piezoelectric actuators are generally used for ultra precise positioning and for generating and handling high forces and pressures in static or dynamic situations. Ultrasonic actuators are designed to produce movements in the order of micrometers. Useful for controlling vibration, positioning applications and quick switching. Pneumatic actuators work on the basis of gas compressibility. They are designed for low speed and low/medium load applications.

The upper body of the robot or the torso has larger mass and inertia than the legs which are supposed to move and support the robot.

The trajectory of a robot can be planned using the angular momentum equation to ensure that the generated joint trajectories gurantee the dynamic postural stability of the robot, which usually is quantified by the distance of ZMP in the boundaries of predefined stability region. Balancing and movement also involves the self detection of collision, path planning and obstacle avoidance. One of the important feature that is not yet found in a humanoid robot is ‘flexibility’.

VII. VI. BALANCE & MOVEMENT NAME Actroid  After the robot’s structure is created, it’s necessary to make the robot walk and enable self analysis based upon its motion. For that balancing and calculations of its motions are important and form an integral part of the humanoid robots, since they are different from the conventional robots used in factories. They have to be provided the human-like movement, especially biped gait one. To maintain the dynamic balance during the walk, a robot needs information about the contact force and its desired motion. The solution to the problem lies on major concept called as Zero Moment Point (ZMP). ZMP is concept related to dynamics and especially to legged motion. It specifies the point with respect to which dynamic reaction force at the contact of the foot with the ground does not produce any moment, i.e. the point where total inertia force equals zero. The concept involves of the assumption that the contact area is planar and has sufficiently high friction to keep the feet from sliding. The ZMP is no longer useful if robot makes multiple non-planar contacts. AIBO ASIMO CHROMET GuRoo HOAP HRP-4C Iclub Nao KISMET Plen REEM

EXAMPLES PURPOSE/ FEATURES Mimic blinking, speaking Robotic pet To interact better with humans Large number of sensors Competes in the ROBOCUP Easy to program and simple initial start up voice recognition, speech synthesis To study cognition Competes in ROBOCUP Human Emotion & Appearance Controllable by a Bluetooth enabled phone Simultaneous

MANUFACTURER/ DEVELOPER Kokoro Company LTD Sony, Japan Honda, Japan NIAIST4,Japan MRLSITEE5 Fujitsu Automation, Japan NIAIST,Japan RobotCub Consortium Aldebaran Robotics, France MIT6 Akazawa Co Ltd,Japan Pal Technology

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

Mobile Robotics Laboratory in the School of Information Technology and Electrical Enginnering

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Robonaut Robonova-1 Robosapein SIGMO Toyota Partner Robots TOPIO

NASA MiniRobot WowWee

Toyota TOSY

localization and mapping Space exploration & teleportation Electromagnet gun with laser Can be controlled with infrared signals Study the applications of passive dynamics Assist lives of Japan’s Aging people Play table tennis

GYNOIDGYNOID is designed to resemble a human female. The term was termed by Gwyneth Jones .


A robot Manufactured by Honda, Japan , that stands at 130cm and weighing 54kg. it resembles a small astronaut wearing a backpack and can walk or run on two feet on speed upto 6km/h Officially the name is an acronym for “Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility”, though Honda claims it not to be true.

Gynoid functions include doing traditional women’s work such as household chores, secretarial work and teaching small children  KISMET-

KISMET was made by MIT in the late 1990’s. specially designed to study the human emotions and appearences. The name comes from the Arabic,Turkish,Urdu,Hindi and Punjabi word meaning “fate”.

It was developed to have better interaction with the humans. The five features that fall under its credit are:      Recognition of moving objects Recognition of postures and gestures Environment recognition Distinguishing sounds Facial recognition

Kismet simulates emotion through various facial expressions, vocalizations, and movement. Facial expressions are created through movements of the ears, eyebrows, eyelids, lips, jaw, and head. The cost of physical materials is an estimated US$25,000 !  iCUB-

The iCub is a small-size humanoid robot being designed by the RobotCub Consortium, consisting of several European universities. The main goal of this platform is to study cognition through the implementation of biological motivated algorithms. This is an open project in many different ways: it will distribute its platform openly and it will develop software open-source.

The dimensions of the iCub are similar to that of a 3.5 year old child.iCub, in its final version, will have 54 degrees of freedom organized as follows:

Although the Nao Academics Edition is already available for universities and laboratories for research purposes, it will not be available to the general public until 2011. On August 15, 2007, Nao replaced the robot dog Aibo by Sony as the robot used in the Robocup ("Robot Soccer World Cup") Standard Platform League (SPL), an international robotics competition [1]. The Nao was used in RoboCup 2008 and 2009, and the NaoV3R was chosen as the platform for the SPL at RoboCup 2010.

• • • • •

7 for each arm 9 for each hand 6 for the head 3 for the torso and spine 6 for each leg .



TOPIO is a bipedal humanoid robot designed to play table tennis against a human being. It has been developed since 2005 by TOSY, a robots firm in Vietnam. It was publicly demonstrated at the Tokyo International Robot Exhibition (IREX) on November 28, 2007. TOPIO 3.0 the latest vesion of TOPIO stands approximately 1.88 m tall and weighs 120 kg.

AIBO i.e. Artificial Intelligence roBOt, was one of several types of robotic pets designed and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.



Enon was created to be a personal assistant. It is self-guiding and has limited speech recognition and synthesis. It can also carry things.

Nao is an autonomous, programmable and medium-sized humanoid robot, developed by the French company Aldebaran Robotics, a start-up headquartered in Paris.

On the other hand, there are very good algorithms for the several areas of humanoid construction, but it's very difficult to merge all of them into one efficient system as the system complexity becomes very high. Nowadays, these are the main difficulties that humanoid robots development has to deal with. Humanoid robots are created to imitate some of the same physical and mental tasks that humans undergo daily. Scientists and specialists from many different fields including engineering, cognitive science, and linguistics combine their efforts to create a robot as human-like as possible. Their creators' goal for the robot is that one day it will be able to both understand human intelligence, reason and act like humans. If humanoids are able to do so, they could eventually work in cohesion with humans to create a more productive and higher quality future.

Given above is an artificial hand holding the light bulb.



Humanoid Robots try to simulate the human structure and behavior and they are autonomous systems, hence most of the times humanoid robots are more complex than other kinds of robots. This complexity affects all robotic scales (mechanical, spatial, time, power density, system and computational complexity), but it is more noticeable on power density and system complexity scales. In the first place, most current humanoids aren’t strong enough even to jump and this happens because the power/weight ratio is not as good as in the human body. The dynamically balancing Anybots Dexter can jump, but poorly so far.

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Use of Unobtrusive Human-Machine Interface for Rehabilitation of Stroke victims through Robot Assisted Mirror therapy Gautam Narangi, Arjun Narang2, Soumya Singhi luhani Lempiainen Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bharati Managing Director Vidyapeeth's College of Engineering, New Delhi, India Deltatron Oy Ltd. Department of Electronics and Instrumentation, Birla Helsinki, Finland Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India,, Abstract- Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability worldwide. Present techniques employed One technique employed to effectively rehabilitate stroke for victims, especially those suffering from partial paralysis or rehabilitation of victims suffering from partial paralysis or loss loss of function, is using mirror therapy. Mirror therapy is a of function, such as mirror therapy, require substantial amount of resources, which may not be readily available. In traditional mirror therapy, patients place a mirror beside the functional limb, blocking their view of the affected limb, creating the illusion that both the limbs are working properly, which strategy that has been used successfully to treat phantom pain after amputation and recovery from hemiplegia after a stroke. In traditional mirror therapy, patients place a mirror beside......

Words: 3208 - Pages: 13

Free Essay


...Robotic Assistants for Aircraft Inspectors Mel Siegel, Priyan Gunatilake, and Gregg Podnar Intelligent Sensor, Measurement, and Control Laboratory The Robotics Institute -- School of Computer Science -- Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213-3891 ABSTRACT Aircraft flight pressurization/depressurization cycling causes the skin to inflate and deflate, stressing it around the rivets that fasten it to the airframe. The resulting strain, exacerbated by corrosion, drives the growth of initially microscopic cracks. To avoid catastrophe, aircraft are inspected periodically for cracks and corrosion. The inspection technology employed is ~90% naked-eye vision. We have developed and demonstrated robotic deployment of both remote enhanced 3D-stereoscopic video instrumentation for visual inspection and remote eddy current probes for instrumented inspection. This article describes the aircraft skin inspection application, how robotic deployment may alleviate human performance problems and workplace hazards during inspection, practical robotic deployment systems, their instrumentation packages, and our progress toward developing image enhancement and understanding techniques that could help aircraft inspectors to find cracks, corrosion, and other visually detectable damage. KEYWORDS: automated robot visual NDI inspection enhanced remote stereoscopic multiresolution 1. INTRODUCTION Pressurization and de-pressurization of an airplane during each takeoff and landing cycle......

Words: 10694 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay


...manual work already exist, as the industrial robots attest. Rather it is the computer-based artificial brain that is still well below the level of sophistication needed to build a humanlike robot. Nevertheless, I am convinced that the decades-old dream of a useful, general-purpose autonomous robot will be realized in the not too distant future. By 2010 we will see mobile robots as big as people but with cognitive abilities similar in many respects to those of a lizard. The machines will be capable of carrying out simple chores, such as vacuuming, dusting, delivering packages and taking out the garbage. By 2040, I believe, we will finally achieve the original goal of robotics and a thematic mainstay of science fiction: a freely moving machine with the intellectual capabilities of a human being. Reason for Optimism on Robotics Future When it comes to robots, reality still lags science fiction. But, just because robots have not lived up to their promise in...

Words: 1744 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...CEG 4392 Computer Systems Design Project SENSOR-BASED ROBOT CONTROL Robotics has matured as a system integration engineering field defined by M. Bradley as “the intelligent connection of the perception to action”. Programmable robot manipulators provide the “action” component. A variety of sensors and sensing techniques are available to provide the “perception”. t ROBOTIC SENSING Since the “action” capability is physically interacting with the environment, two types of sensors have to be used in any robotic system: “proprioceptors” for the measurement of the robot’s (internal) parameters; “exteroceptors” for the measurement of its environmental (external, from the robot point of view) parameters. Data from multiple sensors may be further fused into a common representational format (world model). Finally, at the perception level, the world model is analyzed to infer the system and environment state, and to assess the consequences of the robotic system’s actions. 1. Proprioceptors From a mechanical point of view a robot appears as an articulated structure consisting of a series of links interconnected by joints. Each joint is driven by an actuator which can change the relative position of the two links connected by that joint. Proprioceptors are sensors measuring both kinematic and dynamic parameters of the robot. Based on these measurements the control system activates the actuators to exert torques so that the articulated mechanical structure performs the......

Words: 2269 - Pages: 10

Free Essay


...Artificial intelligence good idea or not? According to Sharkey’s article “The Ethical Frontiers of Robotics”, that robots are being available for everyone. Furthermore, they are being used for child care, helping the elderly, and they are being used as self-sufficient war machines which has given a raise to some problems that affects us greatly. I totally agree with the points that Sharkey made and looking at it this way will change the perspective of people too. After all machines are machines and humans are humans there is a huge range of emotions that a robot don’t possess. It’s true that I’m a little bit shocked of the issues that are presented by the author but after reading it more than once I agree with it. The first thing is the Idea of robots taking care of children with observation through mobile phones by their parents. Through researches with robots that take care of children it has shown that the child grows a really strong attachment towards them, children might get so attached that they would prefer the robots over a stuffed animal or a small toy. Parents might keep their kids busy with TV but only for a short while. However the TV doesn’t provide a child with his personal needs. However, what will happen if children are left alone with the care of robots for a long period of time? Sadly it’s still unknown how the young kids will be affected due to the fact that we can’t do experiments on humans. But an experiment has been conducted on monkeys...

Words: 822 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...A Seminar Report ON Human-Oriented Interaction With An Anthropomorphic Robot CONTENTS ➢ Abstract ➢ Index Terms ➢ Introduction ➢ Related Work ➢ Robot Hardware ➢ Detecting And Tracking People * Face Detection * Voice Detection * Memory-Based Person Tracking ➢ Integrating Interaction Capabilities * Speech And Dialog * Emotions And Facial Expressions * Using Deictic Gestures * Object Attention * Dynamic Topic Tracking * Bringing It All Together ➢ Experiments * Scenario 1: Multiple Person Interaction * Scenario 2: Showing Objects to BARTHOC * Scenario 3: Reading Out a Fairy Tale ➢ Conclusion ➢ References Abstract A very important aspect in developing robots capable of human-robot interaction (HRI) is the research in natural, human-like communication, and subsequently, the development of a research platform with multiple HRI capabilities for evaluation. Besides a flexible dialog system and speech understanding, an anthropomorphic appearance has the potential to support intuitive usage and understanding of a robot, e.g .. human-like facial expressions and deictic gestures can as well be produced and also understood by the robot. As a consequence of our effort in creating an anthropomorphic appearance and to come close to a......

Words: 7843 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay


...Robotics: Utopia or Dystopia Robotics: Utopia or Dystopia? Table of Contents: Serial No. | Particular | Page No. | 01. | Introduction | 04 | 02. | Definition of a Robot | 04 | 03. | History of Robotics | 05 - 10 | 04. | The implications of robotics for jobs in manufacturing | 10-12 | 05. | The implications of robotics for jobs in the service sector: | 12 -13 | 06. | Robotics and future jobs, utopia or Dystopia | 13-15 | 07. | Conclusion: | 16 | 08. | Recommendation | 16 | 09. | References | 17 | Robotics: Utopia or Dystopia? Introduction: We are living in such an era, when the needs and demands of human beings are increasing day by day. To satisfy those needs, innovation and development in every field which guide the future of humanity is also proceeding in a rapid way. To meet the various needs and desires of the increasing population, inventors were seeking for a genuine solution which could provide the overwhelming challenges and will be able to meet the demands of the civilizations and that leads to the idea of mechanization. Inventors, who put forward the idea of mechanization, stated that by mechanization there would be great convenience for people to respond to their demands and can help them to complete their task in a short period of time. By following these principles, machines have started to meet the needs of increasing......

Words: 7086 - Pages: 29

Free Essay


...question: will robots be the solution to our problems or will they be the root cause for the end of humanity? (Asimov, 1985) In response to Asimov, this argument will undoubtedly attack the statement, by saying that: Despite the large advancements in science and technology due to robotics, many texts theorise that this sector of technology poses a massive threat to the human race. To further defend this point two key texts will be addressed, they include: I, Robot, a fictional movie that exemplifies the fact that Robots can take over humanity and an article from renowned author George Dvorsky who ponders over the possibility of Robots becoming sentient and fighting for their rights, resulting in the end of human beings. Using both the fictional and non-fictional text it will be proven beyond doubt that future robotics pose a massive threat to the human race. Ever since Fritz Lang’s, Metropolis movie, robots have been a reappearing figure in the film industry and are often represented as a threat to the future world. A prime example of this is the text I, Robot. When hitting the screens in 2004, I, Robot, brought about some opposing debates about robotics, ultimately arguing whether future robotics will be beneficial or harmful. The beginning of the film consists of the creator of robots, Dr. Lanning committing suicide. However Detective...

Words: 1121 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Robotics Technology

...GS1140 Problem Solving Theory Unit 1 Research Paper 1: Paradigm Shift Daniel Yerger Page 1 Robotics Technology The idea of robots came about in 1495 by Leonardo Di Vinci who designed the first humanoid robot. The first computer-controlled robotic arm was designed by George Devol and Joe Engleberger in 1954 this led to the development of the first industrial robot in 1961. In 1977 Star Wars the movie creates the strongest image for the human future with robots like R2D2 and C3PO in the 1960s it inspired a generation of researchers in the robotic technology field. In 1989 a walking robot name Genghis was developed by the mobile robots group at MIT and was known for the way it walks called the Genghis gait. It is predicted by the Japanese Mitsubishi research Institute that each household would on a robot by 2020. Robots are mechanical devices that does some type of work or has a purpose that people would normally do, some robots are totally controlled by an onboard computer system and sensors, and some robots are controlled by people. Cybernetics is also a type of robotic technology device that can replace limbs, some of these devices are controlled by the nerves of the limb that was severed in some way. In 20 years we should be able to replace limbs that will look part of the body and be controlled as if it was the original. Industrial robots are used in it in a vast number of factories the well-known ones are in the auto manufacturing industry. A lot of the......

Words: 774 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Carlos Aznaran EG 1420 Dr. Mustain Unit 1, 2 Assignments References Bourne, D. (2013). My Boss the Robot. Scientific American, 308, 38-41. Fletcher, S. (2013). Yes, Robots Are Coming for Our Jobs—Now What? Scientific American. Retrieved from are-coming-for-our-jobs-now-what/ on Feb 6, 2015. Ford, M. (2013). Could Artificial Intelligence Create an Unemployment Crisis? Communications of the ACM, 56(7), 37-39. Nelson, R. (2013). Robots: will They Hire Us, or Fire Us? Evaluating Engineering, Retrieved from fire-us.php on Feb 6, 2015. Noving, P. (2012). Artificial Intelligence. New Scientist, 216(2889), i. Walsh, D. (2014). Fear not the ‘bot? Crain’s Detroit Business, 30(17) Retrieved from robots-take-jobs-experts-ask-if-humans-will on Feb 6, 2015. Bortot, Dino, and Bengler, Klaus. "Industrial Robots - The New Friend of an Aging Workforce?" In Advances in Ergonomics in Manufacturing, 9. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2012. Peter, Tom A. "Robots Set to Overhaul Service Industry, Jobs." Robots Set to Overhaul Service Industry, Jobs. February 8, 2008. Accessed September 21, 2015. Chijindu, V. C., and H. C. Inyiama. "Social Implications of Robots – An Overview." International Journal of Physical Sciences 7, no. 8 (2012): 1270 1275. Accessed September 21,......

Words: 258 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Robotic Warfare

...Robots Help, Not Hurt Imagine a world where robots were used instead of humans on the battlefield and there was no loss of human lives. Robotic warfare needs to be supported because it helps prevent the loss of human life, it has the ability to rapidly reproduce robotic soldiers, and it can reduce the possibility of human error. Many articles state that robots have the downsides like most everything does but robots can provide upsides that can't be done by any other solution. Robotic warfare is a positive for both sides of the spectrum due to niether side losing any men at all. When a soldier goes out on to a battle field they have a chance to die because of many various dangers and they are unable to identify and counteract all of the dangers they will face. The amount of dangers are too immense for one human to handle and key in on the human aspect. If and when the robotic soldier enter the battlefield soldier will be virtually untouchable and incredibly safe compared to war in this era. This still doesn't keep humans completely out of harm's way from the dangers of the battlefield. The humans have to be within a certain range to operate the drones or robots that are being controlled in the battlefield so they are still be in range of the enemy forces and can be killed if spotted or traced by the enemy. Also when you put robots into combat they don't have the ability to discern an enemy vs an innocent person. The robots could end up killing innocent women and......

Words: 1035 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The History Of Robotics

...ROBOTICS Introduction Robotics is the branch of mechanical, electrical engineering and computer science that deals with the pattern, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies are very useful and deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. These days robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. The approach of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots...

Words: 1609 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Emerging Technology - Robotics

...EMERGING TECHNOLOGY - ROBOTICS Emerging Technology - Robotics Team A LAS-432 Professor Stuart Vanorny 28 February, 2013 DeVry University Introduction & Brief description of robotics technology: (Elizabeth Burrier) Robotics has been coming further and further in technology over the years. Robots are not just something you see in the movies, they are now used by the military, NASA and the medical field. This paper will take you through the world of Robotics, and show you the best, newest and what is to come. There was a big popularity Automatons in ancient and Medieval times were very popular. Simple automatons for the use as tools, toys and as part of religious ceremonies were made possible by the Ancient Greeks and Romans. Automatons were population as part of clocks and religious worship, in Europe and the Middle East. The Arab polymath Al-Jazari left texts illustrating his various mechanical devices. Working to develop the foundations of computer science in the early to mid-nineteenth century, Charles Babbage continued to provide entertainment during the 19th century. In 1920, Karel Capek published his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which introduced the word "robot". Robotics became a burgeoning science and more money was invested. Robots spread to Japan, South Korea and many parts of Europe over the last half century, to the extent that projections for the 2011 population of industrial robots are around 1.2 million. Robotics is something that......

Words: 11210 - Pages: 45

Premium Essay

Newest Trends in Robotics

...Newest trends in robotic Emergence of New International Players * Robotics mostly from Japan, United States, and a few European countries * New international players are emerging * China is making significant investments in robotics. Chinese manufacturers are currently leading the world in terms of procurement of new industrial robots. They are also developing their own low-cost industrial robots * South Korea leads the world in terms of robots deployed per 10,000 workers (recently, a South Korean team built the robot that won the DARPA Robotics Challenge, beating teams from the United States, Europe, and Japan) * Switzerland, Netherlands, and United Arab Emirates are among some of the other countries investing heavily in AI, robotics, and drones. * Globalization of robotics is expected to create new opportunities and challenge the leadership of the traditional players. Reduction in Hardware Costs * Cost of industrial robots (such as articulated manipulators, mobile robotic platforms, drones) has been declining in the commercial sector. * The agricultural sector is being projected as a major new market for robots and UAVs. Source: ------------------------------------------------- Industrial robot statistics Source: Asia, the most important region *......

Words: 1388 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Disadvantages Of Robotics

...For instance, currently there is ongoing work on development of a robot called Loyal Partner, which will be armed with remote-controlled weapons and be able to manoeuvre in terrain, serving as an advance guard for combat soldiers. It could be deployed into areas filled with hidden explosives and shooting ambushes. On one hand, the deployment of robots can solve the problem of human resources, but on the other hand the legislative field of use of robotics as warfare is not established yet. There still a long way to go. As one of the first steps that should be done in order to arrange the legislation in case of cyber warfare, could be extension of existing international agreements to protect civilians against cyberattacks. Those international agreements should be made so that certain acts like cyberattacks on civilian infrastructure are prohibited. And it should be the country’s responsibility to take measures in protection of its infrastructure. As one of the big steps in making cyberspace to a more safe space could be establishing the mechanism of national governmental responsibility for the prevention of violations originating within a nation’s borders, and an obligation to assist in stopping...

Words: 1548 - Pages: 7