Rock Climbers Perception of Responsible Tourism in Waterval Boven
Submitted By brawilliam
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION Tourism is, according to the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (2002a), the world’s largest economical sector. In 2002, tourism in South African had a growth rate of 11.1 % in foreign arrivals from the previous year. That accounted for 6,4 million foreign tourists (South African Tourism, 2003). In 2003 it grew with another 1.2 % to 6,5 million tourists (South African Tourism, 2004), and in 2004, the number had increased to more than 6,8 million foreign tourists that visited South Africa (Geldenhuys, 2005:10). This shows that South Africa is becoming a popular travel destination among tourists.
South Africa is a diverse country with many unique cultures and historical significances. South African Tourism have established that tourists experienced the hospitality and friendliness of the South African people as the most satisfactory of their visit in South Africa (Geldenhuys, 2005:10), and in a recent international survey done by American Express (Geldenhuys, 2005:10), South Africa was rated as the second-cheapest destination. Attractions such as Table Mountain, Robben Island, the Garden Route, Namaqualand, the Cradle of Human Kind, the Kruger National Park, the Drakensberg Mountains, and Soweto are just some of the South African examples (South African Tourism, 2005a). The towns and cities of South Africa such as Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Cape Town also serve as attractions (South African Tourism, 2005b). There are also various small towns that are popular among tourists (South African 1
Tourist, 2005c). They normally have significant historical, cultural, or natural attractions that are of value to tourists. Towns such as Knysna, Oudtshoorn, Franschoek, Darling, Groot Marico, Dullstroom, Pilgrim’s Rest, Clarens, Simonstown, Paternoster, Kaapchehoop, Matjiesfontein and Waterval Boven are rich in unique attractions such as art, museums, history, people and scenery (South African Tourism, 2005c).
Although tourism provides economical benefits to these towns (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2001:285), the irresponsible practices and actions of tourists and tourist organizations may devalue those benefits. Cook, Yale and Marqua (2001:323) explains that tourism has social, economical, and environmental impacts, both positive and negative. It is therefore necessary that tourists and tourist organizations practice responsible tourism with regard to the environment as well as the communities.
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the problem statement, as well as the primary and secondary objectives and the research methodology of this study.
1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT Tourism is a major contributor to economical growth and wealth in a community. It creates jobs, boosts entrepreneurship, accumulates foreign exchange, and provides regional economical wealth (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2002a). Tourism also has a huge impact on the environment if not managed in a responsible manner (SA, 1996). Responsible tourism aims to minimize ecological impacts, and to
provide social and as mentioned above, economical benefits to the community (SA, 1996). According to the White Paper (SA, 1996:26), tourists and tourism organizations should contribute towards tourism development in communities. Communities should become involved in tourism and also benefit from tourism.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether rock climbers perceive themselves as contributing towards responsible tourism development in the Waterval Boven area.
For this project it was decided to use the Waterval Boven area as field of study. Towns and villages attract a certain type of tourist depending on the types of attractions that are available. For example, the Klein Karoo Nasionale Kunsfees (KKNK) in Oudtshoorn is an example of a cultural attraction that attracts Afrikaans speaking people throughout South Africa.
Waterfall Boven is a world-renowned rock-climbing venue that attracts local climbers as well as foreign climbers from all over the world (Janse van Rensburg, 2004:13). Since 1991, climbers have visited Waterval Boven, using the facilities that are provided by the municipality and the farmers (Janse van Rensburg, 2004:14). Supplies are bought from the local businesses and social interaction with the locals take place in pubs and restaurants.
Waterval Boven is a small railway town situated in the Mpumalanga Province along the N4 highway, between Pretoria in Gauteng and Maputo, in Mozambique. In the Climbers Guide to Waterval Boven, Janse van Rensburg (2004:25) states that the town originally started as a railway connection between Pretoria and Maputo, but with the decline in railway activity the majority of the people are now employed in the surrounding mines and forestry industries. The town has tourist attractions such as the Elands River Falls, the Nederlandsche Zuid Afrikaansche Spoorweg Maatschappij (NZASM) tunnel, the Whistle and Trout, a railway museum and restaurant, and ancient rock formations believed to be long forgotten African kraals. The location of the town however, which is situated on the Mpumalanga escarpment, is a perfect setting for various outdoor activities. Paragliding, horse riding, fly-fishing, hiking, and kayaking are some of the activities already practiced around the town (Janse van Rensburg, 2004:35). The red quartzite cliffs of the escarpment, however provide the main outdoor activity, namely rock climbing.
Former Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Mr. Vali Moosa remarked in 2002 that tourism had become the largest cost-effective sector in the world, and that South Africa had achieved a growth rate in foreign arrivals of 20.1% during that year (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2002c). This growth in the sector has placed a heavy burden on local communities, cultures and environments, which calls for responsible management.
From an assessment done concerning the problems, restraints and prospects that South African Tourism industries are facing, the concept of Responsible Tourism emerged. According to the White Paper (SA, 1996:26), the key guiding system for tourism progress in South Africa would be to implement the concept of Responsible Tourism. Responsible Tourism includes two parties such as tourism organizations and tourists. Responsible tourism implies the following: Tourism Organizations should look after their destinations, so that the natural or cultural attractions and resources used are not spoiled for both the local communities and future visitors (Travel Foundation, S.a.). Tourists they should be aware that when they travel to other countries, their actions have certain consequences for the local population, which may be constructive, harmful, or impartial (Birahi, 1994).
Responsible tourist guidelines according to the South Pacific Tourism Organization (1994) include points such as: Attaining information about the country to be visited, Awareness of customs and languages and cultural behavior. Minimizing environmental impacts. Supporting local initiatives. Paying fair prices and Considering your own actions.
Tourism that includes recreational activities which are normally practiced in the outdoors tends to attract adventure tourists (Cook, Yale, & Marqua, 2001:350). Swartbrooke, Beard, Leckie and Pomfret as mentioned by Pomfret (2004:1), indicates that adventure tourism has recently grown into a niche form of tourism. One form of adventure tourism is that of mountaineering, which includes activities such as rock climbing, backpacking, hiking, and cross-country skiing (Mitchell as used by Pomfret (2004:2)). Mountaineers and climbers interact with communities when buying supplies and with the environment when climbing. Their actions as tourists could either benefit or impact negatively on communities and the environment.
The Mountain Club of South Africa (MCSA) has developed a code of conduct for mountaineers to conserve and respect the mountains and communities that they interact with (MCSA, 2004). According to Hattingh (2000:30) climbers as mass tourists could have a negative impact on the environment and on local indigenous populations, however Hattingh (2000:33) also states that climbing generates economical benefits such as the income for guides, hostels, trade, and industry.
The problem that emanates from the study is whether rock climbers perceive themselves as contributing towards responsible tourism development in the Waterval Boven area. The specific objectives of this study are:
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The primary and secondary objectives that have been identified are:
1.3.1 Primary Objective The primary objective of the study is to measure the rock climbers’ perception of their contribution towards responsible tourism development in the Waterval Boven area.
1.3.2 Secondary Objective The secondary objective of the study is to identify the demographics of the rock climbers. The research methodology used for this study will now be discussed.
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study was based on a literature study, a structured questionnaire, and personal interviews with rock climbers visiting the Waterval Boven area.
1.4.1 Literature Study For the purpose of this study the secondary data included a study of relevant literature. This was based on a qualitative study that included books, articles, newspapers, magazines, reports and the Internet. Information searches that included the following keywords were conducted: responsible tourism, sustainable tourism, tourism impacts, adventure, adventure tourism, mountaineering, and rock climbing.
1.4.2 Survey For the primary quantitative data received, a questionnaire that included both open- and closed-ended questions was complied. The target population was identified as rock climbers visiting and climbing in Waterval Boven. The questionnaires were completed by rock climbers during the weekend of 02 July 2005 and 24 September 2005. A total of sixty-eight questionnaires or 97% were completed.
1.5 DEFINITIONS The following concepts that are used throughout the study will now be explained.
Acclimatization: The process of the human’s body to adapt to the thin air that occurs at high altitude (Hattingh, 2000:154).
Adventure: “A daring, unexpected, exciting activity that are hazardous” (The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1983:14).
Adventure Tourism: An open-air leisure activity that takes place in unusual, interesting, isolated or wilderness destinations that engrosses some form of alternative means of transportation, and tends to be related with low or high levels of activity (Swartbrooke et al, 2003:29).
Crag: An outcrop of rock where routes are climbed by climbers (Hattingh, 2000:154).
Developed areas: Those areas that consist of socio-economic conditions such as access to water, health care, employment, schooling, fuel and nutrients (Fennell, 2003:7).
Mountaineer: “Dweller amongst mountains, one skilled in climbing mountains” (The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1983:661).
Previous mistreated groups: Groups that were mostly expelled from the typical tourism activities (SA, 1996:15).
Responsible Tourism: “Tourism that promotes responsibility to the environment through its sustainable use; responsibility to involve local communities in the tourism industry; responsibility for the safety and security of visitors and responsible government, employees, employers, unions and local communities” (SA, 1996:15).
Rock climbing: Ascending of a rock face, by using the surface features on the rock for foot- and handholds with or without fixed or temporary protection. This form includes traditional climbing, sport climbing, bouldering, free climbing and soloing (Creasy, 1999:15).
Stakeholders: Includes all those involved in the tourism activity such as tourism organization, institutions, businesses, governments, employers, employees, host communities and tourists.
Underdeveloped Areas: Those areas that lack socio-economic conditions such as access to water, employment opportunities, health care, and education (Fennell, 2003:7).
Tourism: “The temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and facilities created to cater those needs” (Burns & Holden, 1995:5).
1.6 CHAPTER ORGANIZATION Chapter one includes an introduction, the problem statement, the primary and secondary objectives and the research methodology, as well as definitions for concepts used throughout the study.
In chapter two the concept of tourism is discussed concerning the tourist motivation for travel and the tourism industry with its various sectors which resolves around the tourists. One of the sectors consists of the adventure tourism industry. The concept of adventure and its characteristics are simplified where the adventure activity of mountaineering is
made the focal point. Mountaineering and its various forms and characteristics are discussed with a brief look at its impacts.
In chapter three the concept of responsible tourism is discussed. A background of South Africa’s decision to implement responsible tourism is described. The beneficial impacts of tourism and responsible tourism on the economical, social-cultural and environmental sectors are looked at with the effects of irresponsible tourism afterwards. The chapter ends with the responsible tourism guidelines that could be implemented to minimize the negative effect of tourism and maximize benefits.
In chapter four the survey results of the rock climbers’ perception of responsible tourism are noted and discussed.
In chapter five a general summary is given with recommendations made based on the findings of the study.
CHAPTER 2 ROCK CLIMBERS AS ADVENTURE TOURISTS
2.1 INTRODUCTION Prior to the 18th century tourism activities dated as far back as pre-recorded history (Bosselman, Peterson & McCarthy, 1999:2) when travel was done out of curiosity, discovery, exploration, and trading (Nickerson, 1996:9). This was in the time of the empire era, middle-ages and renaissance (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2001:8-14). Tourism as a business mostly started in the 18th century with the first tour in Europe, called the ‘The Grand Tour’. Only the wealthy then could travel and those involved with musical activities such as orchestras, theaters, and opera groups. In the 19th century travel was made available for the working classes due to the industrial revolution or mobility era. The introduction of motor cars, railways, and paid holidays for workers made travelling more accessible (Mann, 2000:5). In 1841, Thomas Cook who is considered to be the first to implement package tourism organised the first train excursion from Leicester to Loughborough in England, and later to Europe and the United States (Goeldner, Ritchie, & McIntosh, 2000:57).
Mass tourism increased in the 1960’s, when cheap air travel was introduced, the credit card made it possible for travellers to access funds, and the increase in disposable income made travelling affordable (Reid, 2003:3). Other aspects that contributed to the development of modern tourism were faster planes, travel agencies and guidebooks (Mann, 2000:5, 6).
Matheson and Wall as cited by Burns and Holden (1995:5), explain tourism as: ‘the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and facilities created to cater those needs’. Burkart and Medliks (1989:42) provided five main characteristics that tourism is associated with, which are:
Tourism arises from the movement of people to different destinations and their stay at the destinations.
The elements of the journey to the destination and the activities undertaken during the tourists visit at the destination.
The journey as well as the stay takes place outside the tourist’s normal place of residence and work, so that the activities provided by tourism are different from those of the residence and working population.
The movement of tourist to destinations is temporary, short-term with the intention of returning home within a few days, weeks, or months.
Destinations are visited for the reasons other than taking up permanent residence or employment remuneration from the place visited.
Therefore tourism describes the activity of people taking trips away from home and the industry that has developed in response to those activities (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2001:6). However it is important to recognize the characteristics of tourism, because although tourism includes travel, not all travel is tourism (Mill & Morrison as cited by Burns & Holden (1995:5)). To clarify this it is important to look at the classification of tourists.
Tourists may be classified into two categories; the international visitor and the domestic visitor. Within these two categories, there are the excursionists and those that are not tourists (Bennett, 2000:4). The following explains the international visitor and domestic visitor.
International visitors are those tourists who travel to countries other than that in which he/she has his/her usual residence, for at least 24 hours but not more than one year, and who’s main reason of visiting is either for pleasure, recreation, holiday, sport, business, VFR, conferences, health, studies or religion (Holloway, 1998:2). The domestic visitor is any resident in a country who travels to a destination in the same country, with the same time limitation and purpose as that of the international tourist (Bennett 2000:4).
In this chapter the need and motivation for traveling, the tourism sector involved as well as adventure tourism will be discussed. Specific attention will be paid to rock climbing as an adventure activity and the rock climber who is involved in the activity.
2.2 TRAVEL NEEDS AND MOTIVATION Tourists travel for different purposes and reasons, however travelling are driven by needs and motivators (Cooper, Fletcher, Fyall, Gilbert, & Wanhill, 2005:52).
Pizam and Mansfeld (2000:7-11) and Burns and Holden (1995:31-43) explain the different theories that researchers have developed to explain the phenomenon of why people travel. Through establishing the different reasons and therefore the type of tourist, it helps to identify the characteristics of a tourist and market segments. A brief review of some of the theories as to why people travel, what motivates them and how they are classified will now be discussed.
Maslow has developed a theory that describes the basic needs of humans, as an arousing stimulus for travelling behavior. Season and Bennett (as cited by George (2001:132)) describe motivation as a form of stimulation from a drive or need that urges people to move in search of certain goals. Pizam and Mansfeld (2000:7) describe needs as the force that arouses motivated behaviour, and it is assumed that to understand human motivation, it is necessary to discover the needs that people have and how they can be fulfilled. Maslow’s hierarchy model as indicated in Table 2.1 describes the basic needs of people and how it relates to travel.
Self-Actualizing: Self-fulfillment, realizing one’s full potential. Self- Esteem: Success, self-confidence, recognition, reputation and self-respect. Social Needs: Love, friendship, acceptance, and understanding. Security Needs: Need for safety and protection, job security, insurance, etc. Physiological Needs: Food, water, sleep, and air.
Source: Maslow as cited by Pizam and Mansfeld (2000:8) Table 2.1: Maslow’s Model
Maslow (as cited by Bennett (2000:199), Pizam and Mansfeld (2000:8), Cook, Yale & Marqua (2001:35), Hall & Page (2002:63) and George (2001:132)) argues that if none of the needs in the hierarchy are satisfied, then the lowest need will dominate behaviour. When the lowest need is satisfied such as the physiological needs, it will no longer serve as motivation and individuals will find new needs and move one level up in the hierarchy towards security needs. When these needs are satisfied, individuals will move one up again until their self-actualization needs are fulfilled. These needs are an important part of travelling.
Based on Maslow’s work, some researchers went further to explain the motivation behind travel. Crompton as cited by Pizam and Mansfeld (2000:9) identified two motives: the push and pull factors.
Push factors or motives are to escape from routine environments, to explore, relax, for prestige, to socialise and evaluate oneself. Pull factors would be novelty and education. Iso-Ahola as cited by Hall and Page (2002:63), explains tourist motivation in terms of an escape and search element. In other words, people will travel to leave personal and interpersonal problems behind, and/or be in search of some kind of reward. The reward could be either intrinsically or objective (Pizam & Mansfeld, 2000:9).
On the basis of these motivations and other similar motivational theories from Dann, and McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie as indicated by Cooper et al (2005:55, 56), researchers went and classified the tourist in certain typologies according to their similar characteristics. These typologies are explained by the following model.
Plog as cited by Hallowy (1994:54) and Hall and Page (2002:64) have developed a model where travelers are classified according to two dimensions: allocentric and psychocentric. These two dimensions are also combined with an energy factor. Allocentric travelers are those that prefer exotic destinations, unstructured vacations, adventures experiences, who are outgoing and interact with other cultures and would like to learn something new. Psychocentric are those that prefer familiar destinations, packaged tours, and conventional tourist areas. Plog also later added energy to describe the level of activity, for instance rafting would be of high energy and a museum visits would be low energy. According to this model a typical adventure tourist will be an allocentric traveler.
Tourism has become a major sector that includes a broad variety of services as described in the next section.
2.3 TOURISM SECTORS Many different definitions have been given to clarify the industry (Reid, 2003:18). A point of interest is that tourism doesn’t have its own industry classification code. This means that tourism consists of various sectors that are grouped together, and not a distinct industry itself. These sectors are accommodation, transport, attractions and entertainment, destinations, food and beverages and tourism promoters, which are the sectors that tourists use when travelling (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2001:7). An example of a tour is shown to highlight the importance and network of the services.
Mr. Jack Jackson has just finished a working year. It was a hard year but he saved enough money to take him and his wife on a holiday. He decides to take his wife to Europe on a three-week holiday. They have always talked about seeing the Eiffel Tower, the Alps, and Amsterdam. Now is as good as ever and since they have not travelled before, they call a travel agent to arrange a tour package. It is not long before they stand at the check in counter at the airport ready to depart. After a few hours flight they arrive in Paris. Excited to be in another country they are picked up by an arranged bus, which takes them straight to their hotel. In the following couple of days they explore the city and the rest of Europe, with a considerable amount of train and bus rides. While on their trip they make use of the local coffee shops and restaurants in Amsterdam and even learn some Dutch. When they arrive in Switzerland they ski and do some moderate hiking in the Alps. The
day before departure they are all packed and decide to see the city one more time, where they come upon a medieval festival. What a last evening it turns out to be, with so much fun that they almost miss their flight the following day.
This is a simple example of a tour. However, without the services provided to accommodate the travelers’ needs and to transport them around the country, the tour would have been a disappointment. Similar for the adventure tourists that seek unusual settings, foreign foods, cultures and adventure activities, tourism services are required to accommodate those needs.
Tourism represents eight operational sectors according to Kay (2003:1) and Goeldner, Ritchie, and McIntosh (2000:28-30) as seen in Table 2.2. These sectors are those services as mentioned before that accommodates the travellers’ needs and makes up the tourism industry (Kay, 2003:1). Accommodation, transport, food and beverages, attraction, adventure and recreation, travel trade, tourism services and events are all interrelated to accommodate tourist’s needs. A short discussion of each sector follows after Table 2.2.
THE EIGHT SECTORS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY ACCOMMODATION Resorts & Lodges Campgrounds Recreation Camps Country Inns B&B Timeshare Facilities Hotels & Motels FOOD & BEVERAGES Restaurants & Dining Rooms Coffee Shops Fast-Food Outlets Pubs & Lounges Catering Operations TOURISM SERVICES Government Tourism Departments Information Centers Advertising Agencies Tourism Suppliers Tourism Consultants Marketing Companies Research Services ADVENTURE & RECREATION Adventure Tourism Fishing Facilities Golf Facilities Marine Facilities Parks Ecotourism TRANSPORTATION Air Carriers Automobile Rentals Cruise Lines Railways Recreational Vehicles Sight-seeing Helicopters & Planes EVENTS & CONFRENCES Conferences Conventions Exhibitions Fairs Festivals
ATTRACTIONS Amusement Parks Cultural Tourism Heritage & Historical Sites Industrial Tourism Museums Recreational Parks TRAVEL TRADE Tour Guides Tour Operators Travel Agencies Tour Wholesalers Local Sight Seeing
Source: Kay (2003:3) Table 2.2: The Eight Sectors of the Tourism Industry
2.3.1 Transportation Tourism is the business of travel, moving people from one place to another. Cook, Yale and Marqua (2001:98) mention that the tourism industry would cease to function without an efficient and effective transportation system. The transport system is classified into two categories: surface and air. Surface transport would be by road, railway, and water, each with their different modes such as vehicles, trains and cruise ships (Cooper et al, 2005:465), and air transport by planes. Accommodation is next to be discussed.
2.3.2 Accommodation Accommodation forms part of the physiological needs according to Maslow’s hierarchy model. As part of travel it could be dated as far back as Christ’s birth when Mary and Joseph were given shelter. Accommodation now has developed to such an extent that it not only suites the various needs of the travelers, but serves as an attraction for some destinations (Cooper et al: 2005:385). Many accommodation facilities include food and beverage outlets.
2.3.3 Food and Beverage A person will always remember good food from bad food. The food and beverage industry caters from fast food to elegant and expensive dining (Goeldner, Ritchie, & McIntosh, 2000:179). The food and beverage sector is a major competitive sector where the taste and presentation of food plays a major role. It is therefore important for service operators to satisfy tourists different tastes (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2001:164). With the basic need satisfied, the entertainment provided plays a vital role for tourists.
2.3.4 Entertainment and Attractions Tourists are constantly seeking new sights, sounds, and experiences to fulfill their leisure time while travelling (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2001:197). These leisure-time activities could be classified into five categories namely; natural, heritage, commercial, entertainment, and recreational attractions (Goeldner, Ritchie, & McIntosh, 2000:216). Attractions are natural locations, objects or constructed facilities that have an appeal to visitors (Hallowy, 1998:7). Events and conferences also form part of the attraction sector.
2.3.5 Events and Conferences Events form part of entertainment and attraction, although the difference lies in the venues. Events and conferences are temporary attractions that include a variety of activities, sights and live entertainment (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2001:199). Attractions are the end product of a destination’s development.
2.3.6 Destinations Bringing all of the above suppliers together at one location, a potential tourist destination is formed. Destinations are the final stopping point of trips where tourists find their relaxation, recreation and entertainment. It could be from a ship cruise, holiday resort, and seaside resort to an island in the Caribbean (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2001:245). Travel trade and services are the services that distribute information of destinations to the travellers.
2.3.7 Travel Trade and Tourism Services When travelling, services such as acquiring airline tickets, car rental, accommodation and food, information on activities, attraction and transport are important aspects of travelling. Tourism services are those services that provide information on travelling and making sure that the service providers are brought to the traveller (Cook, Yale & Marqua, 2001:85). These service providers include adventure and recreational operators as indicated in Table 2.2.
2.4 ADVENTURE TOURISM Adventure tourism has grown into one of the niche sectors of the tourism industry (Adventure Tourism, 2005). It has also been the fastest growing type of tourism since the 1990’s according to Pigram and Jenkins (1999:264) and Cook, Yale and Marqua (2001:350). Adventure tourism is mostly related with outdoor activities practiced in exotic environments and amongst new cultures. From participating in physically and mentally stimulating activities like skydiving, to the soft and enjoyable activities such as snorkeling, adventure tourism provides the need satisfaction of self-fulfillment (the last level of Maslow’s hierarchy model) among tourists according to Swartbrooke et al (2003:55). Although it is a niche sector, adventure tourism is a very diverse, complex, and ill-defined field (Swartbrooke et al, 2003:91). The following explains the distinctiveness of adventure tourism, where it fits into tourism and the typologies of adventure tourists and tourism.
2.4.1 Adventure Tourism Concept The Canadian Tourism Commission (Page & Dowling, 2002:75) defines adventure tourism as, ‘an outdoor leisure activity that takes place in unusual, exotic, remote or wilderness destinations that involves some form of unconventional means of transportation, and tends to be associated with low or high levels of activity’. Muller and Cleaver (in Swartbrooke et al, 2003:29) defines adventure tourism as ‘characterized by its ability to provide the tourist with moderately high levels of sensory stimulation, usually achieved by including physically challenging experiential components with the normal tourist experience’.
To describe adventure tourism and how it has evolved, it is important to determine what adventure is and identify the characteristics. Swartbrooke et al (2003:9-14) identify the following characteristics:
Uncertain outcomes: This is a condition where a sense of mystery and wonder exists about the outcome of the event or activity.
Danger and risk: This is a condition that exists where the perception of physical and/or emotional risk or danger are present. This is created from the doubtful outcome and serves as a stimulus for excitement and commitment from the participant.
Challenge: This is a condition where effort is needed for the resulted outcome. Challenge could be intellectual, moral, spiritual, emotional or physical and are created from the uncertain outcome, danger or risk and the coping expectation of a situation.
Anticipated rewards: This is a condition that exist where the participants anticipates the outcome will provide some kind of reward. The rewards could be intrinsic and/or extrinsic.
Novelty: Experiencing something new and fresh for the first time.
Stimulation and excitement: This is the exposure to new environments and situations that stimulate the senses, emotions, intellect and body.
Escapism and separations: This is the state where the experience replaces every day routines, and everyday concerns are left behind and not thought of.
Exploration and discovery: The discovery and exploration of new places and cultures. This could also be emotional, mental or spiritual discovery and exploration.
Absorption and focus: This is the state in which the challenge needs intense concentration to implement the correct skill and effort.
Mixed emotions: This is the state where emotions such as excitement, worry, fear, and joy are experienced at the same time during an event. The mixture of emotions could be experienced before, during and after an event.
It is important to remember that a specific characteristic does not make an experience an adventure, but when the characteristics are combined and all are present, an adventure is guaranteed (Swartbrooke et al, 2003:9). Adventure is where participants are deliberately placing themselves in a situation where they think they are entering the unknown, where they will face challenges and they discover and obtain something of worth from the experience. An example of this is rock climbers that are the first to climb an unknown cliff, where they are in an unknown environment and will experience certain challenges to be able to summit. After summiting they will have gained some rich memories of the experience and personal rewards.
Adventure is not necessarily determined by the specific activities but by the state of mind from the participant. A speech given to an audience for the first time could just as easily be an adventure as rafting in the Zambezi for the first time. This is due to the presence of the characteristics in both the situations. Both activities consist of an unknown outcome; the success or disaster of the speech and the unknown events that will take place during the rafting trip. Both activities needs focus; for the person to say the correct words during the speech and for the rafting to make the right decisions while on the river. Both activities also consist of mixed emotions before, during and after the activity and consist of a level of challenge that has to be met. Both activities also consist of novelty,
excitement, escapism, exploration, danger, risk and anticipated rewards. Miles and Priest (1990:145-146) and Swartbrooke et al (2003:14-16) say that adventure is private, interpersonal and based on an individual’s belief. If an individual thinks his experience is an adventure, the experience is an adventure, but then again, adventure is not a passive experience, it involves engagement and action, and this could be physical, intellectual, emotional or spiritual.
It is important to remember that certain settings and activities are associated with the adventure experience, which aid the emotions, thoughts and sensations that identifies adventure (Swartbrooke et al, 2003:16). Physical adventure activities are usually in contact with the natural environment and new cultures in unusual settings such as the rock climbing at Waterval Boven. The categories in which adventure are classified will now be discussed.
2.4.2 Adventure Categories Adventure tourism is a broad and wide perception that involves a range of people and products and typologies were created to classify the different adventure activities (Swartbrooke et al, 2003:31). These typologies are:
Adventure and independence
Addison as cited by Swartbrooke et al (2003:32) created this typology. Addison uses a grid where the degree to which tourists rely on suppliers to organize and manage their experiences is shown. The vertical axis shows the degree of the challenge and the
horizontal axis the level of independence as indicated in Figure 2.1. There are four quadrants that indicate the level of activity, such as adventure competition, high adventure, leisure and recreation. The grid is continuum, from low to high.
Adventure Competition An organised event that has certain dangers and requires high levels of skill from the participants for example an adventure race. Challenge
High Adventure An experience undertaken without the support of external organisers or guides, and that requires high levels of skill and self-reliance to overcome dangers for example an independent expedition.
Leisure An experience that is safe and does not require high levels of skill for example participation on the rides of an adventure theme park.
Recreation A self-directed activity that is not dangerous to a high degree or requires high levels of risk for example hill walking.
Source: Swartbrooke et al (2003:32) Figure 2.1: Adventure Quadrants
It comes down to, the higher the challenge and independence the more serious the activity (high adventure) that calls for skill and self-sufficiency. For example climbing K2, the second highest mountain in the world that reaches a height of 8611m requires exceptional skills to climb (Hattingh, 2001:14). The lower the challenge and independence, the more relaxed the activity (leisure) for example participating on rides of an adventure theme park. In case of an organized event such as the Rock Rally that is
held annually in Waterval Boven, the challenge of the activity or rock climbing is still high but the independence is low (adventure competition) due to the dependence on the event organisers. The following typology distinguishes between the levels of adventure.
Hard and Soft Adventure
These are two continuums, which involves the degree of challenge, doubt, surroundings, knowledge, personal aptitude, intensity, period and perception of control. Soft adventure refers to activities with a perceived risk but low levels of real risk, requiring minimal commitment and novice skills for example camping, cycling, and canoeing (Christiansen as cited by Page & Dowling, 2002:75). Hard adventure refers to activities with high levels of risk requiring intense commitment and advance skills such as mountaineering, skydiving, caving, and kayaking (Lipscombe as cited by Swartbrooke et al, 2003:33).
Destination and Activity Driven Tourism
Millington, Locke, and Locke (as cited by Swartbrooke et al, 2003:35), made a central separation in the adventure market according to the adventure traveler which is destination determined and those that are activity determined. Destination driven is where the traveller’s attention is more interested in location, scenery, surroundings, and people. The location must also provide the fundamental characteristics of adventure, such as novelty, excitement and exploration. The other separation is made according to the activity pursued. This is where the traveller is more anxious and interested in the activity than the destination. The type of adventure tourists distinguishes between the destination and activity that is pursued.
2.4.3 Adventure Tourist As mentioned before, tourists have certain motivational factors (push and pull motives) for their needs to be satisfied. Adventure tourists pursue adventure to satisfy their inner needs. Their push motives would be risk taking, excitement, escapism, personal development, socializing, self-discovery and self-actualization. Pull factors would be wild and rough environments, exotic destinations, and suitable resources for adventure activities (Swartbrooke et al, 2003:67). Adventure tourist can be classified according to the activities they partake in:
A soft adventurer takes part in activities that are safe and enjoyable with minimal real danger and risk such as camping, bird watching, snorkeling, horseback riding, safaris and sailing (Miles & Priest, 1990:437). The adventurer is usually motivated by self-discovery, escapism out of urban life, novelty, and socializing in a controlled environment (Swartbrooke et al, 2003:63). The exact opposite of the soft adventurer is the hard adventurer.
The hard adventurer seeks activities with real risk and danger. They usually seek elements of risk, danger and challenge. Such activities usually require strong commitment, skills and experience (Swartbrooke et al, 2003:64). The adventurer will also
take part in activities with high physical needs such as mountain climbing, scuba diving, caving, rafting, skydiving, kayaking, and bridge jumping (Miles & Priest, 1990:438).
Following the tracks of the hard adventurer, one specific hard adventure activity that has become very popular among adventure tourism is mountaineering.
“Mountaineering is more than climbing, panoramic views, and wilderness experience. It is also challenge, risk and hardship. Those drawn to the mountains can find them exhilarating and irresistible, as well as frustrating and sometimes even deadly. Mountaineering takes place in an environment indifferent to human needs and not everyone is willing to pay the prize of hardship for its rich awards” (Graydon & Hanson, 1997:15)
Mountaineering has emerged as a popular form of adventure tourism (Pomfret, 2004:1) and worldwide it is one of the fastest growing leisure activities (Pigram & Jenkins, 1999:264). This activity includes various forms of climbing that could vary from a soloscramble up a boulder to summiting an eight thousand meter peak in snow and ice (Hattingh, 2000:12). The following climbing categories are identified namely rock climbing, ice climbing, big-wall climbing, alpinism, and expedition climbing.
Rock climbing: This is the ascent of a rock face, by using the surface features on the rock for foot- and handholds with or without fixed or temporary protection. This form includes traditional climbing, sport climbing as would find at Waterval Boven, bouldering, free climbing and soloing (Creasy, 1999:15).
Ice climbing: Climbing on ice with the assistance of hand and foot tools such as ice axis and crampons. A mixture of rock and ice climbing is not uncommon (Graydon & Hanson, 1997:373).
Big-wall climbing: Climbing big rock-walls that usually take several days to complete. Special techniques, such as aid climbing, sack hauling, and sleeping overnight on the wall using portaledges is required (Creasy, 1999:15).
Alpine climbing: Climbing which involves travelling over glaciers, ice and snow, and the ascent of a peak via ice or rock climbing; usually alpine ascents involve selfsufficiency of the climbers and speed climbing as main characteristic (Hattingh, 2000:154).
Expedition climbing: Climbing a high peak that does not vary much from alpine or other climbing methods. Differences are in the time frame and logistics. Expeditions are longer, three weeks and more, and the preparation of logistics is more complex such as the hiring of porters and obtaining permits (Graydon & Hanson, 1997:413).
Following the forms of mountaineering are the profiles of rock climbers which will now be discussed.
2.5.1 The Profile of Rock Climbers For this study the profile of rock climbers are discussed in terms of demographics and motives of rock climbers. According to George (2001:37) demographics are used by marketers to group similar characteristics of a population together. The demographical environment consists of age, race, gender, location, married status, religion, education and income (George, 2001:37). According to Swartbrooke et al (2003:249), people between the ages of 15-24 years are most likely to be involved in a sporting activity. According to the Search and Rescue Society of British Columbia (2005), rock climbers range from 14-60 years old. Hattingh (2001:27) notes that regarding gender in rock climbing, women in the climbing history has not featured that much, but in recent times have become more involved in the climbing spectrum. The motives of rock climbing will now be discussed.
Rock climbing has grown out of the greater game of mountaineering (Creasy, 1999:8). Although rock climbing is relatively more safe than mountaineering if approached correctly with the right equipment and skill, it still contains a concerning level of risk and danger (Hattingh, 2000:13). Even with the level of risk and dangers tat rock climbing poses, people still participate in it. There are many reasons for climbing. Hattingh (2000:12) outlines some common reasons:
The challenge: The obstacles of the mountain provides mentally and physically challenges which have to be met to make it to the summit and back.
To test one’s courage: To find out what one’s limits are and then to push further (Grotta & Grotta, 1992:13).
The focusing of attention: The intense concentration on the activity where all distractions are eradicated, allows the person to loose touch with his surroundings (Fennell, 2003:30).
Locus of control: This is when climbers are in state of flow; they usually feel in control of their actions and the environment. They do not worry about losing control; an objective hazard becomes predictable and manageable to some extent. It is this self-assurance of being able to exercise control through one’s skills that not only makes the flow experience enjoyable but also creates the need for recurrence (Miles & Priest, 1990:152).
Some reasons behind climbing are related to the personality characteristics of participants in high risk sports. Participants according to Swartbrooke et al (2003:76) in risky and adventurous sports usually thrive on the sensation they get from the risk and dangers they experience. Researchers has identify that high risk participants have similar types of characteristics. Pomfret (2004:7) examines two personality characteristics in rock climbers: sensation and autonomy.
Sensation seeking is according to Zuckerman (as cited by Pomfret, (2004:2)) the seeking of various, new, complex and powerful sensations and experiences, with willingness to take physical and communal risks for the sake of such an experience. According to Wann (1997:80) sensation seeking is common among risk takers such as rock climbers and indicates the interest they have in new, risky, dangerous and exciting experiences.
Autonomy is the manner in which, and the ability to cope with the intense decisionmaking demands of a risky situation according to Robinson (as cited by Pomfret, 2004:7). Climbers are constantly involved in decision making, whether to retreat or to move forward depending on the current situations. This may serve as a stimulus for repetition.
Ewert as cited by Pomfret (2004:7) proposes another motive for climbing which relates to the flow experience. He says that the past experiences of climbers influence their motives. Experienced mountain climbers have more internally motivations such as excitement, challenge, and locus of control, and they view risk positively (Fennell, 2003:31). Risk and hazards becomes a challenge and an element that can be controlled. Less experienced participants will have externally motives such as acknowledgment, escape, social reasons (Fennel, 2003:31), and will view risk and hazards as dangerous and not an element that can be controlled.
Therefore the elements of risk, the seeking of an intense sensation and the autonomy experienced during climbing, contributes towards the motives that compels climbers to climb in the Waterval Boven area.
2.6 SUMMARY In chapter two the concept of tourism is discussed concerning the tourist motivation for travel and the tourism industry with its various sectors which revolves around the tourists. These sectors or services are provided for tourists to accommodate their travelling needs. One of the sectors consists of the adventure tourism industry. The concept of adventure and its characteristics are simplified where the adventure activity of mountaineering is made the focal point. Mountaineering and its various forms and characteristics are discussed of which rock climbing is highlighted. Out of mountaineering, rock climbing has evolved with its participants namely rock climbers. These rock climbers are the main adventure tourists the study is based on and are prevalent in the Waterval Boven area. The various motives and characteristics of rock climbers are discussed. The following chapter focuses on the practice of responsible tourism development.
CHAPTER 3 RESPONSIBLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
3.1 INTRODUCTION Tourism is a major supplier for economical growth and social welfare of a country, generating employment, and wealth and broadening the awareness of other cultures among communities such as the communities in the Waterval Boven area. However with the influx and rapid growth of tourism, it has created problems and opportunities (Mowforth & Munt, 2003:90). Cook, Yale and Marqua (2001:323) explain that tourism has social, economical and environmental impacts, both positive and negative. Around the globe, tourism destinations are facing growing pressure on their natural, economical and socio-cultural environments. The growth in tourism can easily result in undesirable impacts that are harmful to societies and environments (McCool & Moisey, 2001:238). Governments have realised that uncontrolled and unplanned tourist developments can easily worsen the impacts, to such an extent that tourists would no longer visit the destination.
With the growing concern of unsustainable tourism and the negative effects caused by tourism, the 1992 Earth Summit Conference in Rio de Janeiro introduced new concepts and terminologies for tourism (Reid (2003:39) and Honey (1999:20)). A new concept that had been highlighted was alternative tourism that focused on sustainable tourism and ecotourism. Under ecotourism various terminologies exists such as green tourism,
adventure tourism, nature tourism, and community-based tourism (Honey, 1999:6) all of which have the same objectives in mind such as reducing environmental damage, protecting the wildlife, local inhabitants, and resources that are used for tourists development as well as the involvement of local communities in tourism (Holloway, 1998:319).
A new concept or new form of tourism namely Responsible Tourism was introduced by the South African government in 1996. This concept promotes responsibility through the sustainable use of the environment, the participation of local communities in tourism, the safety and security of visitors and responsible actions from the government, employees, employers, local communities, and the tourists themselves (SA, 1996:26). Responsible tourism promotes another way of managing tourism, where all the stakeholders such as the government, tourism organisations, local communities, tourists and the environment (McCool & Moisey, 1999:348) could benefit from it.
Harrison and Husbands (1996:1,5) states that responsible tourism is characterised by the different ways of implementing tourism planning and development, where the benefits of tourism are distributed among residents, government, tourists, and investors that are effected by tourism.
This practice of responsible tourism requires strong management of tourism resources. South Africa decided to implement and encourage this form of tourism not only due to
the problems and opportunities encountered by the tourism sector, but also as a strategic tool. In this chapter both responsible tourism and irresponsible tourism will be discussed.
3.2 RESPONSIBLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT FOR SOUTH AFRICA According to the White Paper (SA, 1996:23) the South Africa government introduced a specific program called the Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP). This program was designed as a strategy to help with the transformation of the country with the specific aims at providing essential needs, building educational resources, improving the economy and democratising the public and nation (SA, 1996:24).
The tourism sector was identified as the most suitable and the government chose it as a basis and means to make the RDP sustainable (SA, 1996:24). The South African government recognized that to achieve this mandate, the tourism sector would need to be strategically developed to achieve its true potential, and to achieve its true potential a new form of tourism namely responsible tourism would be required (SA, 1996:26).
According to the White Paper (SA, 1996:26), responsible tourism is a practical approach by tourism business partners to expand, direct, and promote the tourism industry in a responsible manner. Responsible tourism therefore implies that tourism organizations, local communities and governments look after the attractions and resources they are involved with, whether natural or cultural, so that the local population could benefit from tourism, and the attractions and resources used, are not spoiled for future travelers (Travel Foundation, S.a.).
Proper responsible actions from tour operators and organizations include providing tourists with information on the norms, practices, cultures and environments of a destination, but it is also the responsibility of a tourist to attain that information and take recognition of what it actually implies doing. Responsible tourism not only requires tourism organizations and governments to take responsibility for their actions, but it also means that travelers themselves should take notice that when they travel to certain countries, they as tourists have certain impacts on the local population and the environment, which might be positive, negative, or neutral (Birahi, 1994).
Tourism has beneficial impacts on the economy, socio-culture and natural environment of a host community and a country.
3.2.1 Benefits of Responsible Tourism The economical, socio-cultural and environmental benefits will now be discussed
220.127.116.11 Economical Benefits Tourism is a major contributor of economical growth and wealth for a country. It creates jobs, boosts entrepreneurship, and provides economical wealth (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2002b). Other economical benefits of tourism according to Mak (2004:129, 131), Bosselman, Peterson and McCarthy (1999:3-5) and the United Nation Environmental Program (2001a) is:
It brings in foreign exchange to the host country, which helps pay for imports. The foreign exchange also stimulates foreign investment in the industry, necessary to finance growth in other economic sectors and increase the economy’s productive ability.
It’s a form of balancing payments. Certain regions might have stronger economical income and opportunities than others, and tourism could be used to balance the different regions’ economical opportunities and income.
It contributes and increases government revenues, through tax. These revenues are used to provide more public services for the host community.
Tourism stimulates investment and development of infrastructure by the government, necessary to accommodate the tourist capacity.
By implementing responsible tourism, where the emphasis are on cost savings, the economical stability of a region will increase and sustainability and long-term demand of a destination would be established (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2002b). The environmental benefits of tourism are discussed in the next section.
18.104.22.168 Environmental Benefits The relationship of tourism with the environment is very complex. It has the potential to create beneficial effects on the environment by contributing to environmental protection and conservation (McCool & Moisey, 2001:22) and it’s a way to raise awareness of environmental values and serve as a tool to finance protection of natural areas and
increase its economic importance. Benefits according to United Nations Environmental Program (2001b), Middelton and Hawkins (1998:76) and Inskeep (1991:342-344) are:
The conservation of important natural areas and wildlife. Improvement of environmental quality through controlled air, water, noise and visual pollution.
The enhancement of the environment through well developed tourist facilities. Improvement of infrastructure that reduces waste disposal problems and water shortages.
The increase of environmental awareness’s among tourists, local residents and communities.
The social-cultural benefits of tourism are discussed in the next section.
22.214.171.124 Social-Cultural Benefits Tourism is a major catalyst for improvement of communities and cultural protection. It provides employment and income to local residents, which reduces poverty and improves living standards and prevents the migration of the youth to cities (Inskeep, 1991:368371). Other social-cultural benefits of tourism according to the United Nations Environmental Program (2001e), and Middelton and Hawkins (1998:76) are:
Tourism promotes cross-cultural exchange between hosts and guests and better understanding of different cultures. 42
It strengthens the communities through community interaction during events and festivals where local residents are the primary participants and spectators.
The development of tourism facilities benefits the residents, which helps with the improvement of living standards.
Tourism boosts conservation and revitalization of local cultures and traditions. Tourism encourages community involvement and pride through the awareness of the financial value of natural and cultural sites and local and national heritage sites.
Tourism provides conservation of archaeological and historic sites where tourists help to pay for the conservation and maintenance of sites.
According to the Cape Town Declaration (2002:3) the effect of responsible tourism on host communities, creates greater economical benefit for the local people, enhances the welfare of host communities, humanise the working conditions and provides access to the industry. It also states that responsible tourism is culturally sensitive through the involvement of local communities in the decision making of tourist’s developments in their district. Responsible tourism also creates respect between tourists and the hosts that contributes toward local pride and confidence among the host community and creates a more enjoyable experience for the tourists they make more significant connections with the local people. A case study is provided to explain responsible tourism in practice.
126.96.36.199 Responsible Tourism in Practice: case study For a case study on responsible tourists (Birahi, 1994), mountaineering is used as an example. Mountaineering and trekking in the Himalayas have contributed too many job
opportunities and economical benefits for the local communities. Many of these community members serve as load carriers or ‘porters’ and guides for the western hikers in the mountains. This type of employment is in many cases the only form of income for the porters and guides, and their families. But tourists and hikers with limited knowledge have the misconception that Nepali porters are Sherpa porters. Sherpa porters are in fact high altitude residents and Nepali porters are low altitude farmers who use portering as another form of income. This has led to high altitude sicknesses among Nepali porters due to the inadequate acclimatization of the thin air high up in the mountains. Snow blindness, illnesses, and deaths among the Nepali porters are also common due to the lack of equipment, training and basic care of health. The International Porter Protection Group (IPPG) was established to help the Nepali porters with correct equipment and first aid. It also set out to make hikers and tourists aware of the health and safety issues concerning porters, and provides guidelines to travellers for practicing responsible tourism. According to Mann (2000:204) the guidelines set out by the IPPG are to provide adequate clothing to porters against bad weather, for leaders of expeditions and trekkers to provide the same medical treatment for porters as they would for themselves, not to send ill porters down by themselves and also for leaders and trekkers to have sufficient funds to cover an ill porters’ rescue and treatment costs.
By following these guidelines hikers and mountaineers are socially considerate about the well-being of their host-community thereby contributing benefits to the host-community and minimizing the negative effects of tourism. Although the practices of responsible tourism protects and benefits communities and environments, the effects of irresponsible
tourism could easily be occurring without proper management. The effects of irresponsible tourism are discussed in the next section.
3.3 IRRESPONSIBLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT FOR SOUTH AFRICA The negative impacts that occur from mass tourism are in correlation with the impacts caused by irresponsible practices. These impacts have an effect on the economical, sociocultural and natural environment.
3.3.1 Economical Impacts
In the White Paper (SA, 1996:28) and United Nation Environmental Program (2001a) the effects of irresponsible tourism on the economy are described as follows:
The leakage of foreign exchange to airlines, hotels and international companies for products and services that they provide. These products and services cannot be provided by the host community.
Closed society tourism. When local businesses create a “complete” package where everything is provided, tourists’ expenditures remain in the area of the businesses where as the surrounding community receives little income from the tourists.
The growth in economical dependence of the host community on tourism, which puts major stress upon the industry as well as the people involved.
The concentration of wealth around owners of tourism businesses at the expense of the population surrounding it.
Seasonal characteristics such as employing seasonal contract labour at the expense of permanent employment and seasonal employment, resulting in a loss of permanent income for workers.
Increase in prices due to the increasing tourist demands for basic services and goods, which affects the local residents whose income does not increase when prices increase.
The infrastructure for tourism development, costs the local government and local taxpayers a great deal of money.
According to the United Nation Environmental Program (2001c), Swartbrooke (1999:184), McCool and Moisey (2001:23, 25), Inskeep (1999:344-347) and Middelton and Hawkins (1998:76) the negative environmental impacts are:
3.3.2 Environmental Impacts The degrading of the natural environment and its sustainability due to the increased pressure on endangered wildlife and soil erosion from tourist trampling. Exhaustion of natural resources such as water, land, and local resources due to the demands of tourism and construction of tourism facilities. Increased water, air, land, and noise pollution from the influx of tourists, which includes architectural/visual pollution from the increased buildings and facilities. Deforestation from intensified and unsustainable use of land to widen the capacity for tourist demand. Alteration of the ecosystems from tourist leisure and recreational activities.
And waste disposal problems from the increased litter, waste and garbage.
According to Middelton and Hawkins (1998:75-76), Inskeep (1991:371-374) and the United Nation Environmental Program (2001d) the social-cultural effects of irresponsible tourism are:
3.3.3 Social-Cultural Impacts Change or loss of indigenous identity and values due to adaptation; when religious rituals, conventional cultural rites and festivals are reduced and sanitized to conform to tourist expectations. The standardization of destinations to satisfy tourists desires for familiar facilities. This results in a loss of authenticity by the host community from adapting cultural terminology and expressions to the tastes of tourists, such as performing shows as if they were "real life" that represents "staged authenticity". Irresponsible tourism also leads to the adaptation to tourist demands, when souvenirs, arts, and crafts are design to the tourists’ tastes. Culture clashes as a result of differences in cultures, ethnic and religious groups, values and lifestyles, languages, consumption patterns, levels of wealth and failing to respect local customs and moral values. Job level friction, when high-paying and more important managerial jobs are provided to foreigners and the local community stays at lower-paying jobs such as housemaids, waiters, and gardeners. Child labour and twisting of job creation to prostitution and vice industries, such as sex tourism.
Overcrowding and loss of amenities for residents, due to the increase of tourists and lack of capacity to handle them and their use of the amenities.
The increase in crime generated from the wealth of tourist.
Other reasons to implement responsible tourism are the threat of mass tourism according to Harrison and Husbands (1996:6). Mass tourism involves tour groups of up to 75 tourists and more on a visit to a tourist attraction over a period of time (Taiga, Sa). The group numbers of mass tourism have a great effect on the environment. Harrison and Husbands (1996:6) explain that the degree and period of the effects and damages of mass tourism is much bigger than that of sustainable tourism. The fast influx of tourists to a district could lead to major inappropriately planned developments, which is capable of destroying the resource bases used and the sustainability of the developments and community (Harrison & Husbands, 1996:4). This could happen in Waterval Boven if various developments are made to accommodate mass tourism over a short period of time, and when if the intensity of tourism declines the town might have developments that are not functional or sustainable.
Growing global tourism trends also plays a role in practicing responsible tourism. Harrison and Husbands (1996:13) say that, with the global trends of tourism, major changes in the nature of tourism itself will take place. These changes include the development of new products and destinations, expansion in the magnitude of the knowledge base and more career opportunities. If these trends and changes are not controlled and practiced around a responsible tourism policy, the effects of irresponsible
tourism as mentioned above, and that of mass tourism are likely to take place. A case study is presented as an example of what irresponsible tourism practice is.
3.3.4. Irresponsible Tourism: case study It is important to remember that tourism operators and their practices, and the practices of tourists should reflect responsible tourism. In this example of McLaren (1998:29), the irresponsible practice of a tourism operator is highlighted. In a travel advertisement, people of indigenous homelands from the Amazons, Thailand, Africa, and aboriginal areas of Canada and Australia are presented as warm, friendly, and welcoming people. The advertisement of the tourism operator, “Come and meet the happy people, even as their paradise vanishes,” is the words used to advertise the community, emphasizing the last of a dying culture. A photo taken by the Cultural Survival Quarterly to illustrates this exploitation, of several male tourists with cameras hanging from their necks, wearing tribal clothes over their modern clothes, smiling awkwardly while they participate in a tribal funeral.
With marketing like this the community is exploited to the effects of tourism from cultural degrading and environmental damages to unsustainable developments. The ‘dying’ culture might in effect die faster due to the influx of tourists. How many people would want to see the ice caps on Mount Kilimanjaro, in Tanzania, if it is said that in two years time the icecaps would be nonexistent? It would be overflowed with tourist, hikers, and developers for two years leaving behind unsustainable developments, damaged
environments, and cultural degrading of the communities. Similar to the ‘dying’ culture, the mountain might die faster from the tourist invasion.
Impacts of rock climbers that will now be discussed.
3.3.5 Rock Climbers Impact The popularity in climbing has had its impacts, both positive and negatively. Although climbing parties are normally of small number and impacts minimal, the increase in popularity at climbing venues has led to wider footpaths, erosion and disruptions of vegetation according to Cearsey (1999:171) and Graydon and Hanson (1997:505). High camps in the Himalayans are notorious for its pollution from climbing expeditions according to Swartbrooke (1999:189) and Mowforth and Munt (2003:90). In Germany some crags have been closed due to the increasing climbing traffic and disruption of the ecological systems (Hattingh, 2000:31).
It is not just the environment that climbers interact with, but also the local populations and communities. Climbing generates income for guides, porters, and traders. In essence it helps provide job creation and economical wealth for a community (Hattingh, 2000:33).
To prevent the negative impacts of tourism and maximize the benefits as mentioned above on the economical, environmental and social-cultural environment, responsible
guidelines were established by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT).
3.4 RESPONSIBLE TOURISM GUIDELINES Although this study is focused on the responsible actions of tourists, the White Paper (1996:26) indicates that responsible tourism development includes both tourism organisations and tourists to implement the responsible tourism guidelines. Therefore the responsible tourism guidelines for both tourism organizations and tourists are indicated in the following.
3.4.1 Responsible Tourism Guidelines for Tourism Organisations For responsible tourism to succeed the following economical, social-cultural and environmental guidelines provided by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (2002a) and Cape Town Declaration (2002:4-5), should be followed by tourism organizations:
188.8.131.52 Economical Guidelines For tourism organisations to evaluate economical impacts before developing any tourism related activities and to give preference to those developments that benefits the community. To involve the local communities in tourism so that linkages could be increased and leakages reduced, therefore reducing poverty among communities.
For tourism organisations and tourists to assist with the advertising of the destination that mirrors the social, natural and cultural diversity of the destination and also assist with new product developments.
Promote businesses and charge and pay just prizes. Also for tourism organisations to construct relationships that will share risk and try to minimize it.
For tourism organisations to provide support for small, medium and micro organizations.
184.108.40.206 Social-Cultural Guidelines McCool and Moisey (2001:345) promote the involvement of the local communities in the planning and decision-making of tourism issues which concerns them. For tourism organisations to assess the social impacts of tourism activities throughout any project so that the maximum benefits could be achieved and negative effects are minimized. For tourism organisations and tourists to respect the social and cultural diversity among tourists and the host community. For tourism organisations to keep attempting responsible guidelines so that tourism could contribute towards education and health.
220.127.116.11 Environmental Guidelines For tourism organisations to lessen environmental impacts when developing tourism activities and to assess the environmental impacts before, throughout and after the tourism project. 52
For tourism organisations to use natural resources sustainably and prevent from overconsumption.
For tourism organisations to maintain the biodiversity of the ecology by taking into account the volume and type of tourism the environment can handle, and respecting sensitive ecosystems.
For tourism organisations and tourists to promote education and environmental alertness’s for sustainable development to all stakeholders.
3.4.2 Responsible Tourism Guidelines for Tourists The International Porter Protection Group (Birahi, 1994) and other sources indicated provide the following socio-economical and environmental responsible tourism guidelines for travelers to follow:
18.104.22.168 Socio-Economical Guidelines Do not make promises that are impossible, as this will create false expectations. Always travel with an open mind, don’t be conservative with regard to different cultures and customs. McCool and Moisey (2001:348) specify that tourists should be sensitive to the local culture. Always prepare yourself by learning about the country that you are visiting and what their customs are so that you know how to be a good guest among them (Grotta & Grotta, 1992:41).
Support the local economy by buying at locally run restaurants and hotels (Mann, 2000:202).
Learn about local etiquette and language (Mann, 2000:202), even if it is a ‘hallo’ and ‘thank you’, so that you could interact with locals in a culturally appropriate manner (Grotta & Grotta, 1992:42).
Always ask permission before taking photographs of people, homes, and sites of importance, as this might seems as invading of privacy according to Mann (2000:202) and Grotta and Grotta (1992:65).
Do not make extravagant displays of wealth (Grotta & Grotta, 1992:41). Do not encourage children to beg, by not giving them money and sweets as this degrades the livelihood of the child (Mann, 2000:202).
22.214.171.124 Environmental Guidelines Always try to travel in small groups that will have a low impact on the environment. Leave only your foot prints behind; make sure of proper disposal of litter, trash and human waste. Make yourself aware of, and contribute towards local projects that benefit the local environment and communities. Do not buy products made from endangered species or plants as this encourages the seller to make use of endangered species as a source of income (Grotta & Grotta, 1992:42-43).
3.5 SUMMARY Responsible tourism is not a tourism product or brand; it is a way to promote and develop tourism. It implies that the tourism industry and its partners as well as the tourists, have to take responsibility of their practices towards the resources used, natural or cultural. Tourism in effect has both positive and negative impacts on the economical, sociocultural and natural environment, therefore making responsible tourism development a beneficial concept to follow. Rock climbers as tourists have a responsibility to the environment they interact with, in this case the natural environment and the local communities of the surrounding climbing venues. It is therefore important that rock climbers consider their actions as responsible or not. Responsible tourism guidelines were developed for tourists as an aid to make their action responsible. The responsible tourism guidelines will be tested in the following chapter using questionnaires and rock climbers, as participants, to find out if their perceived actions are responsible towards the town Waterval Boven.
CHAPTER 4 SURVEY RESULTS
4.1 INTRODUCTION In chapter one a brief overview was given to explain the purpose of the study. Chapter two included a discussion of adventure tourism, adventure tourists and rock climbers specifically. In chapter three the concept of responsible tourism development was discussed. The literature study indicated that tourism has economical, social and environmental benefits as well as negative impacts and if it is not managed responsibly, impacts could lead to long-term damages. Therefore the South African government developed a new concept which implies that all stakeholders have to follow responsible tourism development guidelines.
The aim of this chapter is to analyse the behaviour of the rock climbers that visit the Waterval Boven area and to determine their perception of their contribution towards responsible tourism development. A structured questionnaire was compiled. Seventy questionnaires were handed out to rock climbers who visited Waterval Boven and 68 or 97% were retrieved. The study was done in the Waterval Boven area, in Mpumalanga, during the weekends of 2 July 2005 and 24 September 2005.
The survey results will now be discussed.
4.2 SURVEY RESULTS In this section the results of the questionnaires are discussed and figures indicated to illustrate the results.
4.2.1 Gender of rock climbers
Figure 4.1: Gender
Figure 4.1 indicates that 66% of the rock climbers are male and only 34% female. It is evident that the majority of the rock climbers are male. This correlates with the view of Hattingh (2001:27) in the literature study that women in climbing do not feature to the degree to that of male rock climbers.
4.2.2 Age of rock climbers Figure 4.2 indicates that 2% of rock climbers are between the age 14-17, 66% between the age 18-24, 29% between the age 25-39 and 3% above 40 years. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers questioned is between the ages of 18-24. This relates to the age group 15-24 that is most likely to participate in an adventure activity according to Swartbrooke et al (2003:249).
Age 3% 2% 29%
Age 14-17 Age 18-24 Age 25-39 Age +40
Figure 4.2: Age
4.2.3 Climbing frequency
Climbing Frequency 19%
Regular Climber Casual Climber
Figure 4.3: Climbing Frequency
Figure 4.3 indicates that 19% of rock climbers are beginners, 21% casual climbers and 60% regular climbers. This indicates that the majority of rock climbers visit Waterval Boven regularly.
4.2.4 Number of visits to Waterval Boven.
Number of visits to Waterval Boven
Twice or more First time
Figure 4.4: Number of visits to Waterval Boven
Figure 4.4 indicates that 21% of the rock climbers visited Waterval Boven for the first time during the weekends the questionnaires were compiled, and 79% of them have visited Waterval Boven before. It is evident that most of the rock climbers have climbed at Waterval Boven before and are most likely to do so on a regular basis.
4.2.5 Number of visitors in group
Numbers in travelling party
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Group +6 Group 2-4 14%
Figure 4.5: Numbers in travelling party
Figure 4.5 indicates that 86% of the rock climbers travel in groups of six and more and 14% in groups of two to four. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers to Waterval Boven travel in groups of six and more. A deduction can be made that the group numbers in which the rock climbers visit is not as big as that of mass tourism which could travel in groups of up to 75 tourists (Taiga, Sa) and therefore fulfill the conditions of responsible tourism guidelines to travel in small impact groups as indicated by Birahi (2004).
4.2.6 Types of marketing media
Types of marketing media
4% 4% 10%
Figure 4.6: Types of marketing media.
Figure 4.6 indicates that 4% of rock climbers were made aware of Waterval Boven through the internet and institutions such as universities, 10% through relatives, 12% through magazines or handbooks and 70% through friends. It is clear that the majority of climbers were made aware of Waterval Boven through their friends. In Figure 4.14, the
majority of rock climber indicated that they contribute towards the marketing of Waterval Boven through word of mouth.
4.2.7 Economical Perception According to the responsible tourism guidelines (DEAT, 2002a) tourism should provide economical benefits to a community. These economical benefits as mentioned by Shaw and Williams (2002:316) and the International Porters Protection Group (Birahi, 1994) are attained by supporting local pubs/restaurants, buying local crafts, supporting local community projects, creating employment, not supporting beggars and contributing toward developed and underdeveloped areas.
60% 50% 40%
Economical Benefits Employment Opportunities Infrastructure Development Tourists Development
20% 10% 0%
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
Figure 4.7: Economical Perception
Figure 4.7 indicates that 38% of the rock climbers strongly agree that they provide economical benefits to Waterval Boven, 52% agrees, and 10% the rock climbers are neutral or undecided with 0% that disagree and strongly disagree. The majority, 90% believe that they contribute to the economical benefits. Twenty-one percent strongly agree and 46% agree that they contribute towards employment opportunities for the local community. Twenty-five percent of the rock climbers are neutral; whereas 6% disagrees and 3% strongly disagree that they contribute towards employment opportunities for the local community. The majority, 67% believe however that they do contribute towards employment opportunities.
Twenty percent of rock climbers strongly agree and 33% agrees they contribute towards infrastructure development in the Waterval Boven area. However, 32% are neutral; with 15% that disagrees and 0% that strongly disagrees they contribute toward infrastructure development in the Waterval Boven area. The majority, 53% however believes they contribute towards infrastructure development.
Thirty-four percent of rock climbers strongly agree, and 48% agrees they contribute towards tourism development in the Waterval Boven area. However, 13% are not sure or neutral, 3% disagrees and 1% strongly disagrees they contribute towards tourism development in the Waterval Boven area. The majority, 82% however believe they contribute towards tourism developments.
The responsible tourism guidelines (DEAT, 2002a) indicate that tourism should bring in economical benefits to the community. Rock climbers to Waterval Boven perceive that their actions are beneficial to the economy of Waterval Boven. This is also supported by the amount of money spent (see Figure 4.12) in Waterval Boven.
4.2.8 Supporting beggars in Waterval Boven
Supporting beggars in Waterval Boven
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 8% 0% 33% 31% 20% 69%
Support Beggars Propper to give money Encourage Begging
Figure 4.8: Supporting beggars in Waterval Boven
Figure 4.8 indicates zero percent of the rock climbers always gives money to beggars in town, 31% of rock climbers sometimes give them money and 69% of rock climbers never give money to beggars in town. It is evident that the majority of the rock climbers never support beggars in the town. Eight percent of rock climbers think it is proper to give beggars money, 33% sometimes thinks or are not sure it is proper to give them money and 59% of the rock climbers thinks it is not proper to give money to beggars. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers think it is improper to give beggars money. 63
Eighteen percent of the rock climbers do agree they encourage begging in Waterval Boven, 20% sometimes encourage begging and 61% disagree that they encourage begging in the Waterval Boven area. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers do not encourage begging in the town.
According to Birahi (1994) and Mann (2000:202), economical benefits to a community could be attained by not supporting beggars. Therefore rock climbers to Waterval Boven do support the economy of the community. This is supported by the majority of rock climbers that disagrees that they encourage begging in the town, the majority that don’t think it is proper to give beggars money and the majority that never gives money to beggars in Waterval Boven.
4.2.9 The perception of economical support
The perception of economical support
97% 2% 90% 3%
0% Investments Use facilities/services
Support community projects Developed Areas Aware of community projects Underdeveloped Areas
Figure 4.9: The perception of economical support
Figure 4.9 indicates that 20% of rock climbers agree they do not contribute towards the underdeveloped areas or township areas of Waterval Boven. It is thus evident that the majority of rock climbers agree they contribute towards the underdeveloped area of Waterval Boven. Thirty-three percent of rock climbers agree that only the developed areas of Waterval Boven or the main town benefits from the rock climbers’ expenditure. It is evident that the majority of climbers agree that their expenditure benefits the underdeveloped area also. Ninety-seven percent of the rock climbers make use of the local facilities and services on their visits, and 2% of the rock climbers have made investment in the town such as property. Figure 4.9 also indicates that only 2% of the rock climbers were aware of any community projects; however 90% of the rock climbers say they will support any local community projects. From the graph it is evident that a high majority of climbers use facilities and services on their visits and that they would support community projects. They however have made no investments and don’t know of any local community projects.
According to Shaw and Williams (2002:316) and Birahi (1994), tourist should contribute towards the developed and underdeveloped areas. It is clear that the developed areas of Waterval Boven mostly benefits from rock climbers expenditure and that little benefits flow to the underdeveloped areas as supported by the low percentage of the use from informal markets and shebeens as indicated in Figure 4.10. This is in contrast with the majority agreement of rock climbers that the underdeveloped areas of Waterval Boven also benefits from their expenditure.
Most climbers indicated that they would support local community projects that are in agreement with the responsible tourism guidelines (DEAT, 2002a), however very few of the climbers were aware of any local community projects. This might indicate a willingness by climbers to support local community projects if they are made aware of it.
4.2.10 Facilities Used
Informal markets Accommodation Shebeens Bakery Fuel Station Supermarket Butchery Pharmacist Café Liquor Store Restaurant/pubs
1% 16% 6% 5% 15% 15% 8% 4% 14% 16% 19%
Figure 4.10: Facilities Used Figure 4.10 indicates that 1% of the rock climbers make use of the informal markets in the town, 16% of accommodation, 6% of the shebeens, 5% the bakery, 15% the fuel station and supermarket, 8% the butchery, 4% the pharmacist, 24% the café, 16% the liquor store and 19% the restaurants and pubs. It is evident that the developed area of Waterval Boven receives the most of the rock climbers’ expenditure and the underdeveloped area such as the shebeens and informal markets sees very little from the expenditure.
According to Shaw and Williams (2002:316) and the International Porters Protection Group (Birahi, 1994) economical benefits are attained by supporting local facilities and services and restaurants/pubs. Therefore rock climbers do contribute towards economical benefits of Waterval Boven as supported by their use of facilities, services and restaurants, however the low percentage of facilities used in Figure 4.10 are in contrast with the majority of climbers (97%) that say they make use of facilities and services as indicated in Figure 4.9.
4.2.11 Money Spend
Figure 4.11: Money Spend
Figure 4.11 indicates that 4% of rock climbers spend less than a R100 on their visit in Waterval Boven, 2% spend a R100, 6% between a R100-R200, 15% between R200R300, 32% between R300-R400 and 41% of the rock climbers more than R400. It is
evident that the majority of rock climbers spend R400 and more on their visits to Waterval Boven.
Although there are short comings regarding support for local community projects and underdeveloped areas, it can be stated that the climbers do bring in economical benefits to the community of Waterval Boven, which are in conjunction with the responsible tourism guidelines (DEAT, 2002a) as discussed in the literature study.
4.2.12 Social-Cultural Perspectives According to the Grotta and Grotta (1992:41) tourists should learn about countries and places they visit and how to be a good guest among the cultures. Tourist should also interact with locals in a culturally appropriate manner; ask permission before photographing people, homes, and sites, use local guides and not make extravagant displays of wealth (Birahi, 2004).
43% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 37% 37% 29% 19% 19% 13% 1% Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Perception
1% 0% Strongly Disagree
Cross Cultural Exchange
Figure 4.12: Social Perception
Figure 4.12 indicates that 37% of the rock climbers strongly agree and 43% agrees that rock climbers respect the social-cultural diversity of Waterval Boven. However, 19% are neutral, 1% disagrees and 0% strongly disagrees that rock climbers to Waterval Boven respect the social-cultural diversity. The majority however of rock climbers agree that they respect the social-cultural diversity of Waterval Boven. The figure also indicates that 19% strongly agree and 37% agree that rock climbers contribute towards cross cultural exchange. However, 29% are not sure, 13% disagree and 1% strongly disagree that rock climbers contributes towards cross cultural exchange. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers however think that they contribute towards cross-cultural exchange and respect social-cultural diversity.
According to the responsible tourism guidelines (DEAT, 2002a) and Birahi (1994), tourists should be aware of the social impacts they might have. The rock climbers’ perception is that they do have positive impacts. Their perception is that they do contribute towards cross-cultural exchange and conservation of historical and cultural sites.
4.2.13 Conservation, Crime and Marketing Figure 4.13 indicates that 25% of the rock climbers strongly agree and 47% agree that rock climbers contributes toward the conservation of historical sites, however 22% are neutral and 6% disagrees and 0% strongly disagrees. The majority however of rock climbers think they contribute towards the conservation of historical sites. Eleven and forty percent respectively strongly agree and agree that rock climbing has increased the
crime in Waterval Boven, however 39% are not sure, with 14% and 6% that both disagree and strongly disagree that rock climbing has increased crime in Waterval Boven. The majority however of the rock climbers agrees that climbing has increased crime in Waterval Boven. Fifty-seven and thirty-five percent of the rock climbers strongly agree and agree that rock climbing in Waterval Boven is beneficial for the towns marketing, however 8% disagree and 0% are both not sure and strongly disagree. It is evident that majority of rock climbers thinks that climbing contributes towards the marketing of Waterval Boven.
Conservation, Crime and Marketing
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 57% 47% 25% 11% 0% Strongly Agrees Agrees Neutral Disagrees 40% 35%
14% 6% 8% 0% 6% 0% Strongly Disagrees
Conservation of sites Crime Marketing
Figure 4.13: Conservation, Crime and Marketing
According to Middelton and Hawkins (1998:76) and Inskeep (1991:374) the negative social-cultural impacts that tourism could have on a community is an increase in crime. The perception of rock climbers that climbing has led to an increase in crime in the Waterval Boven area is in agreement with the negative impact. According to Birahi
(1994) responsible tourism guidelines, tourist are encourage not show their extravagant wealth among residents to prevent gluttony and crime. Figure 4.14 indicates that the majority of rock climbers do not display their wealth among the residents of Waterval Boven; this however is in contrast with the perception of increase in crime and the responsible tourism guideline.
4.2.14 Community Interaction
80% 70% 60% 50% 56%
74% Display wealth Local community interaction Conflict Local guides Community involved in climbing
30% 20% 6% 10% 0% Yes 4% 15%
Figure 4.14: Community Interaction
Figure 4.14 indicates that 6% of the rock climbers do display their wealth among residents of Waterval Boven. It is evident that the majority of climbers do not display their wealth among residents. The Figure indicates that 56% of the rock climbers interact with the local community. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers indicated that they do have interaction with the local residents of Waterval Boven. Only 4% of the rock
climbers have been in any conflict situations with the Waterval Boven community. It is evident that the minority of rock climbers have been in conflict situations with the Waterval Boven community. Only 15% of the rock climbers use local guides, which is evident of the minority that uses guides. Seventy-four percent of the rock climbers would like to see the local community more involved in climbing. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers would like to see the community more involved in the climbing scene.
The responsible tourism guidelines (SA, 1996:26) encourage communities to be come involved in and benefit from tourism. It is clear that the majority of climbers would like to see the local community more involved in climbing. This however is in contrast with the small number of climbers that make use of guides. It could be that because the majority of climbers visit Waterval Boven on a regular base (Figure 4.3), that they know the area well enough and therefore does not need the assistance of guides.
4.2.15 Social-Cultural Diversity
Figure 4.15: Social-Cultural Diversity
Figure 4.15 indicates that only 10% of the rock climbers do ask permission to take photographs of important sites, homes and local people. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers do not ask permission to take photographs of important sites, homes and local people. Thirty percent of rock climbers know what the culture of the local community is and 10% are aware of the local customs among the Waterval Boven community. It is evident that the minority of rock climbers is aware of any local customs and community cultures. However, 59% of the rock climbers said that they have gained information on the history and culture of the town and the businesses in the town.
According to Birahi (1994), and the responsible tourism guidelines (SA, 1996:26), responsible tourists should respect the social-cultural diversity of a community. Rock climbers in Waterval Boven perceive that they do respect the social-cultural diversity (Figure 4.12), this is also supported by the fact that only 4% of rock climbers have been in any conflict situations. The majority (59%) of rock climbers also stated that they have gained information on the town’s history, culture and businesses. This however is in contrast with the 70% and 90% of rock climbers that do not know what the culture of the local community is and aren’t aware of any local customs. Another problem is also that 90% of rock climbers don’t ask permission to take photographs of important sites, homes and local people.
In conclusion it can be stated that although climbers do respect the social-cultural diversity, they should make a bigger effort to learn more about the local cultures and customs, treat the community with more sensitivity and be more conscious about displaying wealth. 73
4.2.16 Environmental Perspectives According to Birahi (2004) and Goelder, Ritchie, and McIntosh (2000:577) responsible tourism guidelines encourage tourists to minimize environmental impacts, by travelling in small, low impact groups, to be aware of, and contribute to projects benefiting the environment, to reduce litter and promote environmental awareness.
60% 50% 40%
30% 20% 10% 0% Strongly Agree
Negative Impcat Uncontrolled Climbing
Ehtics Littering Land Regulations Awareness
Figure 4.16: Environmental Perception
Figure 4.16 indicates that 0% and 15% of rock climbers respectively strongly agree and agree that climbing has a negative impact on the environment. Forty-five percent and 27% disagree and strongly disagrees that climbing has a negative impact on the environment with 13% that are not sure. It is evident that the majority however of rock climbers disagree that climbing has a negative impact on the environment. This however is in contrast to the agreement that there is more litter at the crags due to the climbing.
The figure indicates that 29% strongly agree and 50% agree that rock climbers follow environmental ethics in the Waterval Boven area, with 9% and 4% that respectively disagree and strongly disagree that climbers follow environmental ethics with 7% that are neutral. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers agree that most climbers at Waterval Boven follow environmental ethics. The figure indicates that 13% strongly agrees and 51% of the rock climbers agree that climbers are aware of land ownership regulations, with 15% and 2% respectively of the rock climbers disagreeing and strongly disagreeing that rock climbers are aware of the landownership regulations in Waterval Boven and 19% that are neutral. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers agree that climbers are aware of land ownership regulation in Waterval Boven.
The figure indicates that 13% and 49% of the rock climbers strongly agree and agree that climbing in Waterval Boven contributes towards the conservation of the natural environment, with 35% which are not sure and 3% and 0% that disagree and strongly disagree that climbing contributes towards the conservation of the environment. It is evident that the majority of rock climbers agree that climbing in Waterval Boven contributes towards the conservation of the natural environment. The figure indicates also that 8% and 27% of the rock climbers strongly agree and agree that uncontrolled climbing could lead to areas being closed to climbers, with 30% not sure and 27% and 9% of the rock climbers disagreeing and strongly disagreeing that areas could be closed down. Thus it is evident that the rock climbers agree and disagree relative to the same percentage that uncontrolled climbing could lead to areas being closed to climbing.
The figure indicates that 15% and 57% of rock climbers strongly agree and agree that there is more litter at the crags from climbing, with 16% as neutral and 6% for both which disagree and strongly disagree that there are more litter at the crags. Thus it is evident that the majority of rock climbers agree that there is more litter at the crags due to climbing. The figure also indicates that 12% and 57% of the rock climbers strongly agree and agree that climbing has made residents and local authorities more conscious of the environment at Waterval Boven, with 29% that are neutral and 0% and 2% that disagree and strongly disagree of the heighten environmental awareness. Thus it is evident that the majority of rock climbers agree that climbing has made local authorities more conscious about the environment.
According to Birahi (1994) and responsible tourism guidelines (SA, 1996:26), tourists should promote environmental awareness. The agreement of the rock climbers conforms to the guideline, due to the majority of rock climbers that agree climbing has made local authorities more aware of the environment, that climbing contributes towards the conservation of the natural environment that the majority of rock climbers would support environmental projects (Figure 4.18).
2.4.17 Environmental Interaction Figure 4.17 indicates that 6% of the rock climbers were aware that there are bushman paintings at the crags, 10% where birds are nesting, 2% feed wild animals, and 0% make fire in the crags. All the rock climbers said they took all their waste and litter back to the camp site after climbing.
Figure 4.17: Environmental Interaction
It is evident that very few climbers climb where there are Bushmen paintings, birds nesting, and feeding wild animals. None (0%) made fire in the crags. It is also evident that none (0%) of the climbers leave any litter behind. This however is again in contrast with the general agreement that there is more litter at the crags due to climbing (Figure 4.16).
According to the White Paper (SA, 1996:28), irresponsible tourism has a negative impact on the environment if not managed responsibly. Responsible tourism implies that tourists should not litter in the environment. Most climbers disagree that they have a negative impact on the environment of Waterval Boven (Figure 4.16). This is supported by the majority that agrees that climbers follow environmental ethics at the Waterval Boven crags.
4.2.18 Environmental Projects and Access
Figure 4.18: Environmental Projects and Access
Figure 4.18 indicates that 16% of the rock climbers would access restricted areas in Waterval Boven. Eighty-eight percent of the rock climbers would support local environmental projects and 85% of the rock climbers only use the footpaths as means of access to climbing the crags.
Most climbers are aware of land ownership regulations (Figure 4.16). This is supported by the majority of climbers that will not accesses restricted areas to climb and only uses footpaths for access to crags.
4.5 SUMMARY The following are the main conclusions that could be made from the results of the survey:
Rock climbers do bring in economical benefit, through their support of local facilities and services and the amount of money that they spend. There are however
shortcomings regarding support for local community projects and underdeveloped areas.
Rock climbers are aware that they should respect the social-cultural diversity of the Waterval Boven, although a bigger effort needs to be made to learn more about the local cultures and customs and treat it with more sensitivity.
Climbers contribute towards the sustainability of the environment, but do however have a negative impact on the environment with regard to littering.
In the following chapter a general conclusion is given and recommendations made.
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 INTRODUCTION The main purpose of this study was to determine if rock climbers perceive their actions as contributing towards responsible tourism development in the Waterval Boven area. As a secondary objective it was necessary to identify the demographics of the rock climbers. In this chapter the conclusions made from the survey, as well as the findings are discussed and recommendations are made.
5.2.1 Rock Climbers Demographical Features The rock climber is most likely to be male, between the ages of 18-24 and has heard about Waterval Boven through his friends. He climbs on a regular basis, travels in groups of six or more people and has climbed at Waterval Boven more than once. He is most likely to use the facilities and services in the developed area such as the liquor store, accommodation, garage and supermarket and will spend more than R400 during his time at Waterval Boven.
5.2.2 Economical Sector The economical findings that were made is that the majority of rock climbers do contribute towards the economy of Waterval Boven, they would support local community
projects, and use the services and facilities of the town on their visits. The developed area mostly benefits from the rock climbers’ expenditures, where the majority of rock climbers spend more that R400 on their visit to Waterval Boven and they do not support the beggars in town. However, the underdeveloped area gets very little expenditure of rock climbers, few of them are aware of any local community projects and few investments have been made in the town.
The social-cultural findings that were made is that the majority of rock climbers do have a social impact, they respect the social-cultural diversity, would like to see the local community more involved in the climbing scene, interact with the local community on a regular basis and contribute towards the marketing of Waterval Boven. However, the minority of rock climbers is aware of local customs and cultures, asks permission to take photographs of important sites, homes and people, and agrees that rock climbing has increased crime in the Waterval Boven area.
The environmental findings that were made is that the majority of rock climbers are aware of and respect landownership regulations, follow environmental ethics, travel in small groups, would support local environmental projects and contribute towards sustainability and conservation of the environment. However, rock climbers do have a negative impact on the environment concerning litter. Recommendations are made from the above findings.
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS With the increase in crime at the crags, a project might be developed where local security officials could be used, involving the community, to add a stronger security force to protect tourists and rock climbers, as reported by Viljoen (2005:9) and support the local police force. An awareness campaign by the local communities targeting the rock climbers, on local community projects and facilities/services in the underdeveloped areas might lead to bigger economical support for these projects, facilities and services. On the spot fines could be handed out to rock climbers littering at the crags, if caught red handed. Rock climbers could also pay a certain fee to the local community to remove litter from the crags. This fee could be included in the accommodation price, or permits. The town counsel should provide incentives for rock climbers to invest the town such as providing unused buildings to be used as an adventure school for children and adventure races.
5.4. FURTHER RESEARCH PROJECTS The study could be used as a basis for further studies into adventure tourism concerning responsible tourism development. A further study could be done with the Waterval Boven’s resident’s perception of the rock climbers and their actions. A further study could be done on the economical, social-cultural and environmental impacts of rock climbers in the Waterval Boven area.
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QUESTIONNAIRE- ROCK CLIMBERS PERCEPTION OF THEIR CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS RESPONSIBLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE WATERVAL BOVEN AREA. Please indicate using an X in brackets, which is applicable to you: 1. What is your age? (1) 14-17  (2) 18-24  (3) 25-39  2. Gender: 3. Origin:
40 and over 
4. Climbing experience: (9) Beginner  5. How many climbers in your party?
Casual Climber 
Regular Climber 
2  (16) 6 
(17) More_____ (18) First time  (19) Average nr.
6. How frequently do you climb at Waterval Boven?
or of visits per year _____
Please indicate in more than one bracket, if possible:
7. How did you find out about Waterval Boven? (22) Tourist brochures  (23) Travel Agent  (26) Magazine  (27) Newspaper 
(20) Friends  (21) Relatives  (24) T.V.  (25) Radio (28) Other______________
8. Please indicate using an X in the blocks, your agreement/disagreement of the following statements: Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree (b) (c) (d) Agree
I as rock climber bring economical benefits to the Waterval Boven (WB) area. (30) I as rock climber contribute towards employment opportunities for the local community. (31) I as rock climber contribute towards infrastructure development in the WB area. (32) I as rock climber encourage begging in WB area. (33) I as rock climber contribute towards tourist development in WB area. (34) Only the developed area of WB benefits from rock climbers’ expenditure. (35) Rock climbers do not contribute to the underdeveloped areas of WB.
9. Do you support the local restaurants and pubs on your visit?
(37) Sometimes  (38) Always 
10. On your visit, do you make use of the local services and facilities? Please indicate in more than one bracket, for multiple answers:
11. What facilities do you use? (41) Liquor store  (42) Café  (43) Pharmacist  (44) Butchery  (45) Super Market  (46) Garage  (47) Bakery  (48) Shebeens 
Informal markets 
12. Are you aware of local community projects? (53) Yes  (54) No  If so, what project is it? ____________________________________________ 13. Would you support any local projects that are beneficial to the communities’ economy? (55) Yes  (56) No  14. Do you give money to beggars in town?
(62) No (64)
15. Do you think it is proper to give them money?
16. Have you made investments in the town, e.g. property, buildings?
17. How much would your budget be while visiting WB? (Includes accommodation tariffs, fuel purchase, use of facilities)
Less than R100  R300-R400 
R100  +R400 
18. Please indicate using an X in the blocks, your agreement/disagreement of the following statements: Agree Strongly (a) Rock climbers have minimal social impacts. Rock climbers respect the social-cultural diversity. (73) A rock climber contributes towards the conservation of historical and cultural sites. (74) Rock climbers contribute towards crosscultural exchange (Learning other cultures) (75) Rock climbing in WB has increased crime. (76) Rock climbing is beneficial to the marketing of WB.
Strongly Disagree (e)
19. Do you display your wealth among residents?
20. Have you ever asked permission to take photographs of important sites, homes and local people? (Excludes scenic views, climbers, yourself) (79) Yes  (80) No  21. Do you know what the culture of the local community is? 22. Are you aware of local customs among the residents of WB? 23. Do you interact with the local residents and community? 24. Have you been in any conflict situations with the WB community? 25. Do you use local guides? 26. Would you like to see the local community more involved in climbing? 27. Do you think you as a rock climber have an impact on the community?
(81) (83) (85) (87) (89) (91) (93)
Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
(82) (84) (86)
No  No  No    
(88) No (90) No
(92) No (94) No
28. Have you gained any information on the towns’ history, culture, and businesses? (95) Yes  (96) No  29. Please indicate using an X in the blocks, your agreement/disagreement of the following statements: Strongly Agree (a) Climbers have a negative impact on the natural environment. (98) Climbers follow ethics such as, ‘leave nothing behind, only footsteps’ at WB crags. (99) Climbers are aware of land ownership regulations. (100) Climbing at WB contributes to the conservation of natural environment. (101) Increase climbing could damage the environment at the crags. (102) Uncontrolled climbing could lead to areas being closed to climbers. (103) There is more litter at the crags due to climbing. (104) Rock climbing has made residents and local authorities more conscious of the environment.
30. Do you climb where there are bushman paintings at the crags? 31. Do you feed wild animals, such as the baboons in WB? 32. Do you climb where there are birds nesting on the crags? 33. Do you make fire at the crags? 34. Would you access restricted areas to climb at WB? 35. Would you support local environmental projects? 36. Do you take all litter/waste back to camping site? 37. Do you only use the footpaths to access crags?
(105) (107) (109) (111) (113) (115) (117) (119)
Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
(106) (108) (110)
No  No  No  
(112) No (114) (116) (118) (120)
No  No  No  No