Free Essay

Roles of Socialisation in the Creation of Identities

In: Social Issues

Submitted By DianaJ
Words 1537
Pages 7
Key Concepts – The role of socialisation in the creation of identities

Socialisation and identity: How and who you socialise with can play a part in creating your identity. Whether it’s family, friends or work peers, they all will have a massive influence in forming your identity. You will pick up things like norms and values from family for example, how you respond to that is part of your identity. * One example in your school years you will make friends. You will perhaps be in a group and share hobbies and activities in which you socialise through with. There you will have distinctive attitude and a form of behaviour that you will pick up from being that group. * Second example is your work peers; how you behave towards them and what you pick up from whilst working there again is part of your identity. You will share similar attitudes and norms of behaviour that the other peers have.

Culture and identity: This is the identity of a group or culture of an individual as far as one is influences by one’s belonging to a group or culture. That could depend on various thing like what norms and values you share or what ethnicity the group is from. * One example is you’re from a certain religion which involves living a distinct lifestyle to someone’s who’s non-religious. Their identity will be formed through how they live their life. They may be less sociable and spend more time practising their religion. * Second example is a group of ‘Goths’. Their identity is formed through the way they dress, the music they listen to and their attitude in life. That’s their culture that they want to express.

Socialisation in relation to:

Gender Identities: Gender identity is when you identity yourself with a gender category. In most societies there is basic division between what genders someone chooses to be which may not always be which sex you’re biologically born as. Gender plays a huge part in creating our identity and also pointing out what is expected of that person depending on their gender. * One example is the rising population of males ‘coming out of the closet’ admitting their gay. Being straight or gay can lead to two very different lives. * So second example is from Seidler (2006). He points out that males growing up in the 1950’s knew what was expected of them (get married, have a family ect.) they were prepared for all that because they mostly followed their father’s footsteps.

Femininities: The concept of feminities covers a range of learned behaviours and ways expressing these behaviours. These behaviours could differ with age, class and ethnicity. One source of influence can come from media, the pressure they portray for women to look and live a certain way is highly influential. * One example is from Blackman (1995) found lower middle class and working class in a secondary school were highly visible groups. They used their sexuality to challenge the schools male culture. * So second example is from Seidler (2006) argues that girls from Asian backgrounds, their expectations of their feminities are based on the experiences within the family. This means that girls have the pressure to act and behave in a way that is expected of them, more than what is expected from a boy in an Asian family.

Masculinities: Masculinities are socially constructed sets of expectations about how men should behave; there is a range of masculinities in the UK today. The influence of how media portrays males also influences how an identity if formed. * One example is from the socialist Connell, who describes a traditional male to be hegemonic masculinity. That associates with male supremacy (power and authority), heterosexuality, aggression and ‘laddish’ culture. The behaviours of hegemonic males is often macho and sexy. * Second example is the portrayal of leading male characters in children fairytale stories. The ‘prince’ is normally portrayed as a handsome, strong and leading, which all relate to what is expected of a traditional male.

Social-class identities: What class you come from can also depend on what sort of identity is formed. The stereotyping of each class and expectations of a higher class are all part of creating social class identity. * One example is a study from Savage (1992) says that lifestyles of the middle class are related to their occupational grouping. Those working in a private sector jobs will have a distinct lifestyle compared to those who working in a managerial or government positions. * So second example if you’re from a very lower middle class family who has little income and a very bad reputation this might influence your identity to be someone who has little expectations of themselves. They may live a very low quality lifestyle compared to those who are higher up in social class.

Ethnic identities: Having a cultural attachment to others and sometimes a sense of pride. The culture can include a shared language, food, dressing styles, religion, traditions and values. These factors can be influenced by where a person was born, where they currently live or their ancestor. Ethnic identity can be a way for someone to achieve and express to others. * One example is the UK which is made up of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The majority of UK population may be white but within the UK you have different ethnic identities like Scottish or Irish. * Second example is the study from Banton in 2000, he suggests that ethnicity in today’s UK is increasingly becoming recognised as something everyone has because it’s in the Census.

Ethnic hybrids: This is the mixing of different cultures when one influences another and new hybrid develops. All this helps create more of a diverse in cultures. * One example is the growing popularity over Indian food like the famous ‘chicken tikka masala’ which is reportedly the most popular dish in England. However the origin of the food is from elsewhere, far in the Middle East. Sometimes the curries are altered to be more acceptable for English taste. This shows how different cultures can mix and create something new. * Second example is a study from Johal and Bains (1998) which focused on ‘dual identities’. British Asians have a number of different identities which depended on who they were with. They suggested that there is a ‘code switch’ in behaviour and attitude. This is portrayed in the films ‘Bend it like Beckham’ and ‘East is East’.

Age identities: Age categorisations are found in all areas of life in the contemporary UK. Certain ages will bring certain roles and status. You can consider age as a lifelong process that you go through. On some occasions people don’t follow the same age patterns; instead they alter it to suit themselves. * One example could be that there is a certain age when you can apply for your provisional licence. * Second example could be when middle age starts for one person, but at a different stage for another person.

Old age: Old age is normally related to people 65 or over, this links to retirement age. With retirement comes a pension from the state, public transport and the possibility of free prescriptions. There will be times when people will categorize them self as ‘old’ * One example is a study by McKingsley (2001), according to him there is a fast growing segment of people aged 85 and over. This suggests there is stage of being ‘oldest old’ and ‘young elderly’. This shows that there is no clear age boundary; instead consider it as a social category which brings new roles, assumptions, opportunities and barriers. * Second example is Victor (2005) suggests old age is stereotyped and identified as a period of loniliness, being unable to learn, having poor health and being dependent on others.

Middle age: The stage lying between young adulthood and old age, normally related to people in their 40’s or 50’s. There is no clear boundary or legal position to locate when middle age takes place. Many suggest that it considers the attitude of the mind, stating that there is a particular way that middle aged people view their life. It can also be the stage where most of the maturity takes place and responsibilities are very common in that stage. * One example is starting a starting a family, taking on new responsibilities of being a mother which is a new role they will need to adapt their life around. * Second example could be also becoming a grandparent. Taking on more responsibilities where you can pass down your life experiences to the younger generations and act as a role model to them by example.

Youth: Youth is associated with people from around the age of 12 to 25 years old. Youth will lead a distinct lifestyle; a period of growing up, rebelling, fun and excitement. Factors such as class, gender, ethnicity may affect their youth identity. * One example is the study from Polemus (1997) said the media clearly plays a crucial part in the creation and reinforcement of youth identity. * Second example the study by Abrams (1959) argued that young people were all part of the same youth culture; at the same transition stage in their life. It involves young people learning and negotiating the path into adulthood.

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...three-category taxonomy of motivation, adding ‘‘hedonic’’ motivation to the traditional dichotomy of ‘‘extrinsic’’ and ‘‘intrinsic’’ motivation. It uses case studies gleaned from the literature to explore the interactive effects between the different motivators in two different types of knowledge-intensive organisations: professional bureaucracy and operating adhocracy. Findings – Within a professional bureaucracy, the social dilemma of knowledge sharing may be overcome through normative motivation, with provision of hedonic motivation through extrinsic incentives such as training and career progression. In an operating adhocracy where interdependent teamwork is vital, it may be overcome through normative alignment reinforced by intensive socialisation. Extrinsic motivators that align with hedonic motivation may also reinforce the propensity for knowledge sharing. In both organisational types, financial extrinsic incentives do not appear to be relevant on their own, and may ‘‘crowd out’’ other motivators. Research limitations/implications – The cases reported were chosen from the existing literature and, although many were not designed specifically to address motivational issues, suggestive conclusions are drawn. Most of the cases were drawn from organisations rooted in the Anglo-American context and thus care would be needed in generalising the findings to organisations in...

Words: 9851 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Seci, Ba and Leadership: a Unified Model of Dynamic Knowledge Creation

... SECI, Ba and Leadership: a Uni®ed Model of Dynamic Knowledge Creation Ikujiro Nonaka, Ryoko Toyama and Noboru Konno Despite the widely recognised importance of knowledge as a vital source of competitive advantage, there is little understanding of how organisations actually create and manage knowledge dynamically. Nonaka, Toyama and Konno start from the view of an organisation as an entity that creates knowledge continuously, and their goal in this article is to understand the dynamic process in which an organisation creates, maintains and exploits knowledge. They propose a model of knowledge creation consisting of three elements: (i) the SECI process, knowledge creation through the conversion of tacit and explicit knowledge; (ii) `ba', the shared context for knowledge creation; and (iii) knowledge assets, the inputs, outputs and moderators of the knowledge-creating process. The knowledge creation process is a spiral that grows out of these three elements; the key to leading it is dialectical thinking. The role of top management in articulating the organisation's knowledge vision is emphasised, as is the important role of middle management (`knowledge producers') in energising ba. In summary, using existing knowledge assets, an organisation creates new knowledge through the SECI process that takes place in ba, where new knowledge, once created, becomes in turn the basis for a new spiral of knowledge creation. = 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. As Alvin......

Words: 11705 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Examine How the Media Causes Crime -21 Marks.

...of certain groups of people becoming its victims, such as young women and the elderly. Hence, there is a concern that the media may be misleading the public’s impression of crime and causing an impractical fear of it. Research evidence to some degree supports the view that there is a link between media use and fear of crime. For example, in the USA, Gerbner et al found that heavy users of television (over four hours a day) had greater levels of fear of crime. However, the existence of such correlations doesn’t verify that media viewing causes fear. For example, it may be that those who are already afraid of going out at night watch more TV just because they stay in more. Moreover, right realists argue that the underlying problem is socialisation and the underclass rather than the influence of media. Charles Murray argues that the crime rate is increasing because of a rising underclass or “new rabble” who are defined by their deviant behaviour and who fail to socialise their children appropriately. According to Murray, the underclass is growing in both the...

Words: 1176 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The European Union and Its Power over Opinion: What Can Belarus Tell Us About the European Identity?

...about the European identity? Contents Abstract Page 4 Introduction ` Page 5 Chapter 1: Constructing a European identity Page 8 Chapter 2: The European Union as a normative actor Page 21 Chapter 3: The Belarusian problem Page 30 Conclusion Page 49 Bibliography Page 52 Abstract Europe has embarked upon an unprecedented process of state integration witnessing the widespread deferral of policy making to intergovernmental institutions. The European Union’s institutionalism has facilitated an assimilation of values into an increasingly coherent, if complex regional identity. A normative self-conception has emerged that Brussels has sought to project onto its external relations through the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Brussels increasingly considers itself a transformative actor in global politics offering an alternative to great power realpolitik. This paper finds that while European multilateralism offers an environment conducive to a normative foreign policy, the extent to which it is able to exert any ideational influence is constrained by the level of engagement it is willing to pursue. Europe maintains a policy of isolating the Lukashenko regime and has failed to engage Belarusian civil society. As a result it has had a negligible impact on Belarusian political culture. Europe’s failure to adequately engage Belarus also suggests a contradiction within the European identity......

Words: 13537 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay


...Mass Media Revision Notes The mass media are forms of communication which reach large audiences. They can be split into two groups: Traditional media * TV * Radio * Cinema * Music * Newspapers * Books New media * Internet * Dvd * Digital television * E mail In society today it is very difficult to avoid the mass media. There is a division between the press (newspapers) and broadcasting (TV and radio) The press in the UK Newspapers and magazine which are privately owned and are commercially run for profit They are financed through advertising and sales which means they are in competition with each other Some newspapers reach a national market such as the Guardian and others a local market such as the Yorkshire Evening Post Newspapers can be divided to broad sheets which is considered to be the quality press and the tabloids such as the Sun and the Mirror Broadcasting in Britain This refers to the TV and the radio. In the UK we have public television which is the BBC – this is funded by the TV licence fee. We also have commercial television which aims to make money through advertising. In recent years there has been a move towards the sponsorship of programmes – Cadbury’s and Coronation Street – and now companies can pay to see their products feature in TV programmes, this is called product placement. Technological developments In 1980 there were only three channels – BBC1, BBC2 and ITV – we now have additional terrestrial......

Words: 1811 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Catholicism and Protestanism

...Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole.[1][2] For many the term usually refers to Christians and churches belonging to the Roman Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See.[3] For others it refers to the churches of the first millennium, including, besides the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, and the Assyrian Church of the East.[4][5] And for others again it refers to "adhering to the catholic faith as it has been inherited from the earliest Christians ... seeking to restore the faith and order of the primitive church",[6] as claimed by the Anglican Communion, various Lutheran churches,[6][7][8] and other Reformation and post-Reformation churches.[9][10] The Catholic claim of continuity is based on, among other factors, Apostolic succession, especially in conjunction with adherence to the Nicene Creed.[11] In the sense of indicating historical continuity of faith and practice, the term "catholicism" is at times employed to mark a contrast to Protestantism, which tends to look solely to the Bible as interpreted on the principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation as its ultimate standard.[12] It was thus used by the Oxford Movement.[13] This contrast, however, is not so clearcut for Anglican theologians such as Alister McGrath: "Anglicanism is not...

Words: 2573 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

G671 Revision Notes

... Archer: feminists argue that we cant say there is one hegemonic masculinity, there are more Paul Willis: lads and earoles study Mac and Ghail: macho lads – no factory jobs anymore Jackson: some boys at school don’t study as they wish to look “cool” Burdsey: Asian footballers want to fit in Complicit: new man, they adopt a shared role in the family Marginalised: loss of masculinity, unemployed men Subordinate: gay men behaving differently to the expectations of the dominant hegemonic masculinity Creation and reinforcement: Family: Ann Oakley: cannalisation, verbal appellation, toys and activities, primary socialisation – parents Mitchell and green: mother – daughter bond is strong in wc families Archer: family is pivotal – muslim boy masculine identity Frosh et al: boys talked about their parents – mothers expressive, fathers instrumental Charles: men are still seen as providers and women as carers Mass media: Marsh and Millard: superhero texts Gauntlett: magazines offering advice on how to be attractive – relates to gender Gill and herdieckerhoff: chick lit, dad lit, mum lit – body is key source of identity Storey: elvis...

Words: 954 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cross Culture is a specific form of writing that is organised around concisely identifying and examining issues, events, or findings that have happened in a physical sense, such as events that have occurred within an organisation, or findings from a research investigation. These events can also pertain to events or issues that have been presented within a body of literature. The key to report writing is informing the reader simply and objectively about all relevant issues. There are three features that, together, characterise report writing at a very basic level: a pre-defined structure, independent sections, and reaching unbiased conclusions. Having a Pre-Defined Structure At a very basic level, a report can be distinguished from an essay by the creation of headings into which information is organised. Broadly, these headings may indicate sections within a report, such as an Introduction, Discussion, and Conclusion. Within the main section(s) making up the body of the report (the Discussion in the example just given), there is often an opportunity to create your own structure according to the literature you have sourced, your development of ideas, and the task assigned. An example of a report structure is presented below. Two versions are provided in which the first version indicates main sections and sub-sections through indenting, and the second does so through a numbering system. You may find that the headings provide a link between sections, without the necessity of a......

Words: 9944 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

A Level forms such as single parent (majority are female headed households, common between West Indians and Puerto Ricans), blended and reconstituted (formed by adults who have married previously and who bring their children from their previous marriage to the new marriage, forming a new family unit), extended (based on common descent, commonly consists of a married couple and one or more married children), cohabiting couples and complex families (co-wives' economic and political interests, especially with regards to their children, their labour, and their allegiances to their kin, often conflict). These type of families are a cross-culturally universal social institution which do not have to based on traditional meaning of the family but identity construction, economic production (distribution of goods, labor demands, inheritance) and reproduction (biological or cultural). The reason of the decline in nuclear family is industrialization, according to functionalist sociologists. Before the half of 18th century, the...

Words: 938 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Orga Culture

... 12 CHAPTER 2 ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE Chapter 1 explored the background to and the motivation for this study, with specific reference to organisational culture and organisational commitment as the main constructs. In this chapter the concept “organisational culture” is explored in more detail. This chapter’s main focus areas include the following theoretical aspects of the concept organisational culture: background, definition, model, dimensions, development, change and management of culture. 2.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND TO THE CONCEPT ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE Social scientists have explored the notion of organisational culture as a perspective in organisational theory over the past decades. Brown (1998, p 2) states that “current interests in organisational culture stems from at least four different sources: climate research, national cultures, human resource management and from conviction approaches which emphasise the rational and structural nature of the organisation to be unable to offer a full explanation of organisational behaviour”. Research findings by means of organisational climate surveys that were conducted in the 1970s suggest that organisational culture seems to be a sophisticated approach to understand the beliefs and attitudes of individual members about their respective organisations (Brown, 1998). The origin of organisational culture from a national culture point of view is based, among others,...

Words: 6138 - Pages: 25

Free Essay


...Capital and Communities of Practice El-Sayed Abou-Zeid John Molson School of Business, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada Abstract: There is almost a consensus that tacit component of organisational knowledge is of critical strategic importance because, unlike explicit knowledge, it is both inimitable and appropriable. Because of its characteristics, organisational tacit knowledge is usually created and shared through highly interactive conversation and shared experience, i.e., through a socialisation process. At the firm’s level, the effectiveness of the socialisation process depends on the firm’s social capital. At group level, it has been argued that communities of practice form the basis of a firm's ability to create and share tacit knowledge. Therefore, investigating the relationship between social capital, communities of practice and individual human action is crucial in understanding the dynamic of cross level knowledge creation and utilisation and in understanding organisational learning process. In order to study this relationship Giddens’ theory of structuration is used as it provides an integrating meta-theory that recognises social reality as constituted by both subjective human actors and by objective institutional properties and attempts to articulate a process-oriented approach that relates the realm of human action and institutional realm. Based on Giddens’ theory a model of the interaction between human action and social......

Words: 5749 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay


...Unit 3 Sociology; Beliefs in Society Different theories of Ideology, Science and Religion An Ideology is a closed set of beliefs that reject other views. A Belief is a framework of ideas through which an individual makes sense of the world. They are generally connected to a religion and based on faith with no evidence needed. Science is based on evidence, factual, objective and regarded as the truth. Religion is based on faith, not truth. It is a fixed view of how the world is and claims to be the truth. Theories of ideology Marxists believe that the ideas that people hold are formed by their position in society, and ideology is seen as the ideas of particular social groups reflecting their interests. The Marxist view is associated with the view that there is a Dominant Ideology (the set of ideas and beliefs of the most powerful groups in society – ruling class). Althusser suggested the dominant ideology was spread through a series of Ideological State Apparatuses (agencies [media, religion, education etc] that spread the dominant ideology and justify the power of the dominant social class). Gramsci developed the concept Hegemony (dominance in society of the ruling class’s set of ideas over others, and acceptance of and consent to them by the rest of society). Pluralism is a view that sees power in society spread among a wide variety of interest groups and individuals, with no single one having a monopoly on power. A Pluralist Ideology is the set of ideas......

Words: 6992 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Politics Supreme Court

...1694 words Andrea Dworkin stated that “the feminine ideal by definition turns a woman into a function, deprives her of any individuality that is self-serving or self-created”. With reference to The Bell Jar, consider the view that Sylvia Plath would agree with all parts of this statement? The Bell Jar could be regarded as an archetypal feminist work in which women are presented as repressed and prevented from any possibility of becoming wholly autonomous beings, free from relationships with men, unable to define their own existence. Esther conforms to this depiction and is perpetually oppressed by misogynistic ideology. However, we must consider that she is not entirely deprived of an expressive disposition, and so it could be argued that, although she may not be entirely “self-serving” or “self-created”, she does possess an individualistic nature made evident through her literary self-expression. A sense of individuality becomes clear when noting that Esther, despite being a female of modest background, has obtained a prestigious scholarship to New York- a city of growth and freedom. She has ended up “Steering New York like her own private car” and here the use of the word “own” suggests that her ambition is self-controlled and so she possesses an individualistic temperament conflicting with Dworkin’s belief. Moreover, Esther has the opportunity to write for a magazine, suggesting that she is more creatively liberalised than many males during this era. Esther’s......

Words: 1766 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

S Occ

...Session 2: Organizations over time Explaining Development and Change in Organizations * Van de Ven &Poole (1995) * Change: empirical observation of difference in form, quality, or state over time in an organisational entity (may be an individual’s job, a work group, an organisational strategy, a program, a product, or the overall organisation). * Development: change process * Process theory: how and why an organisational entity changes and develops * 4 basic theories explaining change processes in organisations: *Imminent=bevorstehend Teleology: * assumes that the entity in purposeful and adaptive * needs creativity Dialectical: * e.g. acquisitions: two firms have different “theses” and need to find antithesis * e.g. multinational firm: international and national HQ “compete” * there is no assurance that dialectical conflicts produce creative syntheses * the desired synthesis creates win-win situation * either the maintenance of actual thesis or its replacement with the antithesis creates win-lose * in terms of organisational change: * maintenance of status quo stability * replacement with antithesis or synthesis change Evolution: * Variation: Change from current routines and competencies (intentional & blind) * Selection: Elimination of certain types of variations (external & internal selection) * Retention: Selected variations are preserved, duplicated, reproduced * e.g....

Words: 12910 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Making Sense of Organisations

...To what extent are people subordinated to systems and organisations in the 21st century? The purpose of the ensuing study is to critically evaluate the role played by individuals in organisations in the 21st century. The author aims to conclude the analysis with a logical and coherent explanation to the roles individuals play in organisation. Hence, for the purpose of this study, organisational life is dissected with the help of three distinct dimensions; effects of national culture on organisational culture, power and politics within organisations and psychological ownership. The study bases strong emphasis to the formulation of organisational culture and how it differs from national culture, it then moves on to specifically outline the culture of male dominated organisations and aims to address the issue of why there exists a culture of gender bias within organisations, and finally, with the help of psychological theories, the study aims to establish the outcomes of individual psychological emotions towards an organisation. With the help of the above, the study aims to reach a rationale on better understanding people and organisations by outlining the culture systems and roles played by the former in the latter. Kroebar & Kluckholm defined culture as: ‘a set of patterns, explicit and implicit, of behaviour acquired and transmitted by symbol, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artefacts; the essential......

Words: 3569 - Pages: 15