Free Essay

Roles

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By navannavan
Words 2652
Pages 11
DISCUSS AND CRITICALLY ANALYSE YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY WITH REFERENCE TO TWO ‘COMMON MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS’

INTRODUCTION

In trying to discuss and critically analyse an understanding of psychopathology, I will propose to use the relevant theory from the perspective of two common mental health disorders; Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Major Depressive Episode (MDE).. I decided to focus on these two common mental health disorders as both hold particular interest for me.

MDE- What struck me most in researching this topic was the relative ease with which someone could find themselves diagnosed with MDE under current DSM-IV guidelines. Possibly without them having awareness of their impending path and journey into mental health difficulties.

I was impacted by BPD in regards to its more challenging behaviours to the therapist, who may be dealing with a client existing between borderline and psychotic worlds.

I will explore the application of two theoretical approaches, namely humanistic and cognitive behavioural in relation to these mental health disorders. I will also demonstrate the importance of cultural difference in relation to understanding mental health issues and I will highlight the role risk assessment plays in the provision of supports for clients and the therapists. I will also demonstrate the importance of supervision and record keeping and I will conclude the essay with a brief summary of my key learning, including my understanding of limitations and challenges facing me within the psychotherapeutic relationship.

PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

A helpful understanding of what pathology is and one that I agree with was suggested by Stirling, who contributed that psychopathology is,

‘The scientific study of abnormal behaviour. As such it differs from both clinical psychology and psychiatry which respectively focus on behavioural and medical management of mental disorders’
Stirling J, 2013 ,p.1.

This commentary gives me a clear understanding that psychopathology is the study of the normal versus the abnormal, but in order to have a firm understanding of common mental health disorders, I chose the DSM-IV as my reference point, as according to Dziegielewski, in her book DSM-IV-TR in Action, she proposes that;

‘Few professionals would debate that the most commonly used and accepted source of diagnostic criteria are the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition’
Dziegielewski, 2010, p.4.

The DSM-IV offers a very helpful structure for the therapist and health care professional dealing with mental illness as the DSM-IV defines the categorization of mental disorders. The DSM-IV offers a controlled method for healthcare professionals to communicate with each other using this structure as a common reference point. In my view, there are challenges to the effectiveness of the DSM-IV as it uses behavioural measurement to identify mental illness which in my opinion is an approach that fails to acknowledge the individuals relationship history or their societal and cultural values, or their behavioural norms and behavioural abnormalities. It also has a predominately western viewpoint, though the cultural makeup of its contributors, a point also commented by, White Kress, who stated;

‘A growing body of literature suggests that diagnoses based on DSM criteria are particularly inaccurate for clients from “underrepresented and marginalized groups” and fails to take into account larger adjustment issues such as acculturation and immigration’
White Kress, 2005 ,p.98.

MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES

I will now explore Borderline Personality Disorder and Major Depressive Episode.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is coded on Axis 11of the DSM-IV. Axis 11 is used to classify personality disorders and BPD is cited as;

‘A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts.
A person must show an enduring pattern of behaviour that includes at least five of the following symptom, frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, Identity disturbance, impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging, recurrent suicidal behaviour, affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood, chronic feelings of emptiness ,intense or inappropriate anger, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative'
American Psychiatric Association, 2000 ,p.706.

This comment offers the view that may demonstrate the wide displacement that people with BDP may experience. In my opinion, BPD sufferers may exist in a world built on insecurity, fears, abandonment, where their thoughts can be erratic, irrational and overly emotional. I believe that one of the main challenges in the therapeutic relationship for clients who present with BDP is their lack of ability to distinguish between reality from their own conception and perception of the world compared to others. People with this disorder may see others and normal life situations in “black-and-white” terms. They may also switch quickly from idealizing other people to devaluing them; feeling that the other person does not care enough, or does not give enough. This could be a concern within the therapeutic relationship as there may be perceived shifts around the stability of this or indeed any relationship.

I will now explore Major Depressive Episode (MDE) which is coded on Axis 1of the DSM-IV. Axis 1 refers to the diagnosis, or the presenting disorder. MDE in the DSM-IV is described as; abandonment fears, unstable intense relationship , identity disturbance, impulsivity, suicidal or self-injury behaviours, emotional instability , emptiness, anger and psychotic perceptual distortions. American Psychiatric Association, 2000 ,p.369.

MDE is an illness that illness that is currently experienced by many people and diagnosed by many practitioners, as Parker offers;

‘Depression is referred to a "the common cold of psyche’
Parker, 2005 ,p.6.

In my view MDE can offer challenges to both the suffer, and the therapist. As demonstrated within the DSM-IV its symptoms can dehabilitate and cause great distress to the sufferer, impairing their ability to function within relationships and work environments. However, I believe that there are also challenges in the diagnosis of MDE within the DSM-IV classification system as it operates within a very defined and structured approach to diagnosis's criteria. This could mean someone could show only three symptoms, which are very active and present, but this could have a more destabilising or upsetting effect than someone showing four milder symptoms. Secondly, people differ in their capacity, honesty and ability to communicate to the practitioner and may hide symptoms from them making diagnosis difficult.

INTERVENTIONS

Both BPD and MDE offer a challenge to both the therapist and to the client. For the client, daily living can be difficult. The therapist may also find it difficult to come up with the diagnosis accordingly and the nature of the conditions may hinder the ability of the person to interact fully and honestly within the therapeutic relationship. In my opinion the humanistic and cognitive behavioural offers the best path in relation to working with clients who present with BDP and MDE.

Humanistic approach.

The humanistic approach was developed from the theories of illustrated an emphasis on human potential. illustrated an emphasis on human potentialSSSSSSSSs Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May. It approach holds the view that the focus of the therapeutic relationship centres on the ability of the person to fulfil their own full potential. Rogers called this "self actualization". The ability of the client to fulfil their potential is achieved through open communication and a non-judgmental approach to the client.

The humanistic approach would view that if a client is experiencing mental health issues then this is a deviation from normal well being and the client holds the solution to their recovery. This is vital for the building of the therapeutic relationship and this may gives the client grounding and a base, possibly something that was lacking or missing in their lives. The therapist's role is to lead the client toward this self-knowledge. Rogers endorses this point by in stating that;

‘Individuals have within themselves vast resources for self-understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes, and self-directed behaviour; these resources can be tapped if a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided’
Rogers Carl R, 1995, p.115.

The humanistic approach does have some cultural challenges as it relies on the therapist interpreting the client from the therapist's own cultural perception, and secondly , what might be regarded as the therapist’s ideal self actualization which may be different from the client’s culturally defined self actualisation. It does however offer a pureness and a non-judgemental approach that offers the client a safe environment to achieve stability and a foundation to realise their own potential.

In my view, the humanistic approach offers a suitable therapeutic intervention for both MDE and BDP clients. as assuming that in both illnesses the person has lost their drive, motivation and ability to fulfil their own potential.
If the therapist can help the client regain this, it could to lead to the depression lifting in cases of the MDE. In regards to the BDP client; the therapeutic relationship can offer foundation and a base that may have not existed previously in their lives allowing them to develop themselves

Cognitive behavioural approach.

This approach has its foundations in the work of the conditioning and reinforcement theorists of Pavlov, Wolpe and Skinner. The term cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is not a specific therapy but more a collective classification of therapies with shared similarities. In the cognitive behavioural approach, the client and therapists work to understand if the thinking of the client is irrational or negative. They both work to replace the irrational or negative thinking with new ways of thinking and behaving. This is augmented with a commitment from the client to actively peruse the more positive approach in everyday settings. It sets short-term goals for the client to achieve and through the goal setting structures it can fit well into the lives of people who need stability and a secure base.

In relation to the treatment of MDE and the cognitive behavioural approach; it was
Aaron T beck whose cognitive theory offered a view into how depression could enter the life of an individual through their thinking. According to Davey ;

‘This theory introduced the idea that depression could be caused by bias in the way of thinking and processing information’
Davy G, 2008 ,p.182.

The cognitive behavioural approach can be very effective for working with MDE sufferers as CBT aim to help the MDE client change patterns of behaviour that come from negative thinking and irrational thoughts. This process of thinking can lead to a negative schemata for the client whose continuous use of repeated negative thoughts could cause the onset of depression. The aim of the cognitive behavioural approach is to assist the client in changing their viewpoints and perception. This, if successful, could lead to the client arresting the downward spiral into more depressive episodes.

In relation to BDP; two specific behavioural approaches have been used in its treatment; Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) and Schema-focused therapy (SFT). In BDP, as described within the DSM-IV, the BDP client may be experiencing interpersonal relationship and self-image issues challenges. The cognitive behavioural approach may help the client rationalise and interpret their current challenges in a different manner, which could assist them in achieving a more stable world.

In dealing with clients of suffering from mental illness there are a number of considerations that the therapist need to observe in order to facilitate a safe, secure therapeutic relationship and alliance.

CONSIDERATIONS

When any person presents for therapy, it is important that a full assessment is completed.
The assessment should ensure that the therapist is informed of the background of the client. The assessment should include: a contract agreement and a confidentiality release clause. The therapist should be made aware of the client being in therapy before, whether they been referred, if they are on medication. This information is important to the therapist as it may determine the way and style of treatment used and also to help the therapist determine if they can help and support the client. It also assists in deciding whether the client needs a referral. As shown previously, the therapist will need to be aware of ways in which different cultures express, experience, and cope with feelings of distress. Within the first few meetings the therapist should establish reasons for the client presenting and determine if there are areas of concern with regard to safety, suicidality, or any medical or transference issues. If there are concerns, this should be raised immediately with the client's medical practitioners or through supervision. We also need to be vigilant and very observant to the behaviours thoughts and actions of our clients with BDP as Porr offers, that in regards to BPD it;

‘Has a 10% suicide rate and at least 75% of people with BDP make at least one non-lethal suicide attempt and at least 60% to 80% with BDP self-injure’
Porr V, 2010 ,p.121.

If any client presents with challenging behaviour, there needs to be an understanding to why the client is behaving this way and to question whether the current therapeutic intervention is sufficient or if there is a need to refer the client on.
The decision to refer or not to refer the client must be dealt with swiftly either by direct decision making by the therapist or raised through supervision.

In regards to record keeping; it is vital to ensure that proper records and summary notes are maintained from the client's sessions. Notes should be done immediately after each session to ensure a full accurate record is kept of each session.

As therapists we need to be aware of our own feelings toward the client when the client may display behaviour which is deemed inappropriate. These feelings need to be raised with the client (if appropriate) or within supervision. Again the importance of awareness of transference issues and the need and requirement to bring any issues to supervision is vital. There may also be a risk to the therapist of burnout as the challenge of hearing the experiences of clients who are struggling may impact on the therapist, so wellbeing and self care for the therapist are vital.

CONCLUSION

As shown, there are challenges to the therapist when entering into the client's world of mental health issues. There is the challenge of whether the therapist is presented with a client diagnosed with a mental illness or the challenge to the therapist to determine if there is a possibility of an undiagnosed mental illness presenting. There is the challenge to the therapists of how best to look after the needs of the client and also our own self-care. However a network and system to help and support our clients is available. Pharmacology, Psychiatry are accessible and the health care system can use a multi-disciplinary team approach to give the client a well balanced approach where psychotherapy can be a part of. My experience of researching this project has changed my previously held view where I did not feel confident in dealing with someone who presents or displays characteristics of mental health disorders. Now in my view clients who show a manageable or low level of either disorder can benefit from psychotherapy.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Psychiatric Association. 2000, DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Pub

Dziegielewski. F Sophia, 2010, DSM-IV-TR in Action, John Wiley & Sons,

Davy. G, 2008, Psychopathology research, Assessment and treatment in Clinical Psychology. John Wiley and sons

Stirling, J, 2013, Psychopathology Modular Psychology, Routledge

Maddux, E James, 2012, Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding Routledge,

Parker, G et al, David Straton Dealing with Depression: a Commonsense Guide to Mood Disorders, Allen & Unwin

Porr.V, 2010, Overcoming Borderline Personality Disorder: A Family Guide for Healing and Change Oxford University Press

Rogers. C, 1995, A Way of Being, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

White Kress. E, 2005, The DSM-IV-TR and culture: Considerations for counsellors. Journal of Counselling & Development

[pic][pic]

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Role Analysis

...ROLE ANALYSIS: SOME DEFINITIONS WHAT IS A ROLE? A Role is defined as the “position an individual occupies in a organization, and is identified by the functions and activities he/she performs, in response to the “expectations” of “significant members” in the organization and organizational requirements. WHO IS A ROLE OCCUPANT? The individual who occupies that role is called the Role Occupant. WHO ARE ROLE SET MEMBERS? “Significant members” are those members with whom the Role Occupant has a direct relationship with, which leads them to have certain expectations from the Role Occupant. These ‘significant members’ are called the Role Set members. HOW DOES ROLE ANALYSIS HELP? The process of analyzing the role is termed as a Role Analysis exercise. In a Role Analysis exercise, the role being analyzed is called the Focal Role. A Role Analysis exercise reduces role ambiguity, role conflicts, individual stress and general dissatisfaction from the Role Set members. WHAT ARE KEY RESPONSIBILITIES? KRs are broad group of activities that reflect the main contribution of the Role to the organization and its members. It is more developmental and value added in nature, and spans a long-term horizon. It is therefore defined by what the person can do, based on his/her own assessment as well as those of role set members, who feel the role occupant can perform, with support and training. WHAT ARE ROUTINE RESPONSIBILITIES? RRs are those activities, mainly of a maintenance......

Words: 465 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Role Functions

...Graduate Studies Division Case #7 ROLE FUNCTIONS Statement of the Problem PCSO The lateral transfer of an employee from a Technical Department to one of clerical was a challenge. The job item is technical in nature but the assigned work was more of monitoring, consolidating and organizing of vital documents. Having been used to doing system procedures in the computer with paperless works for more than a decade was a complete turnaround when transferred to a new division, who caters to numerous papers for processing. The transfer was a result of organizational change, but there were no proper turnover of the assignment. Stacks of contracts were piling up, no proper data was given, no specific function and job responsibility, in totality everything is unclear. However, the main function is to organize and consolidate, match data with the branches’ data under Visayas, which is the role the management expected the employee to fulfill and perform. There is however a confusing part as to what and where to start. In addition, another workload was given by the Branch Head to generate technical reports needed by the Visayas branches and head office Manila, which is supposed to be the main corresponding function of the employee in relation to his position. But because of the abundant pending contracts to be processed with so little time to organize, a conflict of which should be prioritize is a problem. It is a choice between the job assignment assigned by the Office of...

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Role Schemas: Roles And Expectations

...Role schemas are defined as the norms and expected behaviours of a specific role in society. It also goes into say that the roles and expectations associated with these categories are often referred to as stereotypes. When Cady first comes to the high school she is met with The Plastics, Cady then goes on to say how she if from Africa. Karen who is referred to as the dumb blonde says “so, if you’re from Africa, why are you white?” In this clip, Cady’s background does not fit into Karen’s pre-existing schema of what African natives look like. Another example of role schemas is when Cady, Janice and Damian first meet and talk about where to sit in the cafeteria. Janis goes on to say, “Where you sit in the cafeteria is crucial because you got...

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gender Roles

...Running Head: GENDER ROLES 1 Gender Roles Cindy Rohwer SOC 312 Yelena Gidenko November 2, 2013 GENDER ROLES 2 Our children are the leaders of tomorrow. That is why it is imperative that they are raised with care and understanding. Most children today are raised by parents with certain social expectations of them depending on their gender. If they happen to be boys, they are expected to be outgoing, mischievous, and always in the mood to get dirty. Since this is the boys’ expectations, the girls are expected to be the total opposite. Girls are expected to be dainty, pretty and nice. If these standards could not be met, then the child would probably be reprimanded. It is my belief that parents and teachers should stop enforcing these gender roles on their children because gender roles do not let the children find out what they like or want to do. It limits the children’s creativity, and makes children feel like outcasts,......

Words: 644 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gender Roles

...Gender Roles and Responsibilities Portrayed in the Media Ivy Tech Community College Ashley Stires Professor Jessen February 12, 2014 * Topic came from Chapter 15 on Media ethics in advertising and how businesses use advertising to attract certain groups of consumers. Thesis When you think of the picture perfect family, what comes to mind? Is it a mother and father where the father works and the wife stays home that the media portrays? Or is it the realistic family that either both parents work hard for an income or the mother is taking on more the aspects of being the provider and the father is the housewife. Even though times have changed and women are starting to be the bread winners and responsibilities for men and women are flip flopping. Then why does the media still portray this perfect housewife image that the mother stays home, cooks, cleans, and takes care of the kids. Or the father is works twenty-four seven and when he is not working he at the gym or doing “manly” things like working on a car and getting all dirty. The media is presenting an image of our lifestyles that each male and female are supposed to live up to throughout their daily lives. Not just appearance, it is everyday responsibilities that have been genderized, as to who is supposed to do the yard work, or cook, or even clean. Commercials and paper advertisements, especially cleaning and food advertisements, are using stereotypical images to portray specific gender roles and responsibilities...

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

How I Handle Role Conflicts and Role Strains

...XXXX Sociology 101 XXXXXX How I Handle Role Conflicts and Role Strains Life has never been easy since my family and I moved here from the Philippines. I practically left my very easy and comfortable life there. Before, I'm just a plain college student, asking my allowance from mom, dropped off to school by dad and my brother even helped me with my school works. But everything changed when we lived here. I need to stop schooling and to sustain our everyday living; all of us need to work. With that situation, I don’t get to see them a lot often because we don’t have the same days off. I’m always left alone at home when they’re at work and at the early age of 18, I’ve already learned to be independent. I’m a working student and the roles I portray are difficult. They may be stressful and have conflict sometimes but I’m making ways to make it all easy for me. I work at a Filipino fast food 8 hours a day, 5 days a week. I need to wake up at 5:00AM just to be ready for work. It’s always busy at the store and it makes me very tired when I get off. But I still need to prepare for school. I need to do my home works for my two evening class. I really need to cope up with all of those school works because I don’t want to fail any of my classes. To tell you honestly, being a working student is such a strain for me and most of the people who are sharing the same situation as mine. Actually, before I entered school, I’ve already asked one of my coworkers to give me a tip on how to...

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Role of Diversity

...When attempting to explain the role of diversity in any subject there must be a realization that it most likely will not come down to one factor. There are many factors that involves the role of diversity such as race, gender, religion, culture and some many others. In America, diversity is rich and allows for many different points of views, creations, and interpretations. When discussing the arts in the 20th century, this remains to be true. So also, when discussing the role of women and their influence on the various arts. At the turn of the century things began to change for women. They gradually developed in to more active social roles such as education in the arts. Art schools began to accept more women thus opening the doors to more diversity in the art world. Now there would be a woman’s point of view in painting, photography, sculpting architecture and so on. One great example of an extremely successful woman of the arts is photographer Margaret Bourke-White. She was first woman to work for life magazine, the first photographer allowed to take pictures of the Soviet Industry, and the first woman to be permitted to photograph in combat zones. Ethnic minorities also played a big role in their influence of the arts. One such artist is painter Willem De Kooning. He was influential as an abstract expressionist painter. Born form the Netherlands he came to the U.S. in 1926. Critics would debate whether or not his painting in the 80’s were a bold new change in direction......

Words: 397 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gender Roles

...Between men and women, there is a concept that exists called gender roles. Gender roles are the expectations given t each man and woman that outline how they should act. An example of this, to state clearer, is a man acting more assertive and a woman acting more nurturing. With these roles also comes something identified as gender stereotypes; Gender stereotypes are fixed ideas about what men and women do. For instance, saying that all men are the breadwinners and all women are housewives. Although these terms are seemingly quite similar, actually, they’re quite difference. Gender roles (although) they link with how men and women are supposed to act, they are respectful explanations describing men and women. They do not offend, unlike gender...

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gender Role

...The TV show that I watched was an American sitcom called “The Bing Bang Theory”. The show is about five friends Raj, Sheldon, Lenard, Wallowitz, and Penny. In one of the episodes Sheldon sees women as slaves. Because we were created to help men, and also because women give birth. Sheldon made her assistant uncomfortable when he found out that his assistant was interested in his friend Lenard who happens to be dating Penny. In another episode, Sheldon thinks women play a small role in the entire world, when his girlfriend tried to answer a scientific question he has not been able to solve for days. Gender roles I would say are extremely stereotypical in this TV show. Sheldon who is a Scientist sees himself as the most intelligent person on earth because he was 11 years old when he was in college. When Sheldon made his assistant comfortable by the slave remarks, she reported him to the HR who was a woman and there Sheldon felt like the HR job wasn’t given to the right person. Seeing this is drew my attention on how women have been seen and treated since the beginning of time. In the other episode Sheldon was so upset when his girlfriend was able to solve a scientist question he has not been able to do for day. When she solved the question, he felt like women were taken over the science world and made the remarks that when she marries and gives birth her brain wouldn’t be able to function well. This also made me realized that, women are not seen as smart as men. After......

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Gender Roles

...Denise Robinson Crystal B Manboard English 1301-069 28 January 2015 Misunderstood To be misunderstood is the most frustrating thing a human being can experience. When we speak we want people to interpret what we are saying correctly, not only that but we want to get our point across clearly. The talent of writing well helps us to do that, writing is a great form of expression. You will not only be getting your point across but you will also be showing the Audience who you are. One of enjoyable aspects of developing a paper is the audience. Who is going to be consuming this paper? Will it be your classmates, your professor, readers of a blog or all of the above? This is a grand opportunity to get out of your comfort zone and expand your vocabulary and speech. You wouldn’t talk to a professor in the same manner you would with a classmate. So it gives us a window of finding common ground. You have the chance to use this one paper to bring the mindsets of three different types of people and bring them to the same understanding. With that being said, not only will you want to think of the verbal communication of your audience but you will also want to keep their background in mind. Where are they from? What are their beliefs? Where do they stand on certain issues? This just goes hand and hand with understanding someone. You are given, or you have to figure out these context clues of a person so you can know what the best way to reach them is....

Words: 272 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Six Common Roles in the Workplace

...Six Common Roles in the Workplace By: Charqweshia Tucker Teamwork is becoming more common in the workplace, more and more companies are utilizing the concepts of teamwork or group dynamics. The two words are similar with different meanings, teamwork can be referred as "a group of people working together in a group" and group dynamics can be referred as "individual roles and interactions". There are more roles that are played in the workplace outside of a leadership role. The roles can be formal or informal and can be played by one or more members. During my research I found six common roles that are played in the workplace, which include: the agenda setter, the cheerleader, the critic, the gatekeeper, the joker and the leader. The Agenda Setter The Agenda Setter is "who regularly puts new ideas and issues on the table" (pg. 136). This role is important within a group because this role is responsible for providing an agenda and supporting materials ahead of time. By doing so it will help maximize the time that the group has to ensure that everything is covered in a timely manner. This role can be done by The Leader but it will make things run smoother if an Agenda Setter is assigned. According to the textbook, The Agenda Setter is very important and most meetings cannot survive without one (pg. 137). The Cheerleader The Cheerleader is "who encourages any sign of progress"(pg. 136). This role can be played by one or more people at a time. "An effective......

Words: 1662 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Role of Women in China

...Throughout history, the role of Chinese women has changed dramatically. In ancient times women were mutilated with painful foot bindings and forced to marry men of their family’s choosing at very young ages. Today, Chinese women have received world-class educations alongside their male counterparts and command high power roles in business, politics, the sciences and other industries. Chinese men and woman now work side by side in most modern Chinese cities, however; this trend does not hold true for women living in rural Chinese villages. Gender roles in modern China have come leaps and bounds from where they were in ancient times, yet women in rural China still follow traditional guidelines. Women in China have worked hard over the past century to reach where they are today. The change in gender roles was sparked by China’s republic years. During this time, women in large cites were able to seek formal education and even travel to the west to receive it. Communism, although a questionable form of government, ended the distinction between men and women and finally allowed women to break out of their defined gender role. Women stepped up and took positions of political power and for the first time received influences from outside cultures. New laws have been enacted calling for equality in education, marriage, and rights, but a large group of women do not receive these benefits. Women in rural Chinese villages do not see the advances in gender roles that women in the......

Words: 465 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gender Role Analysis

...Gender Role Analysis The roles of gender in today’s society vary according to history, one’s personal biases, environment, and society’s input in education, government, and the workplace. History has shown that gender roles have made great strides of accomplishments in roles that were once very similar in each area of life; particularly the role of females in that they were considered to be the property of men and played the role of the helpmeet, which was a biblical term that was taken to what is considered extreme in today’s U.S. culture. Through various social movements throughout history gender roles have changed greatly. Those changes that were affected by such social movements caused great opportunities and advancement for women and minorities in education, government, and the workplace. Social Movements From the beginning of this nation women did not have the same rights as men and were considered to be more of a second class citizen. In the early years of this nation, women along with minorities were considered the property of men. Women were not permitted to be educated in most cases, did not count as a citizen, could not vote, could not own anything, could not enter into contracts, obtain credit, work without her father or husband’s permission and could not even receive a paycheck in her own name. Social movements have made great impacts on gender roles in society throughout history. From social movements in the beginning of this nations’ history such as...

Words: 2287 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Sociology Gender Roles

...Gender roles is defined as “…attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex” (Macionis 2017, p. 277). An example of this concept would be that women are supposed to be seen as nice and polite while in men you can expect them to be strong and aggressive. As I observed my family, I saw few examples of gender roles being played out between them. For one, my dad shows how men are independent. He is the one in charge of the house. He takes care of paying the bills. Which makes my mom. Sister and I dependent on him. Obliviously, we can do those things he does but that is just how it is in my household. The socialization of gender roles starts off during infancy, birth parents begin to socialize their children as boys or girls. My mom...

Words: 265 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gender Roles

...Gender roles in the 21st century Introduction Gender roles are a set of social and behavioral norms that are generally considered appropriate for men or women in a social or interpersonal relationship. We are not sure when this practice started but pink and blue begins this lifelong process in the 21st century (Lindsey, 2005). As my research evolves, I plan to examine gender roles in various aspects of 21st century life: workplace, relationships, parenting, voting, consumer behavior, etc. Since this is such a broad topic, my research will likely lead to a paper with a more narrow focus. For now, I've chosen references which are established articles on this broader topic. This research will likely become more focused as I develop the paper. Origin of Gender Roles The gender roles have evolved a great deal from the onset of the human civilization which started as hunter gathers. The males were primarily responsible to provide food, shelter and protection while the women looked after the offspring and took care of the tribe. The Functionalist perspective explains this fairly non-overlapping segregation of gender roles in the pre-industrial society. Evolution of Gender Roles For a considerable period of time there was little or no interaction between the different civilizations and therefore each society developed its own distinct culture and the socialization process. The local socio-economic factors, religious beliefs, legal and political factors had huge impact of......

Words: 1510 - Pages: 7