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Rough Point "Death at the Gates"

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Rough Point “Death At The Gates”

Doris Duke came into the world in grand fashion, just as she would live her life. Born in a state of the art hospital, constructed within the walls of the Fifth Avenue Mansion built just for her anticipated arrival. That arrival came on November 22, 1912, she was quickly dubbed, ‘The Richest Baby In The World’ (Thomas & Duke, 1995, p. 222). Doris Duke was the combination of passion, brilliance, indulgence, and greed. Vindictiveness was never far removed from her surface. Doris Duke was the quintessence of wealth and power; additionally, she heeded her father’s warning and trusted no one. Exit from her life was on her terms, terms, which were cold, calculated, and methodically carried out. Damage control fell into the laps of the army of attorneys under her employ. Never was this more evident than the night of October 7, 1966, with the violent death of Eduardo Tirella. While Eduardo Tirella’s death is viewed accidental, Doris Duke’s innocence is at question because evidence suggests murder covered up and masked by her influence, power, and wealth.
Doris’s father James Buchanan Duke, made provisions for her, whereupon his death she would become “The Richest Girl In The World”. On December 11, 1924 James Duke signed his name to the Doris Duke Trust. Under the provisions of the trust Doris was to receive 125,904 shares of the stock of Duke Power Company, two shares of common stock of Southern Power Company, and two shares of common stock of Great Falls Power Company. Additionally, Doris was to receive a yearly payment of two thirds of the net incomes, revenues, and profits received from the funds and properties of the trust. Upon reaching the age of 21 final distributions of all revenues, incomes, profits, and properties will be passed to said Doris Duke (Doris Duke Trust, 1981). James B. Duke's death was to come 364 days later.
In the days following his death the reading of the will took place. This would set the stage for an ongoing feud with her mother, Nanaline Duke. While his wife was left a modest trust of $100,000 per year the bulk of his estate would be left to Doris. At the tender age of 12, Doris would realize her vast wealth. In addition to the trust worth $100 million, she assumed her father's estate, estimated at $80 million. This included the assets of Duke Tobacco and Duke Power (J. Williams, Doris Duke, nd). Additionally, she acquired diverse real estate holdings in four states.
Properties included the 35,000 ft. Duke Mansion, 67,000 ft. Duke Farms, 19,500 ft.² Duke Penthouse and the 40,000 ft. James B. Duke House, and the 39,000 ft. summer cottage Rough Point estate on the Atlantic Coast of Newport Rhode Island (Inventory of the James Buchanan Duke Papers, 1770-1990). Doris continued to reside with her mother Nanaline in New York at the James B. Duke House. Nanaline, from the time of conception resented the baby in her womb. Nanaline had dreams that her son, Walker Inman Sr. from her first marriage would be the sole benefactor of Duke’s estate, but that dream was crushed with the birth of Doris and again with the reading of the will. Nanaline realized she would have to rely on 12-year-old Doris for money. With her newfound wealth, Doris, in less than a year would realize the power and influence that came with that.
At the age of 13 she used her power and influence for the first time as she amassed a collection of attorneys to battle her mother. Nanaline, seeing a loophole in the will attempted to sell off some of the estates. Litigation dragged at the hands of the attorneys, the estates were put up for auction at, which time Doris purchased them out right. Nanaline lost to Doris once again. Concluding her battle with Nanaline a then 13-year-old Doris retreated to her beloved Duke Farm estate, were she would live alone, surrounded by only servants for companionship (Harmon, 2001). Doris would continue to rely on her power and influence over her attorneys throughout her life. The many attorneys were called to action and into battle to protect her pride, nobody was to gain the upper hand no matter what the expense. Doris proved she was a force to be reckoned with. On October 25, 1943 under orders from Doris, her attorneys filed for divorce from her first husband, James Cromwell in Reno, Nevada. The divorce was granted on December 21, 1943. However, James in the New Jersey courts claiming Doris was not a legal resident of Nevada quickly contested the underhanded divorce decree. Jimmy's lawyers propose a settlement of $1 million. Doris, through her attorneys counters with an offer of $500,000 and not a dime more (Thomas and Duke, “The Heiress Goes To War,” 1995). After years of petitions and appeals the divorce is awarded on January 16, 1948. James Cromwell is awarded $350,000 (Doris Duke Papers, 1798-2003). Her refusal to settle with Jimmy would be her first win as well her established pattern in dealing with anyone attempting to exploit her. When Doris believed she was right, no expense was spared on legal fees in her fight to win. This principle continued throughout her life.
In 1946 Doris called upon her lawyers to negotiate the purchase for Danielle Darrieux's husband Porfiro Rubirosa. Danielle in exchange for a divorce accepted the $1 million offer. Doris and Porfiro married a year later September 1, 1947. On the day of the wedding under the pressure of Doris's attorneys Porfiro signed away his rights to the Duke fortune in exchange for a payment of $25,000 per year to continue even in the event of a divorce until he remarried. That divorce came a year later October 27, 1948 (Thomas Duke, “New Interest…New Men,” 1995).
Doris quickly realized she could buy whatever she desired including people. With her attorneys at her side she could free herself and discard these very same people as easily as she acquired them. This included her attorneys, friends, and employees whom were not immune to her power and influence. Act upon the calling of Doris no matter the deed or face the wrath of an angry bitter Duke. This was soon to be the reality of one Eduardo Tirella.
Eduardo Tirella was a tall, witty and handsome man living in Los Angeles. Eduardo possessed many talents as a designer of hats, a motion picture set designer, and an interior decorator. With the touch of his hand he could transform drab into a work of beauty. Working in the motion picture business Eduardo's circle of friends were powerful and famous including Peggy Lee, Elizabeth Taylor, and Joey Castro. It was through Joey's association with Doris that would bring Eduardo into her life as shown in financial records their chance meeting took place in October 1960 (Doris Duke Paper, 1798-2003).
From the beginning she was taken in by his masculinity and style. Even more appealing to Doris was the fact and Eduardo was openly gay. During this time Doris’s interest in men was exchanged for a love of beauty. With Eduardo, she began to envision the transformation his talent would bring to her various estates.
Rough Point, in the affluent town of Newport, Rhode Island would be the setting for Eduardo's entrance into Doris's grand life. Six years later it would become the scene of his death. Rough Point was considered the white elephant; it was cold, drafty, dark, and eerie. Hanging from the walls were huge dark tapestries, oversized ominous paintings, and gilded furniture. Noise would echo down the barren halls, trees brushing against the windows were amplified causing bone-chilling fear, which was intensified with the crashing waves of the ocean. Doris needed Eduardo and he needed her checkbook. Although talented he was a disastrous businessman offering his decorative talents to the stars at no charge. For this reason he found himself living on a mere $4,000 per year. Without hesitation when offered the job to redesign the ancient kitchen at Rough Point he accepted. This was the beginning as Doris Duke’s Interior Decorator.
Eduardo's use of his decorating gift successfully transformed the once ancient kitchen into a showpiece of inland marble contrasted only by the vast collection of copper and silver. Doris immediately hired him to redecorate a hotel in Pasadena, California that she purchased to house the headquarters of the Self Realization Society. Eduardo, becoming more aware and intrigued at the depth of Doris's bank accounts and the ability they possessed to finance his creativity (Thomas and Duke, “Death AT The Gates,” 1995). Eduardo's decorating position expanded to other estates, after the successful transformation of the 105 rooms at Rough Point (Doris Duke Papers, 1922-1997). Eduardo completed the transformation of Duke Gardens, Duke Mansion, and the Hawaiian estate known as Shangri-La. Over the years of this position transferred to that of companion.
As Doris’s companion they traveled the world, shopping for the most valuable treasures that would eventually find their way into the many estates and warehouses already filled with millions of dollars of rare paintings, sculptures, silver, tapestries, and Asian art. The two were inseparable as evident of his pay and travel records (Doris Duke Paper, 1922-1998). Doris’s affection toward Eduardo continued to grow, she was attracted to his virile and masculine looks, but he quickly let her know that a woman stood no chance in his life. Doris withdrew her advances, she could always find a man, but a fabulous decorator was a treasure. In a letter dated Thursday, January 11, 1962 Eduardo while in Paris, writes of the antique shops and Doris’s purchase of a $3 million painting. Additionally, he speaks of their travel plans to include Luxemburg, Rome, Belgium, Holland and England. Here Doris introduced him to the Duke and Duchess of Windsor. Although having a grand time, Doris was spending millions, and he was in need of money. Included with this letter was a request to Pete Cooley of Duke Power Company to wire money to avoid asking Doris for a loan (Doris Duke Papers, 1922-1998). While unknown, if this were an underhanded move on Eduardo's part evidence suggests his funding was reduced over the next year. In late January 1962 into late February 1963 Doris enacted the aid of her attorney Pete Cooley to handle a payment dispute initiated by Eduardo on January 29, 1962. Eduardo makes his attempt at a request for more money, as he feels undercut for not receiving the wage of an architect. Two things of interest take place during this time. Doris had always given freely to Eduardo, but now has her attorney dealing with his requests. Pete Cooley, who had wired the money to Eduardo earlier was now refusing his request. In his reply letter dated February 28, 1963, Pete Cooley downplays the talent of Eduardo in stating, “in our opinion, this is the job for architect who has had experience in designing buildings, in drawing up the specifications, letting bids, supervising, etc.” (Doris Duke Papers, 1922-1998). Eduardo viewed this as a fracture in his friendship with Doris as well her associates.
Over the next few years the friendship is further strained. Doris, enjoying her weekly spendable income of approximately $1 million, Eduardo was going broke. This was mainly do to the fact that Doris never carried cash and he found himself paying various tabs therefore, much of his income was spent on his benefactor. Money had become a contention between him and his benefactor. In addition to the issue of money, staff witnessed Doris yelling and barking orders at Tirella an aggression not previously witnessed.
He now found himself in a position where he could no longer keep up with the demands thrown his way. Growing tired of Doris’s mood swings and demands and fearing his motion picture design career was suffering because, his time was monopolized by Doris. This would soon to change with an incoming call (Thomas and Duke, “Death At The Gates,” 1995). In June 1966, Producer Martin Ransohoff called to offer Tirella a set design job on the film “Don't Make Waves”, which he accepted. This is supported with evidence of his last pay record dated June 2, 1966 (Doris Duke Papers, 1922-1998).
Doris panicked when told of the news by Eduardo. Her life revolved around his ability to make her surroundings beautiful. Intimidated by Doris he used the excuse of needing dental work from his trusted Los Angeles dentist. Fearing his departure, she offered at her expense to have whatever work needed to be done in New York. Tirella went to Los Angeles despite her offer.
In Los Angeles, Eduardo began receiving pleading calls from Doris offering more money and the reconsideration to finance his Big Sur Project. Anything he wanted was his for the taking if he would return to Newport. Eduardo, returned to Doris in early October 1966, but not for the purpose of work. Eduardo had come to gather his belongings but Doris had Tirella, and she was adamant she would not lose him. Over the next few days Doris tried feverishly to convince him to stay. He was offered more money and a place in history as the famous decorator of Doris Duke. Eduardo was besieged with offers and promises, but his mind was made up, he was returning to Hollywood. Eduardo's dream of set designing ended on October 7, 1966 (Thomas and Duke, “Death At The Gates,” 1955).
Friday, October 7 started out casually. Eduardo had agreed to drive Doris to a business meeting for one of her many charitable organizations. At approximately 4 PM they got into a rented car, which suggest Doris had premeditated the event to come and did not want to damage one of many luxury cars housed at the estate. This is further supported by evidence of the Avis Rental Car Agreement (Doris Duke Papers, 1922-1998). With Eduardo behind the wheel they approached the iron gates, reaching 20 feet tall, each weighing over a ton. Eduardo got out to open the gate as he placed himself between the car and gates Doris slid to the driver's seat. The car continued to lunge forward wedging him against the gate. With the car roaring forward the gates let loose falling to the street below, the body of Tirella was caught between the car and toppled gates. Still the automobile kept moving forward. “As his body was ground to pieces by a combination of scraping iron, machinery, and pavement, the car kept pushing until the wreckage, both human and mechanical, stopped on the other side of the street, jammed against a large tree” (Thomas and Duke, “Death At The Gates,” 1955). This is further supported in the police incident report. Eduardo was left unrecognizable, in a pool blood, flesh, and brain matter, his head crushed, his ears, nose, and eyes were left amongst the rubble. Doris ran to the house in unusual fashion started to scream “Eduardo, Eduardo, Eduardo” you should not have wanted to leave. The arriving ambulance was there not for Tirella but to whisk Doris away to the hospital for minor cuts. Doris was kept in isolation overnight. Strict orders came down from Duke's attorneys that she was not to be questioned. The attorneys never worked so fast as the story became headline news. Additional orders followed. Servants worked feverishly at Duke Farms and Rough Point packing Tirella’s belongings and had them removed. Groundskeepers were dispatched to the scene to erase the blood and skid marks from the road. Landscapers restored and replaced damaged shrubbery and patches of lawn overnight, erasing the hopes for sordid photographs by the flock of reporters arriving the following morning. The gates were removed, repaired, and rehung and the rental car disappeared only to be viewed and inspected one-time and then never seen again (Thomas and Duke, “Death At The Gates,” 1955). Attorneys called in Politicians from Providence and Washington and deals were made. Duke’s lawyers knew Doris could be charged for manslaughter, or worse yet murder. All they could do was wait for the investigation to unfold (Doris Duke Papers, 1922-1998).
While there was an investigation, very little evidence remains today because all records of the investigation have disappeared. The vast collection in the Doris Duke Papers contains significant information up to the days preceding Eduardo's death then nothing, until a year later. In contacting the Newport Police and the Supreme Court of Rhode Island no records were found. What is known, Newport Police Chief Joseph A. Radice headed up the investigation along with Detective Capt., Paul J. Sullivan. Questioned at the scene were Navy Ensign Judith Thomb and her father Lewis Thomb, the first to come upon the scene, “told police they found Miss Duke wondering dazed in the road bleeding from head cuts” (Newport Daily News, 1966, p. 1). Additionally, various members of the staff were questioned regarding statements made when Doris entered the house. Doris was not questioned until Sunday.
Police Chief Joseph A. Radice said this morning Lieut. Frank H. Walsh questioned Miss Duke yesterday at Rough Point, her Bellevue Avenue home. Walsh accompanied Detective George Watts. Miss Duke's attorney, Wesley N. Fach of New York City, was present during the interrogation (Newport Daily News, 1966). The article goes on to say Miss Duke was released from the hospital on Saturday, but questioning was withheld until Sunday at the request of her doctor.
Chief Radice said this morning Miss Duke told police she had been sitting on the passenger's side of a late-model station wagon operated by Tirella, as they were driving out of the estate. When they reached the gates, Miss Duke said, Tirella got out of the car to open them and she slid over to the driver side drive out onto Bellevue Avenue. “It was something we done 100 times before,” she told police. Chief Radice said Miss Duke told police the car leaped forward and after that she could remember nothing (Newport Daily News, 1966, p. 1).
Dr. Philip C. McAllister, state medical examiner said Tirella died instantly of brain injuries. Additionally, Radice said he was waiting for the full medical examiner's report, and the investigation was ongoing (Newport Daily News, 1966, p. 1). Chief Radices’ claim that they were getting along contradicts earlier claims of them fighting shortly before the incident. Questioning of Miss Duke lasted approximately 20 minutes, and even after two inspectors from the Registry of Motor Vehicles reported everything on the car functioned properly Radice closed the case ruling it an accident (Lodi News-Sentinel, 1966).
Just as quickly as the case was closed Doris signed a check for $25,000, the recipient the commission for the restoration of the Cliff Walk. Ironically, this was the very commission she had battled from the late 50s into 1966. Doris in an attempted at keeping pedestrians away from her estate ordered staff to erect a barbed wire fence, the planting of thorny bushes, and a “No Trespassing” sign blocking access to the Cliff Walk. The city would not stop the pedestrians, under Newporter's constitutional right of access to the sea. When Doris's hand was forced to remove the fence, it was replaced with German shepherds. However, when in May 1964 the dogs attacked two intruders, the police ordered their exit from the property. The Cliff Walk was her Achilles' heel, but just eight days after Eduardo's death Doris became their largest supporter and benefactor. Speculation supported by earlier events suggests a back-room deal was made in the private meetings of her attorneys and the Politicians called in. Even more intriguing is the sudden retirement of Police Chief Radice four months after he had closed the investigation (Davis, 2009). The following month on Friday, November 18, 1966 Jack O'Brian wrote an article in the World Journal Tribunal. Although there is no mention of its contents Duke's lawyers jumped into action calling for a retraction. In a letter Doris's attorney recounts a telephone conference with Joseph J. Cohen, a reporter with the World Journal Tribune. In the letter attorney Wesley N. Fach states, “The Doris Duke Foundation had helped Mr. Cohen’s retarded son for a number of years and I believe Mr. Cohen had been helpful on previous occasions” (Wesley N. Fach, personal communication, November 29, 1966). Additionally, the letter talks of Mr. Cohen retracting the comments if requested however, there is worry a retraction may give credence to the original story bringing attention to the item a second time. As a possible action “Tell them Miss Duke has requested a retraction of the statement to be made in the column, and failing such retraction, has authorized her attorney to take whatever action may be appropriate” (Wesley N. Fach, personal communication, November 29, 1966). Subsection (c) includes the following, “In any lawsuit of this type, it would be difficult to keep both the newspaper and opposing counsel from bringing out any and all past activities and Associates, including those which have no biases in fact,” (Wesley N. Fach, personal communication, November 29, 1966). The article was retracted and all records have disappeared. Doris was again successful of ridding her accusers, but this would change. Doris was served notice of an impeding claim filed against her by Eduardo Tirella’s heirs in October 1967.
The filed claim caused panic in the Duke camp. Attorneys began drafting letters in hopes of resolve. As letters went out, evidence-supporting murder were coming in. One such letter was received from the Nolan Agency, Inc. addressed to Duke's attorney Wesley Fach stating, “please be reminded that we are waiting for a copy of the lease agreement which Miss Dukes signed with Avis Rent A Car System, Inc., we would appreciate your forwarding it by return mail” (personal communication, December 5, 1966, p. 1). This is damaging because Miss Duke had over 200 servants to carry out her task. Therefore this supports the theory Doris had premeditated the act. In another letter Duke's attorney Pete Cooley writes to Doris,
Yesterday I had a meeting with the two Tirella brothers, their lawyer and the lawyer for Avis. It boils down to this; Tirella’s are seeking $600,000 and a settlement out of court.
The next step awaits the reply of the Avis Insurance Company. I do not, of course, know, but I feel the answer will be no, with perhaps an offer of a smaller amount. After that we will just have to wait and see. Hope and pray a court battle can be avoided (personal communication, January 25, 1967).
This also supports the claim of murder because from the earliest age of 12, Miss Duke welcomed the opportunity to do battle in the courts, no matter what the expense. In this case all attempts are made to avoid this. In another letter Duke's attorney Wesley Fach, makes reference to holding out hope of a settlement.
A settlement could not be reached and on December 12, 1967 after two months of negotiations the lawsuit was officially filed. However, the stakes were now raised to $1,250,000 -plus interest and cost (Doris Duke Papers, 1928-1998).
Attorneys for Miss Duke proved successful in tying up litigation in the courts and the trial does not get underway until June 1971. Lewis Perrotti assistant to the registrar of motor vehicles, and Chief Field Investigator Alfred Massarone, informs the jury that the brakes and gas pedal were fully functional, which disputes the claim the car jumped forward on its own. Perrotti further claims he went to Rough Point on several occasions to get Miss Duke's account of the fatality but was turned away with each attempt. Doris took the stand claiming she could not remember if she stepped on the gas pedal, or if she slipped it into gear from park to drive. This goes against her earlier account when questioned by police two days after the accident (Newport Daily News, 1971). The trial concludes finding Doris guilty in the wrongful death suit further proving her guilt in the murder of Tirella. Victory was bittersweet for the Tirella family as the award was reduced to $96,000. An appeal on the ruling was immediately filed keeping the account in the headlines for another two years. However, on May 4, 1973 the Supreme Court of Rhode Island upheld the original ruling (Court Records, 1973). This ruling is the only document remaining, as in usual fashion court records of testimony are not in existence just as the case in the first trial. It was during the time leading to the first trial Doris would extend her hand of wealth. Within days of Eduardo's death in what most agree to be another backroom deal that would free her from murder charges she would fund a restoration project for the town.
The Newport Restoration Foundation was officially announced in 1968. Following the death of Tirella and leading to the announcement of the foundation work was underway as many details had to be worked out. In the beginning, it was unclear where to start, but it was soon decided the dilapidated colonial homes sitting on the beautiful seaport were in desperate need of repair. With the buildings identified and Doris’s funding the remaining hurdle was the need for a well-known and powerful figure to head up the foundation. Their prime target was Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, another prominent wealthy resident. It is not known how long the talks took, but when the announcement came to surface Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis was at the helm as the most prominent board member of the foundation. Doris’s last-ditch efforts with the help of her attorneys and the announcement of the foundation finally put to rest the murder of Eduardo Tirella (Newport Restoration Foundation Records, 1968-1999).
Doris Duke’s innocence remains in question some 46 years later. In revisiting the facts there can be no doubt her power, wealth, and influence played a role in the investigation of Tirella’s death. Considering the circumstances, there is no logic behind a twenty-minute interview of the prime suspect, dismissal of facts that the vehicle was fully operable, no questioning of staff, and closure of case that resulted in a horrible death. Doris Duke’s vindictiveness was not secreted; entrance and exit into her world was on her terms. In viewing the preponderance of evidence, Eduardo Tirella’s death may have in fact been covered up and dismissed due to Doris Duke’s influence, power, and wealth.


Davis, B. (2009). Gilded: How Newport Became America's Richest City. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved on September 21, 2012

Doris Duke. (1798-2003). Administrative Records. Doris Duke Papers (Box 7, Folder 1). David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 25, 2012 from: Duke University. Durham, NC.

Doris Duke. (1922-1998). Avis Rent A Car Agreement. Doris Duke Papers (Box 3, Folder 7). Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Historical Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from: Duke University. Durham, NC.

Doris Duke. (1922-1998). Doris Duke Papers (Box 7, Folder 6). Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Historical Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from: Duke University. Durham, NC.

Doris Duke. (1922-1998). Doris Duke Papers (Box 166, Folder 4). Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Historical Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from: Duke University, Durham, NC.

Doris Duke. (1798-2003). Eduardo Tirella Pay Records. Doris Duke Papers (Box 7, Folder 4). David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 25, 2012 from: Duke University. Durham, NC.

Doris Duke. (1922-1998). Inventory. Doris Duke Papers (Box 7, Folder 4). Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Historical Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from: Duke University. Durham, NC.

Doris Duke. (1922-1998). Nolan Agency, Inc. Schmelz, R. E. (personal communication, December 5, 1966).. Doris Duke Papers (Box 3, Folder 7). Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Historical Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from: Duke University, Durham, NC.

Doris Duke. (1922-1998). Pete E. Cooley (personal communication, January 25, 1967). Doris Duke Papers (Box 3, Folder 7). Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Historical Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from: Duke University. Durham, NC.

Doris Duke. (1922-1998). Rough Point Residence. Doris Duke Papers (Box 3, Folder 5). Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Historical Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from: Duke University. Durham, NC.

Doris Duke. (1922-1998). (Wesley N. Fach, personal communication, November 29, 1966). Doris Duke Papers (Box 3, Folder 7). Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Historical Archives, David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 10, 2012 from: Duke University. Durham, NC.

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Harmon, M.H. (2001, November). The Tragedy of Doris Duke. Biography Magazine, 5(11), 1. Retrieved on August 19, 2012 from: James Buchanan Duke. (1777-1990). Property Deeds. Inventory of the James Buchanan Duke Papers (Box 12). David M. Rubenstein Rare Books & Manuscript Library. Retrieved on September 25, 2012 from: Duke University. Durham, NC.

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...marry other partners. As Catherine Earnshaw dies halfway through the novel, which pair of lovers is meant to carry our approval, Catherine and Heathcliff or young Catherine and Hareton? Moreover their voices reach us through a medley of others: Mr Lockwood, Nelly, Isabella, who are often ignored by readers. A parable of a natural equilibrium disturbed by an external force and eventually somehow restored. The theory that a principle of calm and storm informs the novel provided a comprehensive interpretation. The two aspects (calm and storm) are not necessarily conflicting and will ultimately lead to a state of equilibrium. The world described by the novel is pre-moral, and the drives of the main characters seem to reach beyond their death and strive for transcendence. (Early Victorian Novelists, Lord David Cecil, 1934) A restless force, represented by C and H, which continually pushes against a framework of religion, propriety, social expectations. The novel represents a clash of social classes and economic interests where the respectable farming class (the Earnshaws) is progressively destroyed by the newly wealthy capitalists (H) and the traditional gentry (the Lintons). Lockwood and Nelly represent, from different class perspectives, the normal views of society (family relationships, class characteristics, social etiquette, duty, responsibility) whereas C symbolises vitality, the spirit...

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...Anthony Perraglia Professor Mattern Eng 10 10 December 2013 Orfeo ed Euridice During the transition from the Baroque to Classical period, opera slowly became entertainment focused on the middle class. There were less operas written about kings and queens, and more about mythical figures. The reform of opera might not have been started by him, but Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787) is said to be one of the first operatic composers to adapt his newer works to the reformation styles. ( Hanning, 324) Some examples of the style included new stories appealing to the middle class, less attention directed at the singer, and more attention to the music. One of his first operas, Orfeo ed Euridice, is a prime example. Although Gluck’s 1762 production of Orfeo ed Euridice in Vienna is his greatest success, it was an opera previously used by Monteverdi, titled L’Orfeo. (Boyden, 79) Orfeo ed Euridice is somewhat similar to L’Orfeo, seeing as the two follow the Greek myth of Orpheus. Though there were similarities between the two, no evidence was found stating that Gluck was influenced by the previous production, or if he was even familiar with Monteverdi’s work. The myth describes a young shepherd, Orpheus, whose music had the power to tame the animals and win the affection of others. (Boyden, 79) On his wedding day, while walking through the fields of Thrace, he receives word that his wife, Eurydice, has died. (Boyden,......

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