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Rule 51 Paper

In: Other Topics

Submitted By mikeshonka
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Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are complex disorders of the brain. These disorders include difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, difficulties in social interaction, and uncontrollable repetitive behaviors. All of these can have different degrees of severity.
Symptoms tend to emerge between the ages of two or three
1 in 68 American children are on the autism spectrum
Autism is associated with intellectual disability, issues with motor coordination and attention
Other characteristics often associated with autism are: resistance to environmental change and / or change in daily routine unusual responses to sensory experiences
In some cases, those with autism excel in math, art, and music

Deaf and blindness are impairments in hearing or an impairment of sight. It can also be a combination of the two. This impairment often restricts access to communication, the environment, and people.
Both can be caused by birth defects, disease, and injury
Both can create difficulties in communication
With either impairment, students have the ability to excel in many subjects

Developmental Delay
Developmental delay is a condition of a child being less developed mentally and / or physically than is considered normal for its age. Often called “developmental milestones”
Can be caused by genetics, complications of pregnancy and birth, and environmental issues
Often observed with children who are born premature
There are five developmental areas evaluated: Cognitive development, Physical development, Communication development, Social or emotional development, Adaptive behavior or skills development Emotional Disturbance
Is a condition that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics over an extended period of time and adversely affects a child’s ability to learn:
An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors;
Struggles to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers;
Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;
A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or
A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
Mental orders are referred to under different umbrella terms, which include: Anxiety disorder Bipolar disorder Conduct disorders Obsessive compulsive disorder Eating disorders Psychotic disorders
Hearing Impairment
A hearing impairment is categorized similar to deafness, but is not the same. It is an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or functioning that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
There are four subcategories under the impairment: Conductive Sensorineural Mixed Central
Student educational obstacles include difficulties in: Grammar, spelling, vocabulary, and listening
Intellectual Disability
An intellectual disability is defined by significant limitations in both functioning and in adaptive behavior. Disability usually originates before age 18 Intelligent quotient (I.Q) is between 70-75 or below Significant limitations in adaptive behaviors (everyday life activities)
Multiple Impairments
Is defined as a person with 2 or more significant impairments, with one being an intellectual disability.
Combination creates a multiplicity of severe education needs
Psychological, behavioral, and physical impairments often exist, usually in combination
Classification does not include children with deaf-blindness.
Orthopedic Impairment
Defined as a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
The category includes children with impairments caused by:
Birth defects (congenital anomaly)
Disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis)
Other causes include cerebral palsy, amputations and fractures or burns that cause contractures
Other Health Impairment
Is a “umbrella term: that encompasses a variety of conditions.
These can include limitations of/in: limited strength, vitality or alertness, asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome.

Specific Learning Disability
Is defined as a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations.
Categories includes conditions such as: perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. Other terms associated with this learning disability include: Dyslexia – difficulties in reading Dysgraphia – difficulties in writing Dyscalculia – difficulties in math

Speech-Language Impairment
A speech or language impairment is defined as a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or voice impairment, which adversely affects the ability to learn.
Tends to emerge at a young age, however the earlier identified, the better chance at overcoming the impairment
Students educational challenges include: Effective communication Understanding or giving oral presentations Participating in class discussions
Traumatic Brain Injury
Is defined as a form of acquired injury to the brain occurring when an external physical force causes total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects the child’s educational performance.
Broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities which can be mild, moderate or severe.
Symptoms can range from confusion and dizziness to slurred speech and worse
The category does not include brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or brain injuries induced by birth trauma.
Visual Impairment including Blindness
Vision impairment is defined as any visual impairment that cannot be corrected to a normal level. This impairment adversely affects the child’s educational performance.
Below are few visual impairments: Strabismus – eyes look in different directions Congenital cataracts- lens of eye is cloudy Coloboma – portion of eye structure is missing
Very common impairment
This category includes children who have partial sight or blindness


Emotional Disturbance | Center for Parent Information and Resources. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from

Home | Autism Speaks. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from

How A Child Develops - Development Delay. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from

Multiple Disabilities. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from

University of Michigan Health System. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from

What is a Hearing Impairment? Special Education Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2016, from

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